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E R N 

RRNESn, JOHN AUGUSTUS, was bom st Tenn- 
htailt, in the Thiiringer Wald, on iho 4lli Au|;uit, 17(17. 
He was educatiHl st Wittenberg ami Leipzig, and bee ai no 
ivjiirector of Iho snhoal of St. 'lliomas, in the latter city, in 
tbu year 1731. He succeeded J. M. Gcsiincr as rector in 
17-14. While enf;aged in ibis silualiun bo acquired a great 
reputation ns a clau-icDl acliolar; so much >io. that in 1742 
Iho Univeraily of Leipzig violated ile own rule of never 
elei'lingto any profeEsorEhip the master of a sclionl. and 
i'{i|).iLnted him professor exlraoidinari' of antient literature. 
Hi! woH made professor of eloqueiiec in 1756, and professor 
iif theology, with the det^ee of Dr., in 1758 : he neld the 
two last named professorsliips together till 1 7 71), when ho 
K:ive up the former to his nephew, AuKustua Wittiara. He 
diL'd on the 1 1th September, 1781. Erncsti was a man of 
runsiderable abilities, and especially of a very methodical 
mind, to which are due the great iraprovoments in the 
svhium of teaching introduced by bim, anil still, to a certain 
extent, adopted in the German universities. He was well 
acquainted with the clasaici, and no mean proficient in 
il'.L-ulogical learning. His Latin style is very elegant for a 
(ierman, little inferior indeed to that of Riihnken, and 
1'iilly equal to that of Wyttcnbach : a good specimen of his 
I-iiinitymay be seen in A. Matthia's Eloquentiu Latina. 
II is knowlcd^ of Greek, though less accurate, was still 
iiTV raspectablo. The work for wbieh ho is best known 
is liis edition of Cicero, which has been made the bnsis of 
M liubsequent ones. The third and Inst edition of this 
iiiiilior published by him was nrintcd at Halle in 1775. 
i\ IS ClavU Ciceroniana, or Index of words and subjects 
1 1 Cicero's works, is still in general use. Besides his 
Uii'ero, Ernesli's Jnitia Doctrine Snlidioris and Institulio 
/iili')-prelis Novi Teslamenti are mufih estecincd by students 
nt (he present day; the latter has been recently translated 
into English. The edition of Homer which Emesti pub- 
li.shed in 1759-65 is merely an improved reprint of tho 
h^vkneyed edition by Dr. Clark. It was republished by 
Dinitiirf in 1S24. His edition of Calliiuachus, which ap- 
lii'ai'cd in 1761, is suspected to have owed a good dccl of 
» hat is valuable in it to the contributions of Ruhnkcn. 
An accountof it is given in the 'Museum Criticum,' vol. ii., 
p. 151. Emesti's editions of Polybius, Tacitus, and Sue- 
tonius, have been quite supeisxlcd by those of Schwcighau- 
ser. Bekker, and F. A. Wolf. 

EltNESTI, AUGUSTUS WILUAM, nephew of the 
ni'cceding, was bom at Fruhndorf, near Tennstadt, the 2GIh 
November, 1733. He was a pupil of his uncle at Leipzig. 
was nude professor of philosophy Ibcre in 1765, and, as 
hiis been mentioiicd,succccdeJ, on his uncle's resignation, 
to the ptofcisorsliip of eloquence (in 1770). He died of 
opoplciy on the 2aih July, 180!. He was principally dis- 
liiigtiished as a very good Latin scholar. His best known 
work is an edition of Livy, with a very copious glossary, 
which wu reprinted twice in hi* Ufeliine; the third edili 
P, C Ho. S9i. 

E R P 

was in llie press when he died, and was completed by 

also a nephew of John Augustus, was born at Anistadt, iu 
the Thiiringer Wald, in 1 75fi. He was (irofossor of philo- 
sophy in the Univcnity of Ijcipzii; from 1782 to IHUI, when 
he succeeded bis cousin, Augustus William, ai( professor of 
eloquence. He died on the 5th J une in the following year. 
Thisscholor nublished editions of Silius Itnliciis andyEsop; 
Lexicon Techiiologio! Graca B/ieloiieie, lAfs. 1795; Lex. 
Teehn. RomanOTum Hheloric^.lA'pa., l7!l7(both very useful 
works); Hesychii Glnssm Sacrir, 1735; Siiidts et Phavoriiii 
GlosDW Saeree, 17Bfi; a translation into German of Du- 
mesiiil's Latin Synonyms, and a German version of the 
principal works of Cieoro. (Cicero's Geist and l^erii, 17!iy- 

ERPETSIUS. The celebrated orientalist, Thomas Er- 
pcnius, or Thomas van Brpen, was born at Gorcum, on the 
7th of Sepieiuber, 1584. At the age of ten years he was 
sent to Lcyden, where bo received his education ; and in 
1 608 he took the degree of Master of Arts in tho university 
of that town. He had studied chiefly theology and oriental 
literalitrc, and atier the termination of his academic educa- 
tion, he undertook a tour lo England, bVonce, Italy, and 
Germany, for Ihe farther prosecution of his favourite pur- 
suits. At Paris he became acquainted with Isaac Casau- 
bonus, and availed himself of the Arabic instructions of a 
learned Maronite, Joseph Barbatus, then a resident in llic 
French capital. Erpenius returned to his native couiiiiy 
in 1612, and was in the following year appointed profiitsor 
of Oriental languages in the university of Leyden, an oSice 
to whicli was added subsequently that of Arabic intci')>ret<'r 
lo the Netherlands. On two occasion.s hi 1620 and 1621, 
he was sent to Paris on business of the university of Leyden. 
With these interruptions he seems to have devoted himself 
exclusively to the cultivation of Oriental literature. Hi! 
established an Arabic press at bis own house, and employed 
himself in editinc; a number of works, which have lic-en of 
the greatest utility in promoting the cause of Oriental 
learning. He died of a contagious disease at the n^e of 
forty, November I3th, 1G24. Tho work which has contri- 
buted most to give celebrity to the name of Erpenius is liis 
' Gntramatica Arabica, quinque lihrls melhodico explicala,' 
published at Leyden in 1613, 4to. It has often been nt- 
editcd with additions and alterations, and has become Iho 
foundation of nearly every subsequent Arabic grammar 
printed in Europe down to that of Silvestre de Sacy. Tho 
most remarkable of Erpenius'a oilier publications arc the 
following : ' Proverbiorum Arabicorum centurias diiat,' 
leyden. 1614 and 1(123. 8vo.; 'lyicmani S;inientis Fabula) 
et selecla qutcdam Arabum Adai^ia,' Levden, I61S, bvo. : 
an edition of an Arabic version of tlic New Testament and 
of tho Pentateuch, the former published in IClti, the lallcr 
itl 1622 : an edition of the cluMDido of Elmakin, with a 
Vol. X.-B 


■ .>&^ •fter hk imih. nadcr the title 

.* Lc^iifn, 1(24. foL ; two original 

■sir, htarias the tide, ' Gnmma- 

L Ijrn Gikr^:aja, et Llieilut eeoram RegaUiuin,' 

i.'nB. .t . ' v.. : uvi ■ Hebrew Giwanar, ' Gmnnutica 

■apETOl/jCY.' ,^««»«TOLOor.] 

ETIP5T0N. laopMt'i Banc tor a genua of icTpeiUa 
ftanri tn Lvna xinX to Er^x. Tl» name ■hould be 
wrriM Bfrpfkm- 

TW pc^j B fomiihed «ilh (wo saft promineDee^ 
nn«iwl w-.:t Ka>k <,n the muzile. The bead a proUicIed 
ci lar^ plaica ; tlwac bntnth the bell^ are not la^e, and 
il:>:iK beneMfa the lail scarrel^ differ from the otber Males. 
Tl« liii b/^tntr u vtTT loni; and pointed. Cuvier, who 
<F*a»» '/t the fn/jtity of litipide, who Jrat deuribed the 
nnas nwWr the name of Erpelon, Bemarka that Herrem 
baa tbaaged the Dane to iUtnoptrui. 

IRRATIC BLOCKS are those weather-worn and moro 
«r leM ronnded fragmenu of the harder rocka which arc 
fr.und Tery widely tcaltered orer the aurface of the earth, 
and M great di»Iance« from the placci whence they ate aup- 
puied lo be derived. 

In aie they wy from ten thoiuand eubieal feet and up- 
ward* to a few incbet. M. Brangniart has proposed to 
ie^ignate the teferal liiei by partiAilar namea, aa gigantic, 
iDetTK, cephalUry, pugillary, &c. But in England we 
generally conBne the term erratic blocks to the larger 
maMca, calLDi; thu^e of middling siic boulders, and ar- 
ranging the smaller along with eravel : this is, however, 
lou vuue. Tlu! nature of erratic bbKki i« not lew various 
than their lixa. Every species of rock seenu to have con- 
Iributod a portion of its substance lowardji the mass, though 
the harder, beiug better capable of resisting the disinte- 
grating and cumAing induence of atmospheric causes, are 
found in the greatest abundance, such aa quartz, petrosilex, 
grceustene, granite, porphyry, syenite, gneiw, primitive 
and ttansitiun hmestone, dolomite, serpentine, tilicaous 
pudding-stones, silicuoui sandstones, &c. 

The diKtribution and situation of these blocks are also 
very different. Seldom isolated, they are generally found 
in [•atchcs or groups, a.« in t)>e ennroos of Geneva, the 
pinins of Weslphnhs. in Sweden, &c. ; or in long bands or 
train*, an in the north of Uecklenbog Strelit;, where they 
run in a direction west-nonh-wcst and east -south-east ; or 
widely spread over considentlile tracts, as between Warsaw 
and Grorlno, between SL Petersburg and Moscow, in East 
Prusiia. Sec SomL-limcj they cover horiiontal plains, as in 
the north of Germany ; somciimL-s they rest on the sloping 
of mountains, as in the Alps and the Jura, and occa- 

?on the very tops of lofty eminencos, as on the sum- 
tba calcareous mountains of Kettwick, of Raxlaberg, 
r Onnund, about SOOO feet sbovo the level of the tea. 
ioM* tlM7 ua Men in gi««te»l abundouce at the 


bottom of valleyi where they epeo into Ibe plmina, tai in 
other initancea they are found colleeted in the lacgesl 
quantity in the high and narrow parts of the valleys, as is 
observed at Detmold and east of Lemgo. At times they are 
so abundant as to be accumulated into hills of a particular 
form, as is the case in Smaland, in Sweden ; and sometimes 
they form even mountains of considerable height, as may 
be seen near Quedlie, in Norway ; and what is remarkable, 
the larger blocks are at the top, the others HiminiTtijiig 
gradually towards the bottom. 

Though generally superficially disposed, erratic blocks 
are however in some places found imbedded in a Sne sand 
which has nothing in common with thiar nature or origin. 
as in the plains of Westphalia. Some blocks (and this may 
depend either on their own particular nature, or the greater 
or less friction to which they have been subjected, the length 
of time they have been exposed lo atmospheric influeace, or 
the nature of the climate.) have their angles and edge^i us 
sharp as though tbey were just detached from their native 
mountain^ aa is the case m the aeighbonrbood of Gro- 

When the erratic blocks are not at any great distauci^ 
from the qiots whence tbey come, they may be easily tnuvJ 
up to their origin. Thus those which are in the basin rf 
the Rhine come from the Grieons; those of the vailev uf 
the lake of Ziirich and of the limmat have been detached 
finm the mountains of Glaris ; those of the basin of the 
Reius come from the rocks at the source of this river; and 
those of tliu Aar and the Juta from the lofty mountains in 
the canton of Berne. Even those which cover the widely 
extended tract from Holland on the west, to St. Petersbuig 
and Tver on the east, are supposed by Von Buch, Haus- 
mann, Brugmaiis, Alex. Brongniart, Sec, to be traceable to 
Scandinavia. It is however remarkable that, oontmry 
to what is generally observed of transported debris, the 
blocks are frequently latest as tbey are farthest rerooveil 
from the place whence they came, dimiuishing gradually in 
siie as they approach the parent roek; thus the blocks 
fbnnd in Hecklenberg and Seeland. which are ascertained 
to be derived from the Scandinavian peninsula, are larger 
than the blocks of the same rocks in Scania and Bast Goth- 
land, and they disappear altogether close to the jaimordial 
mountains whence they were derived. 

In certain places the blocks are almost exclusively of a 
partjcitlar kind, while in others they vary greatly in their 
mineral character, proving, tc^ether with the ascertained 
situation of the same rocks in situ, that they must have 
been Msembled from various quarters. This is the case 
with the erratic blocks of Yorkshire, and with those uf 
Lithuania, for though the greater part, perhaps, of those in 
the latter locality may be similar to the rocks in Sweden 
and Norway, there are many evidently derived &om other 

As for the direction in which the bands of tfratic blocks 
seem to lie, and the quarter whence they seem to have 
come, they are very various. We have just seen that iu 
the TWTlb of Hecklenbeiv the trains are in a line wc^t- 
north-west and east-south-east. Count Rasoumovski ob- 
serves that, when many blocks are accumulated they form 
parallel lines with a direction from north-east to south-west. 
Brongniart says they have a general direction north and 
south. Sir James Hall speaks of those in tho neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh as commg fWiia the west We have sai-l 
that those on the north of the Alps come from the south. 

If any thing fiirther were necessary to comphcate tho 
problem of erratic blocks, it is the immense distance at 
which they are sometimes (bund from the nearest rocks of 
similar composition ; thus blocks of granite are found on 
*he mountains of Potosi, while the nearest granite rocks 3rr 
__ Tucuman, about four hundred leagues off. Nor is disConcf 
all; the detached blocks ore found separated from their 
parent rocks by intervening hills, broad and deep valleys, ns 
that of the Aor, and even by straits and seas : thus in tht.' 
north, of Cumberland there are boulders which have been 
transported across the Solway Frith bota Dumfries, and 
the blocks on the low plains of Germany are separated fnun 
their parent rocks by the Baltic 

England, as well as the continent of Europe, has many 
pots covered with erratic rucks, some of which seem to be 
Icrived from Norway, while otiiers ore evidently the de- 
bris of our own mountains. For details we refer the reader 
to the observations and works of Sedgwick, OoDybwre. 
Lyell, Buckland, Phillips, Hibbert, be. 

E R Y 


E R Y 

and nued to Use peerage by the title of Baron Enkine, of 
Resiormel Castle, in Cornwall. HLs tenure of office was 
however brief, for on the dissolution of the ministry in 1807, 
be retired from public life. After this period Lord Erskine 
seldom appeared in his place in the House of Lords, but in 
1820 he took a prominent part on the occasion of the trial 
of Queen Caroline. 

In the later years of hie life he was Iiarassed by pecu- 
niary embarrassments, arising from the loss of his large 
professional income, and an unfortunate investment of the 
fruits of his industry in land. His first wife died in 1805, 
and an ill-assorted second marriage increased his domestic 
disquietudes, injured his reputation, and gave pain to his 
fsiends. He died Nov. 17, 1823. 

Lord Erskine's talents were peculiarly those of an ac- 
complished and dexterous advocate : his eloquence formed an 
mra at the bar, and his addresses to juries captivated their 
understandings, their imaginations, and their passions; 
they were not marked bv beauty of diction, richness of or- 
nament, or felicity of illustration, but by strength, vigour, 
and simplicity, and a perfect freedom from colloquial vul- 
garisms. A remarkable feature in his speeches is an exact 
and sedulous adherence to some one great principle which 
he laid down, and to which all his efforts were referrible 
and subsidiary. As the principle thus proposed was founded 
on truth and justice, wnatever might be his ingenuity in 
applying it to the particular case, it naturally gave to his 
address an air of honesty and sincerity which had great 
influence with the jury. 

His extraordinary talent was developed by the times in 
which he lived ; his indignant eloquence was called forth 
in defence of those individuals in whose persons the court 
and the government attacked the liberty of the press and 
constitutional freedom. The public mind was in a state of 
ferment from the recent events of the French revolution ; 
and the government, in their hatred of the great principles 
of liberty then being established, forgot that actions, not 
principles, are the proper subjects for prosecution. As 
counsel for the defendants in these political prosecutions. 
Lord Erskine made his noblest and most successful efforts ; 
fearless and zealous in the cause of his client, he spoke 
home truths without using imnecessary violence or low in- 

Lord Erskine has left few productions in writing ; the 
principal are the Preface to Fox's Speeches, the political 
romance called ' Armata,' and a pamphlet entitled ' View 
of the Causes and Consequences of the War with France,* 
which passed through 48 editions. His speeches have been 
published in 5 vols. 8vo. Lord Erskine is not to be con- 
sidered as a literary man ; but it is one of the many singu- 
larities in his history, that with a scanty stock of what is usu- 
ally called literature, he should have been one of our purest 
classical speakers and writers. His study was confined to 
a few of the greatest models, and these he almost knew by 
heart. Ho greatly admired the writings of Burke, and fre- 
quently quoted them in his speeches. 

Scanty notices of the life of Lord Erskine are published 
in Lardner's Cyclopiedia (' Lives of British Lawyers*) and 
the 3rd vol. of the Oallery of Portraits, from which this 
account has been taken. There are some remarks upon 
the style of his eloquence in Butler's Reminiscences, 
vol. i. p. 70. His statue is in Lincoln's Inn Hall. 

ERUCl'VORA. (Zoology.) [Laniad«.] 

ERUPTION. [Volcano.] 

ERWIN. [Strasburo.] 

ERYCI'NA. [Venxridjr.] 

E'RYON, Desmarest's name for a macrourous crusta- 
cean, only known in a fossil state. 

External antennte short (one-eighth of the total length 
of the body including the tail), setaceous, provided at their 
bate with a rather large scale, which is ovoid and strongly 
notched on the internal side ; intermediate euitennas seta- 
fcous, bitid. much shorter than the external ones, and 
having their filaments equal. Feet of the first pair nearly 
as lon^ as the body, slender, linear, not spinous, terminated 
by very long and narrow chelsD, with fingers little bent, 
but sli(<ht1y inflected inwards; carptts short; feet of the 
ot!ier pain also slender, and those of Uie second and third 
]>air turminutod with pincers, like the feet of tlie crawfishes 
(<'iTevi*8cs). Carapace very much depressed, wide, nearly 
M|uare, but little advanced anteriorly, profoundly notched 
^n its latero«an tenor borders. Abdomen rather short, 

nncd of six ortiouhitioiif, of wliich the four intermediate 

ones have their lateral borders prolonged in angles, well 
detached, as m the crawfishes. Caudal-fin formed of Hvo 

Iiieoes, of which the two lateral are entire, rather large, a 
ittle rounded on the internal side, and the three middle 
ones triangular and elongated, especially the intermediate 
one. ' i 

£oca/i7y.— Lithographic limestone of Pappenheim and 
Aichtedt in the Margraviat of Anspach. (Desmarest) 

M.* Desmarest observes that this genus is entirely ano- 
malous, and ought, in a natural classification, to form a 
section by itself. According to the method of Dr. Leach, 
it would belong, 1st, to the order Macroura; 2nd, to the 
second section, which includes those Macroura which are 
provided with a caudal flabelliform fin ; 3rd, to the sub- 
section B, which have the peduncles of the internal antennm 
moderately elongated ; 4tn to the 5th division, which have 
the natatory blades of the extremity of the tail formed of 
a single piece, the second articulation of the abdomen not 
dilat&, and rounded anteriorly and posteriorly on each side ; 
and finally, feet to the number of ten. 

M. Desmarest sees on to say that it is to the Callianass^t 
the Thalassime, fue GebitB, and the Axii, that Eryon bears 
relation. Nevertheless it has not, he observes* the habit of 
any of them. Its short depressed carapace, and its little 
elongated abdomen approximate it to Scyllarus, but its 
internal antenns with short peduncles, its external seta- 
ceous antennaB and its great anterior didactylous feet, 
widely separate it from that genus. ' It cannot be con- 
founded with Palinums, which nas the external antenna) 
and the peduncles of the internal ones so long, and whose 
feet are all monodactylous ; and, finally, it cannot be re- 
ferred to the crawfishes or lobsters {Astacus), whose shell 
is differently formed, and which have the external natatory 
blades of the tail composed of two pieces ; but Desmarest 
thinks that it is to the last-named genus that Eryon most 
approximates, taking into consideration its eeneral cha- 
racter. He regrets that he has not been able to satisfy 
himself whether the four antennsD are inserted on the 
same horizontal line or not, a fiict which would have as- 
sisted him in lus comparison with other genera. 

Example. — Eryon Cuvieri. Carapace finely granulated 
above, marked by two deep and narrow notches on the two 
latero-anterior borders, and finely crenilated on the laleru- 
posterior borders. Length, four to five inches French. 

Eryon Cuvtori- 

The fossil was noticed by Richter, Knotr, and others, 
before M. Desmarest, as, indeed, he states. 

ERYSITELAS (Ignis Sacer, the Rose, St. Anthonys 
Fire), an inflammation of the skin, occasioning a spreading 
redness, which occupies a broad suriace, on which are 
formed vesicles or blisters, preceded by and accompanied 
with fever. The whole of the inflamed surface is painful, 
but the pain is not acute ; it is rather a sensation of burning 
or stinging than of severe pain. The redness is not intense 
like that produced by nhlegmon or boil, but is of a pale 
rose colour. There is always considerable tume^tion ; tlie 
tumor is not surrounded by a definite boundary, but is 
diffuse, irregularly circumscribed, and unattendecl wiUi a 
sensation of throbbing. The tumor lb often soft and bogg}'. 
It is characterized by the vesications which form upon it. 

The proper seat of erysipelas is the skin, but the appear- 
ance of the disease is somewhat modified according to the 

E R Y 


B R T 

pT ofwe i , vfceoee the frequent occomfnre of the dmeMe in 
IIm •dvftn^^ itoj(«ii of ferer, grestty eonpfiestiog the f t»te 
i^Us^^ and evhai)4*inf; the Itttte mnaining ttfvojnh of the 
ptttient Vfr/lent fmtAwn of mind hu alio been "obie i t e d 
to be «n exnfinsf mate of eryttpelMi m thoie poverfuliy 
predi«po4e4 to the dueeae ; in whcrm ebo lociJ initaiite often 
induce it, a« wound* or poaeturee in the tkm, the bttee of 
l«ef;he«, the ittnga of ineeets, inomlation with rmtA/^% or 
▼a/TifKr matter. IneUnee^ arc on n^^ord tn whieh both 
TBrir»l//U4 and Taodne matter hare produ^^ in rhildien of 
irritable habiu, two or three daT% after tnoeulatioii, an 
eT7fttp(;lat/nia inflammation whirb hat proved &tal. 

It in a point much diapated whc-ther erytipe&s be capable 
of feeing propagated by eonta^ion* ' The dtfeaae,' taja Dr. 
Rat4;roan, * has been noticed in ftereral hoipitaU to preraO 
in certain wards, among patients admitted with different 
cum plaints ; but has «ie!<kmi been known to soread in pri- 
vato houM^. Dr. Wells, indeed, has collected nereral ex- 
amples of the apparent communication of ctysipelas bj 
ronla{^iiin, which occurred in private families. But such 
are at all events extremely rare, and perhaps never hap- 
pened in well ventilated and cleanly nouses. From the 
HfiytiX Infirmary, at Edinburgh, this dif^ea^e, like the puer- 
peral fevf*r, was banished bv ventilation, white- wasninflr, 
and other mean« of purification ; and it has not oocuned 
in any h^wpital of late years, since a better system has been 
afloptcd in these respects. Other diseases, not infectioiis in 
themselves, appear to become united with typhus, or con- 
tagious fayMT^ under similar circumstances, and thus to be 
propagated in their double form; the dysentery, for ex- 
ample, the peritonitis of women in child-bed, ulcerated 
ftfirc throat, &c. The simple phlegmonous erysipelas, at 
all events, was never seen to spread like an infectious 

The rl anger of erysipelas is in proportion to the intensity 
of the intlammation, and the severity of the affection of the 
brain. Tlie danger is also imminent when there is great 
tumefaction of the throat, or when the inflammation spreads 
to the nfspiratory passages and the respiratory organs. As 
long as tne inflammation is confined to the external sur- 
fkce, and the User remains moderate, the brain not much 
aifrrted, and the hearfs action not inordinate, a fhvourable 
termination of the malady may be expected. The different 
varioti(7i4 or species of the disease are also attended with 
very different degrees of danger. Authors usually describe 
four species, namely, the phlegmonous, the cBdematous, the 
gangrenous, and the erratic, "nie phlegmonous is that form 
of ttio disease in which the inflammatory state of the sys- 
tem is the mobt distinctly marked. In the cedematous the 
fever and intlammation are less intense ; but the tumeftic- 
t ion is 10 great that the appearance of the face resembles 
that of a bladder distended with water. This form of the 
raaludy most commonly affects persons of debilitated eonsti- 
tut ions, who have been previously attacked or are simulta- 
neously affected with dropsy, or some other chronic disease, 
incident to a cachectic state of the system, and induced 
commonly by habitual intemperance. It is always attended 
with ron<iiderable danger, for the disorder of some internal 
function increases witn the advancement of the external 
diiteaiM'. Very fk'equently delirium and coma come on at 
the height of the disease, and terminate fatally on the 
seventh or eighth day ; or, in other cases, the symptoms 
continue undiminished, and death occurs at a later period. 
When this fbrm of the disease attacks one of the extremi- 
ties, it is attended with but little danger. 

In the gangrenous form of the disease the colour of the 
afflicted part is of a dark red, and scattered vesicles with a 
livid ba<iu apjiear upon the surface, which frequently termi- 
nate in ganffrenous ulcerations. Suppuration and gangrene 
of the musries, tendons, and cellular tissue often take place, 
producing little caverns and sinuses, which contain an ill- 
ronilitionod pus, together with sloughs of the mortified parts, 
which are ultimately evacuated from the ulcers. It is ac- 
ronipaniod with symptoms of low fever, in the progress of 
which delirium comes on, soon followed by coma. It is 
always a te<lious and precarious and often a fktal form of 
the (| incase. 

In the erratic species the inflamed patches appear one 
-^fter another in different parts of the bodv, thus travelling 
succession ft-om the fkce to the neck ana trunk, and from 
II trunk to the extremities. It often happens that each 
session of thtf complaint is less and less severe as it re* 

tbu form of the «i 
a week or tea dayi^ 

In the phlegMBOtts 
aenee of inthmmatory ferer, the ■ythnd ef 
he wMtf diflefeot fiooi dnt prober to the 
gangrenous, id whieh there is the 
s^ittn. In the jwa^ the plethoric the 


by the pre- 
t most 
of the 
and the 

robitst, at the umuneuuf ent of tlto attaek, when there is 
much pein in the head, when the heat of the tkdn is in- 
tense, aiMl the pulse is fall and stroog, the remedies proper 
in any other ease of inHaiiimstory iever aie required ; 
namely, bleeding to the extent of the sabdual oi the inHam- 
maiory eoodition of the system. In sndi a case there is 
danger that the disease will tcnninate in fiOal inflammation 
of the brain* unleei there be a Ikee abstraetian of blood. 
But it must be borne in mind that e if sipris a does not ordi- 
narily occur in the youthful andvisorons eoDslitation ; that 
it i» not often aceoiiipanied with the signs of aente inflam- 
mation ; that blood-letting is required cmly when acute in- 
flammation is present, anfl that the extent of the bleeding 
must be strictly regulated by the degree of the inflamma- 
tory action. In an ordinary attack of phlegmonoid erysipe- 
las, general bleeding is not neceamT, at knst in the oonsti- 
tntiofis eoramonly found in a crowded city. Moderate 
purging, diaphoretie and saline medicines, strict oonfine- 
ment to bed in a oool apartment, with the diet appropriate 
to febrile diseases, are ab the remedies required. If. local 
bleeding and blistering appear to be indicated, oare must 
be taken not to apply the leeches or the blister near the in- 
flamed nirftee. Various applieations to the inflamed sur- 
fiiee have been reeommended, the most eommon of which is 
flour, or some other absorbent powder, to imbibe the fluid 
which ooxea fifom the reaicationa. The utility of such ap- 
plications is donbtftiL ' The application of powdery sub- 
stances,' says Dr. Bateman, * has commonly, according to 
my own obs^ration, augmented the heat and irritation in 
the oommenoement ; aim afterwards* when the flaid of the 
vesications oozes out, such substances produce additional 
irritation, by forming, with the contacting fluid, hard crusts 
upon the tender surfkoe. In order to allay the irritation 
produced by the acrid discharge from the broken vesica- 
tions, Dr. Willan recommends us to foment or wash the 
parts affected, from time to time, with milk, bran, and 
water, thin gruel, or a decoction of elder-flowen and poppy- 
heads. In the early state of the inflammation, when the 
local heat and redness are great, moderate tepid washing, 
or the application of a oool but slightly stimulant lotion, 
such as the diluted liquor ammonis aoetatis, has appeared 
to me to afford considerable reUef.* 

In the oedematous species, when it occurs in broken-down 
constitutions, the result of habitual intemperance, even pur- 
gatives must be very cautiously administered ; the strength 
inust be sustained by mild nutritive diet, and tonics, as 
cinchona or quinine, and even stimulants, as camphor, wine, 
or the beverage to which the patient has been habituated, 
are required. The aperients employed should be mild al- 
terative mercurials, with ec^ual parts of castor-oU and the 
spirit of turpentine administered perhaps every alternate 

In the gangrenous species, ouinine in considerable doses 
through tne whole course of tne disease, opium, camphor, 
the mineral acids, wine, brandy, and the general regimen 
adapted to gangrenous affections occurring under other cir- 
cumstances, must be freely employed. The remedies indis- 
pensable in the phlegmonoid species would be &tal in this 
form of the diseiase, while the remedies wluch afford the 
only chance of saving life in the latter would produce &tal 
inflammation of the brain if administered in the former. 
ERVTH ACA (Zoology). [Blub Bird, voL v. p. 17: 


ERYTHE^MA, a superficial redness of some portion uf 
the skin, varying in extent and form, attended with disor- 
der of the constitution, without vesications, and uninfectiousL 
It is distinguished from erysipelas by the slight degree of 
constitutional disorder, by the slight degree of local pain« 
by the more uniformly favourable termination of the dis- 
ease, and by the absence of tumefaction and vesication. 
Authors describe several species of this affection, namely, 
1. The fugacious {Efyihema Jugax\ consisting of nsl 

Satches of an irregular form, resembling the redness pn>- 
uced by pressure. These patchea appear successively on 
the arms, neck, breast, ana fieuse. This affection is gene- 

E R Z . 

■idered by tome as & distinct natural order; bj otbcrs ss » 
•ubordinale division of Malpi^hiacciD. Th^ bave altcnia.le 
■tipulale leai-ci, nnil Btnall poUid flowers. The calyi: is five- 
lobed ; the petals arc Ave, with a rcmarkablo appendage at 
thcLT base, which afford one of the marlu of distinclion 
bolween Erytbroxyleta and MalplghiiiC4!i(> ; the Etemcns ore 
ten. slightly tnonailclphous. The Qvary is Buperior, three* 
celled, with three slylcs, and aolilary pendulous ovules. 
The fruit is druiiaceout. Some of the species of Erjthroxy- 
lon, the only genus, have a bright red wood, occasionally 
ntci for dyeing ; hut tlic most extraordinary species is the 
Erythroxylon toai, of whose inebriating effects a full ac- 
count has already been given. [Coca.] 

ERYX or ERIX. a genus of serpents separated by 
Daudin from Boa, and differing from it in having a very 
short obtuse tail, and the ventral plates narrower. The 
head of Efyx is short, and the characters generally would 
approximate the form to Tiirlrix, did not tbe ronformatiun 
of tho jaws place it at n distance from the last-named genus. 
The head, besides, is covered with small scales only. Eryx 
hns no hooks at the vent. 

ERZERU'M, ERZ-RU'M, or ARZRUTiI, a town in 
Turkish Armenia, in S'J" 57' N. lat, and about Jl° 15' E. 
long., towards the eastern exlremily of an extensive and 
ferldo plain between .11) and 40 miles in length and from 
19 to '2U miles in its greatest biradth. This plain is walercd 
by the KarH 8ii, or western branch of the Euphrates, 
wtiich rises at its eastern extremity, and from whose 
Itaiikii the town is three or four miles distant. Tbo town 
is very largo, and is portly surrounded by an old castellated 
wall, with a ditch, and on ils southern skirls stands a citadel 
encircled by a double wall Ifankeil with towers very close 
to each other, and with a ditch : it has four gall's, and in- 
rliM-s the polace of tho pacha nnil nearly tlio whole of tha 
Turkish population. But a large portion o( Enernm is 
unwalled, and ninlains the principal bainard and khans. 
The house* for the mod part am tow, and built of wood, 
but llie bainars aro extensive, and well supplied with 
provisions. Enerum hu nearly forty mosques a Greek 
rhuTcli, and a large Armenian cliapi^l. In the beginning 
(if this century llw population wns eitiniated at luO.UUU 
individuals; and in 1827 at l^tU.OUO. But being soon ofler- 
iranls occupied by Ihe Russianv the greali'.'l part of the 
inhabitantii abandoned the tewi\, the Armenians emigrating 

of Adrjanople llw place u slowly rising from 
decav. but in ISIj its iwpulation did not exceed 15.0011. 
We do not know if any of its numerous manulhctures have 
lic«i miwd. Before tho Russian invasion considerable 
({aantilica of silk and cotton duib were mailo horv, and 
nuch leaiber laniMd ; there were obo some touiulkcturea of 
"-*»W Tewdf. 

8 E R Z 

Erzerum is iniporlaat as a commercial town. Besides 
the produce of its manufactures it exports llic cxcclleiU 
grain which is grown in the plain. But it derives othi-r 
commercial 8dTanta.ges from its being situated on one of 
the most frequented caravan roads of Western Asia, which 
leads from Persia and Georgia to the great commercial 
towns of Asia Minor. Tliis renders Erzerum an imi«jTl:im 
place aUo in a political and military point of view. Ii i-. 
the seat of a pasha, and the pashalik yields only in rank 
and extent to that of Bagdad. (Kinneir; Brant, in Londu" 
Geogr. Journal, vi.) 

ERZGBBIRGISCHE-KREIS (circle of the Ore Moun- 
tains), a large provini^e of the kingdom of Saxony, whicli 
takes its name from the mountains which bound it on the 
south and separate it from the kingdom of Bobcmia. On 
the north it is bounded by the circle of Leipzig and by the 
duchy of Saxe-Altcnburg ; on the west by Ibe grand duchy 
of Saxe- Weimar, the pnncipality of Reuas. and tlie circle 
of Voiglland ; and on the east by the circle of Ihlois- 
sen. It is the largest and most populous province in 
tlie kingdom, and contains an area of about 1747 square 
miles, on which there are 5S towns, 13 market villages, niiil 
above 700 villages and hamlets. In 1829 the population 
was 488,803, and it is at present estimated at ;i1ioui 
S06,000. Tlie surfiico rises gradually from the border* 
of the Leipzig and Meissen circles, until it reaches the 
southern frontier and the lofty summits of tlie Ore 
Mountains. The province is intersected in all directions 
by offsets from those mountains, and presents a constnnt 
succession of hills and valleys. The loftiest heights in 
it arc the Fichtclberg, at the southernmost cxtremiiy 
of the province, which is 3968 feet, and the Auersbcri;. 
about eleven miles north-west of the Fiehtelbere, which 
is 3132 feet above the lc^'el of the sea. The FreibiTg 
or Eastern Mulde, the largest river in the yrovinci'. 
flows through its eastern districts, and the Sctineubir^ 
or Western Mulde through Ihe western districts ; the 
centre is irrigated by the Zschoppau, Flijhe, Pijhl, Sehm. 
Bockau, Chemnitz, and other streams; the Weiserilx or 

serving the name of lakes, but there are a number of mine- 
ral springs, cliielly u^cd for bathing, at Wolkeiistein, Wic-^ia. 
near Annabeig, &c. The province is full of woods and 
forests, particulaTly its most elevated parts, such as the 
vicinity of Schwarienberg. Ibe average height of tho 
Engebii^ische Kreis above the level of the sea is eslimaltd 
at 1 200 feet. 

In consequence of the rugged character of the surface, the 
hard, stony soil, and the rawness of the climate, neither 
apiculture nor hurticullure are pursued on a scale of sulli- 
clent extent to supplv the wants of the province. Oals, rjc. 
linseed, potalocs, and a small quanlily of wheat, are cuUi- 
vated ; these articles are also iinnorted from Bohemia ancl 
tho adjoining circle of Lcipiis. There are fine and exten- 
sive postures, parlicularly in the vicinity of Zwickau, Ctii'm. 
nitx. Ausustusberg, Freiberg, and Nossen, where lar^ii; 
Hocks of sheep are kept; but cattle-breeding, on the whuli', 
is not so actively carried on as it might be. The province 
is well known for its large trout, its salmon, carp, and olliir 
fresh water fish. 

The very name of this part of Saxony, 'the circle of the 
Ore Mountain^.' indicates the peculiar character of ils nn- 
turol riches. It abounils in mines of silver, tin, lead, irun, 
cobalt, &c., the first working of which is said to have taken 
place in tlie middle of the Iweinii century. Their must 
flourishing slate was in the flflccnib. when the silver mine; 
of Schnucbsrg and Annaberg and the tin mines of Allen- 
berg were iliGcoverc-d and opened At tlie present day they 
ad'oid employment, either directly or indirectly, lo upn ard'-, 
of 200,000 persons. The largest silver mines are in the 
neighbourhood of Freiberg, of which the Erbisdorf aiuix- 
produced 3.0-)8.S0a ouncesuf silver between 17G9 and ISl* : 
tlieir number is about '.'00, with HO pits (lecben); they 
occupy 4S00 bands, and their present produce b fiom 
375.000 to 450.000 ounces annually. The olher silver 
mines are at Schncebcrg, Schuanenberg, Annaberg. Ala- 
rienberg, &c The most considerable tin mines are at Al- 
tenborg and Geier ; others al Schneeberg. Sec No niint>. 
in Saxony produce so much iron as those of Jobann-Geor- 
gensladl: this metal is also obtained at Schnecberg. Alten- 
berg. &c. Near Aue and Bockau, to the south of Scfance- 
\xtTs, la what is called tho ' Suon Siberia,' lifl tb« largest 

KSCAPEMENT. [Hobolooy.] 

ESCARP, or SCARP, in fortiQcation. ia Uiat ride of 
tlie ditch lurrounding or in front of a work, uiil fonning 
the eiterior of the rampart. In fisld-worXg Ihs cHmrp ii 
uRually formed by cutting llic earth at such an inclinelion 
w will permit it to supjiort itself, which may be nl 42 dc- 
jrceft with the horicon or moro, according to the lonocity of 
the Mil; and, to impede lbs enemy in attempting an 
nuault, fraiMti or inclined palisades are frequently planted 
on the alope. In large fortrc&sca the escarp ia the oxiehor 
Kurface of the tsvetmcut wall nhit'li lupporti the rampart, 
and it ia ft-aquently formed at luch an inclination that iti 
base, metuured in front of a vertical plane pasiing throtif^h 
the lop of the wall and in the direction of ita Teitgth, ta 
one-Eixth of the height of the wall ; but engineers at pre- 
sent reoommend both (bo OBcarpi end counteracarps to be 
vertical, from an opinion that the action of the weather 
upon the brick-work will thereby be dimiaiahed. [Revit- 

ESCARPMENT, ■ piecipitoui tide of any hill or ro«k. 
Id military operaliona ground it frequently icarped, ai it is 
railed, or cut away nearly vertically about a position, in 
nrder to prevent an enemv from arriving at the latter. 
Pari of Ilia rock of Gibraltar has been rendered inao- 
ccMibte in this manner; and. in the execution of the in- 
tr«pchmenti about Lisbon, in 1610, the Britith troops 
furmed mi escarpment IVom IS to 20 fbet high, and about 
two miles long, on the brow of a ridge of heights extending 
from Alhandra to the valley of Calandhx, in order to se- 
cure the line against an attack at that part A similar 
ivork was executed alone; a ridge of hills between Mafra 
and the mouth of the S.Lorenxo. 

R'SCHARA. [PoLVPAKiA. Mbubranacia.] 

ESCHAROnCS O'^aptrad, from irtopow, to form 
crust, or scab), are agents applied to the surface of the body, 
which destroy the vitaliU' of the part which they touch and 
produce an eschar. This effect they occasion either by 
combining ohemieally with the animal matter, or by de- 
stroying the old affiniliea, and eaoaing the elements of the 
part to enter uito new combinations. Their action is more 
energetic in proportion to the degree of vitality uf the part 
Jo which they are applied. They are classed under two 
heads, the polmlial cauteronla. and the aettuU cautery : the 
former arc ebiefty chemical agents, and form new com- 
pound* with the elements of the part with which they come 
in conlact ; but some merely cause irritation and augmented 
absorplion, and are distinguithad as erodmO*. The actual 
cauterants are substances of an elevated temperature, which 
decompose the part which they touch, and eomplelely de- 
Uroy ill organiialion. 

The chief potential cauterants an ttrong raioeral acids, 
surti OS the sulphuric or nitric, pure alkalies, and some me- 
tallic salts, especially nitrat* of silver, or lunar caustic. 
These are used either to ptvduea counter-irritation, or to 
ramow ftingous or morbid growtlu. Luttar coustic sevms 


moat powerful direel antiphlogistic agent k 
plied in tho solid state to many inflamed parts it speedil> 
checks tho morbid action, and in decidedly the beft ap 
plication to chilblains, and in leucorrhma. The actual cau- 
terants are used either for their primary action, vii., the 
immediate destruction of the port, or for their secondary 
effects. T^e former object is rarely attempted, except Ic 
prevent the absorption of any poisonous or contagious 
matter, such as the venom of a snake, or bile of a mod dog. 
The secondary effects are more important, and more varied 
according lo the degree of heat or the substance applied. 
The first effect is pain more or leu severe, a tlow of blood 
towards the part, and nmre rapid performance of the pro- 
cess of interstitial deposition and absorption, terminating in 
inflammation, extendmg to a greater or less depth, according 
to the intensitv of the neat, or form of the body employed. 
This increased action has often a salutary effect, which u 
tVequently felt through the whole frame. Torpor and pa- 
ralysis of the nervous system often disappear, and neuralgia 
both of the neighbouring and even distant parts is removird. 
Atony and laxity of the muscular system vanish, and every 
part aiaplays more energy and power. 

The actual cautery may he applied in a variety of wavs 
via., hot water, hot vapour, moxa. and heated iron, lliv 
Brat of these is a very ready means of oaiising vesications in 
some diseases. In phthisis pulmonalis. or consumption, 
where pain is often more relieved \if vesication than any 
other means, placing a sponge in a wine-glass, and pouring 
boiling water on it. then suddenly inverting the glass uwt 
the part of the chest where iho pain is felt, will cause im- 
mediate vesication, fbllowed by ipeady relief. The vapour 
of boiling water, as it issues from the spout of a kettle, it 
also a convenient method of applying heat iu intlsmma- 
(ions of tho joints, as in gout, mornus coxariua, and oIIili 
deep-seated diseases of the bones. As the red-hot iron i.- 
now seldom used, being confined to vaterinary medicmv, 
moxa affords the best substitute, and it is very convenient 
as any degree of intensity or rapidity of actum caa be given 
to it. ^XA.] 

The eschar which folton's the application of Ibepotenluil 
or actual cautery generally separates in a few days. The 
ulcer Is then to be treated wiih different agents, acoonliuK 
as it is wished to heal it or keep it open, as a larthci meonn 
of oounter-irrilation. 

ESCHEAT, from the Norman French word ttchei ur 
echet, chance or accident (n word derived fhim etohettir, the 
old French form of the verb echoir, ' to fall'), is defloed by 
Sir William Blackstone as an obstruction to the course ul' 
descent by some unforeseen contingency which consequently 
determines the tenure. In this case the land results baik 
by a kind of reversion lo the original grantor or lord of 
whom it is holden. 

Escheat takes place when tho tenant of lands diM inlti- 
tate and without an heir : in such case the lands, if fri-v- 
hold, escheat lo the king, or other lord of the fee ; if «jpi - 
hold, to the liMil of the manor. Lands nhich hate deacendrtl 
to tho last tenant from a paternal or maternal anccstur. 
escheat, if there are no heirs on the port of that anccil< r 
from whom the lands descended. Since the lit day ct 
January, 1634, there can be no escheat on failure of tlu' 
whole blood, wherever there are persons of the balf-b1<>oil 
capable of inheriting under 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 106. 

If a bastard dies intestate and without issue, hi* laii<U 
escheat to the lord of whom they are held. 

Escheat also takes place upon attainder fbr treason anil 
murder, by means of which the blood is in Iswconsideicd i.> 
be corrupted, and the attainted owner of lands rendered 
incapable of holding them himself, or transferring them by 
descent. In consequence of this extinction of herilalik- 
blood, the lands of such felons revest in the lord, except in 
eases of treason, when a superior law intervenes, and ititi 
become fiirfeited to the cronn. Previously to a recent ^ict 
(3 & 4 William IV., c. lUG), a person could not trsco L;. 
descent through another person who had been attaintti) : 
but this may now be done, provided that other person sh:.',: 
have died before such dewent shall have taken place. [Ai- 
TAINDEO.] And by the 4 & 5 William IV., o. 33. no pro- 
perty tested in any trustee or morlEogee shall escheat 
or bo forfeited by reason of the attainder or conviction fi.i 
any offence of such trtisteo or mortgagee, except ao br o:! 
sucfa trustee or mortgagee may have a beneSdai interest m 
such property. 




l»V« VnlMi by iHg^ wiailfp and is tuuXiguitM in parti- 
cslar, vWre n>fM» » i^ gicat iaipaftaiiee, and where a ool' 
iMtMtt of dw iaar •orta «f frnit is alvaya deairable* H if 
^mmA Infbiy walal Wlb «i aeeooni of the flDEkall ifaee 
vh^h the tneea oeempf, and bacanaa thej will bear fruit 

allowed to grow in their natural 

In famot and oChcr parU of the Continent this kind of 
tiaintaf iiievT woch pnrtwed, and in the northern parts of 
JUff^uAuA mSeolknd^ where the borderaof the kitchen- 
garden am fraqn en tly planted with Howen, in order to 
eombme yUasnui with aulitf»^»palien aie trained aloqg 
the back of the flower bofden to pierent the Tegetables 
being teen from the walki^ 

yffhm the eapalier is fiuttened to a wall, as is reiy com- 
mon on the Continent, peach and nectarine trees are fro- 
qoantljr trained npon it ; but where it is detached, as it is 
nosi e u B M S o nly in Britain, ftpples and pears, and somrtimes 
gMMdliernea^ are the only froiu which are soceessfiiny cnlti- 
vated in this way. Plams and cherries are ooeasionaDy so 
managed, bat not so adirantageoosly as the others* 

When a common espalier is to be covered, the trees should 
be planted from 20 to 24 iSeet apart, which will allow the 
branches to grow 10 or 12 feet oii each side : but as a con- 
siderable time would elapse before they would fill this space, 
a duplicate tree may be planted between eadi, and cut awsT 
as the others grow. Gooseberries of oouxie require a smaU 
space ; three ot four feet from plant to plant is sufficient. 

The training on espalier is very simple, and easily per- 
Ibrmed. When the trees are young, one shoot must be 
trained perpendicularly, and two others horizontally, one from 
each side ; the two last must not be shortened, but the per- 
pendicular shoot is to be shortened in the following year to 
threesood burls, two of which are to form new side branches, 
and the other a leafier as before ; and so on every year until 
the trees have attained the desired size. The proper distance 
between the horixontal branches must depend upon the pe- 
culiar growth of the tree, but from six to nine inches is what 
is generally allowed. Trees are sometimes trained upon a 
double espalier which has the advantage of giving two sur- 
faces to train upon. It consists of two trellises mstead of 
one, about two fret apart at the bottom, and approaching at 
the top. 

Tlie only kind of espalier worth notice, which differs from 
those now mentioned is a table-rail : this, the management 
of which is called table training, consists of rails resembling 
tables, up the centre of which the tree is trained and regu- 
larly spread over the surfrce. It is rarely employed, and 
has the essential fault of exposing the blossom so much to 
the effect of nocturnal radiation that in this country a crop 
is rarely obtained from su(;h espaliers. 

The stakes which form the espalier are made of different 
materials, some of wood, others of wire and wood, and some 
of cast iron. The first of these is tnr far the most simple, and 
is composed of stakes, five or six feet in height, driven into 
the ground from one to two feet apart ; along the top a bar, 
whirn is nailed to each, connects the whole together. It 
is of no use to have the stakes either so strong or so high 
when the trees are first planted, because they are not re- 
el uired, are unsightly, ana wUl have to be renewed before 
tne trees have attained their intended height ; for this rea- 
son, stakos of a much weaker kind will at first answer 
quite as welL The wire and wood rail is formed by strong 
vertical wires, strained from two wooden horizontal rails, 
which are connected and held flist by wooden posts let into 
the ground. The iron rail is constructed upon the same 
plan as a common street railing. 

The objection to all iron trellises is, that they cut and 
canker the trees ; and when the cheapness of the wooden 
one is eonsidered, besides the more natural appearance 
which it presenU, it must undoubtedly have the pre- 

The best wood for this purpose is young larch, the thin- 
ning of plantations. 

K8 PA LION, a town in the department of Aveyron, in 
France. It is on the left or south bank of the river Lot, 
1 7 miles fh>m Rhodes, the capital of the department, and 
.1.10 from Paris by Fonts inebloau, Briare, Nevers, Moulins, 
Riom* Clermont, and St Flour. Tho principal street of 
the town is broad, and lined with well-built houses: it leads 
^wn to the bridge over the Lot. The population in 1832 
s 2260 for the town, or 3545 for the whole commune. 
m inhabitants manufkcture light woollen stuffs, and there 

are leveral taa-jards: 

Good wine is p it rf n c c d in the eovmtiy itwnd Sspalion, 
The town has a anhflrdinate eoart of justice (fn'taao/ de 
premiere imsiamce% a h«h-adioel, and a drawiu-a^KM>L 

Tbe amodiaenwni of Espahon is subdivided into nine 
cantons or districts, under the juriadictioo of a jnatiee of the 
peace, and 101 eommooiea: it had in 1832 a popolatkip of 
ESPIRITU SANTO. [Bkaxu.. p. 336 ; Cuba. p. 205.] 
ESPRIT, SAINT, a sabub ef Bayvmie. [Baton if e.] 
ESPLANADE, the groond hetaceu the fortifications of 
a citadel and those of ue town to which it bdongs^ It is 
recommended by wrtteta on fivtification that this qmce 
should be about 3<W fathnnw broad, reckoniw from the 
covered wmf of the citadd, that in the event of an attack 
on the latter the enemy may not c o n struct batteries within 
breaching distance under the cover afforded by the build- 
ings of the town. 

ESQUIMAUX, a natkm inhabiting the most northern 
countnea of America, and, if the extent of country be con- 
sidend, one of the most widdy-spread nations on the globe. 
On the eastern coast of Ammca they are met with as far 
south as 50*" N. lat on the shores of the Strait of Belle 
Isle, which separates NewfiMindland from the mainland of 
America. They occupy the whole of the great peninsula 
of Labrador and the whole eastern coast of Hudson's Bay 
m to East Main River. On the western side of Hudson s 
my they inhabit the coast north of Churchill River, 
whence they extend northwards over the Barren Lands to 
the Great Fiah River, or Thleweechodeaeth, on both banks 
of which river they are found east of 10(P E. long. The 
whole country between this river, the Great Bear Lake, 
the Mackenzie River, and the Arctic Ocean, is exclusiveW 
inhabited by them. The coast lying to the west of Mac- 
kenzie River is also in their posMssion ; and they seem to 
be spread as far as Kotzebue Sound, on Behring's St rait »^ 
They also occupy Greenland and all the other islands be- 
tween the northern coast of America and the pole, as far 
as they are habitable. 

In stature the Esquimaux are inferior to the generality 
of Europeans. A person is rarely seen who exceeds 5 feel 
in height. Their faces are bixMid, and approach more lu 
the rounded form than those of Europeans ; their cheek- 
bones are high, their cheeks round and plump, mouth 
large, and lips thick. The nose is small, and, accordin;; to 
some authors^ flat, which, however, is denied by otber>. 
Their eyes are in general of a deep black ; but some are 
of a dark chestnut colour: they appear very small aoti 
deeply seated, owing to the eye-lids being much encum- 
bered with fat. The hair is uniformly long, lank, and of 
a jet black colour. The ears are situated tar back on the 
head. Their bodies are large, square, and robust, the chest 
high, and shoulders very broad. Their hands and feet 9re 
remarkably small ; there is, however, no sudden diminution, 
both extremities appearing to taper from above downwards 
in a wedge-like shape. Graah, in his ' Voyage to Green- 
land,' observes that the inhabitants of the eastern coast 
have disproportionately large hands and feet They are of 
a deep tawny or rather copper-coloured complexion. Tliey 
are not without beard, as it has been asserted, but they 
pluck it out as soon as it appears. Some of them e^-en wear 
long beards. They show a good deal of ingenuity in making 
their dresses and instruments; and some of them ha\e at- 
tracted the attention of our travellers by their di^lay of 
mental powers. 

Their language is different from that spoken by the 
other savage nations who inhabit North America ; but it 
seems that the same language is spoken by all the different 
tribes of the Esquimaux, though of course each of them 
has en>ressions which are peculiar. (Parry ; Mac Kecvor; 
Graah's Vauage to Greenland,) 

ESQUIRE (from the French, ^^ctiter, or shield l)earer) 
is the next title of dignity to that of knight The tj i i^ a n. 
was the second in rank of the aspirants to chivalry, or* 
knighthood, and had his name from carrying the shield of 
the knight, whose bachelor, or apprentice in arms, he was. 
The gradations of this service, or apprenticeship to arms, 
were, page, esquire or bachelor, and knight, who, in his 
turn, after the formation of decrees of knighthood, was 
called a knight bachelor, as aspinng to the higher honours 
of chivalry. The esquire was a gentleman, and had the 
right of bearing arms on his escutcheon or shield; ho hiul 




eMenees beinff ealled tbe fenut, and that whieh is pecmliar 
to one particular eiienee, distinguishing it ftom all others and 
oonstituting it what it is, being called the differentia. The 
whole essence is called the species ; that is, genus + differ- 
entia ■= species. The qualities joined to essence are also 
of two kinds ; those which are joined necessarily are called 
properHei, and those which are joined only contingently 
are called a/KtdenU, Hence the five predicables, or only 
possible parts of a thing which can be the objects of asser* 
tion: — 1. Species or whole essence. S. Gknu8,the common 
or material part of the essence. 3. Differentia, the peculiar 
or ibrmal part of the essence. 4. Property or quality, neces- 
sarily joined to the essence. 5. Accident, or quality con- 
tingently joined to the essence. The following statements, 
collectea ftom Locke (EtMy, book iiL, c. 3 and 6), exhibit the 
principal points of his doctrine of essence. He considers 
essence to be of two kinds: 1. The real essence, which 
constitutes the insensible parts of a thing, and is wholly 
unknown to us. 12. The nominal essence, which depencfs 
on that which is real, and is the complex idea, for instance, 
of the properties of colour, weight, malleability, flxednesst 
fusibility, Scc^ expressed by the word gold ; for nothing 
can be gold which has not the qualities conceived in the 
abstract idea to which this name is applied. In simple 
ideas (see book ii. c 2), the real and nominal essence are 
identical, but in substances they are always different Each 
of the distinct abstract ideas which men make and settle 
in their minds by ^ving them names is a distinct essence ; 
and the names which stand for such distinct ideas are the 
names of things essentially different Thus, a circle is as 
essentially different from an oral as a sheep from a goat ; 
the abstract idea which is the essence of one being impos- 
sible to be communicated to the other. As essences are 
nothing but Uie abstract complex ideas to each of which 
has been annexed a distinct and general name, and as of 
such ideas there are some which correspond to no reality 
in nature-~for instance, those of mermaids, unicorns, &c. 
— it is eyident that there are essences of things which hare 
no existonce. In considering essence with regard to the 
scholastic theory of genus and species, Locke observes that 
we classify things by their nominal essences, having no 
other measure of essence and species but our abstract 
general ideas or mental archetypes, without refiorence to 
which we cannot intelligibly speak of essential and specific 
difierence. Hie doctrine of tne immutability and ingene- 
rable incorruptible nature of essences can be fbunded, says 
Locke, only on the relation between abstract ideas and the 
sounds by which they are signified; that is, on the fact that 
the same name retains the same signification, and also on 
tlie ikct that, whatever may become of individuals, as Alex- 
ander and Bucephalus, the ideas of man and horse remain 
unaltered. Some of these positions, as that real essences 
are unknown, and that species are distinguished by essences 
merely nominal, are disputed in Green's Philosophy and 
Lee's work against Locke. (See also many of the eailier 
scholastics; and for an exposition of the doctrine of es- 
sence, according to the transcendental theory, see Kant's 
' Kritik der remen VemunfX' and Wirgman's Logic and 
Metaphysics, in the * Encvclopndia Londinensis.') Sub- 
stance, as distinguished from essence, is understood to 
mean all the essential, with the accidental qualities ; and 
essence (genus and differentia, or common and proper) the 
essential qualities alone, that is, the pure substance, or 
metaphysical substratum. The Greek word oitsia {oMa) 
has many significations applicable to the individud, genus, 
species, and subject (Aristotle, Metaphus, 1. 6, c. 3) ; on 
which it is remarked by Roy Collard {Essai sur la Psy- 
chologie^ 1826, p. 149.246), that while the Latin and all 
modern languages have two distinct expressions for essence 
and substance, it is surprising that tne Greek, which is 
otherwise so rich, had only one name {ovcia) for these two 
idcns. The word ^ir^^raffif, hyjiostasis (substance), was 
subsequently employed, but with similar duplicity and con- 
fUsion. Hence arose many of the Trinitarian rontroversios, 
or rather logomachies, which embroiled the first ages of 
the church ; for Atlianasius, Epiphanius, and most of the 
other Greek fothcrs understood 9rpo(r(tfirov, person or mode 
of being, as meaning the same thing as vie69ratnQ^ sub- 
stance; and SabelUus, Arius, Nestorius, and Eutychcs 
understood vw^vramiQ as signifying the same thing as oWta, 
that is, essence or nature. So that Sabollius said, there 
b one essence or nature in God, therefore one substance 
or person. There are three substances or persons in Gbd, 

said Arius, therefore three essences or natures. There are 
two essences or natures in Christ, said Nestorius, therefore 
two substances or persons. There is but one substance or 
person in Christ, said Eutyches, therefore but one essence 
or nature. The essay on the difference between oWia and 
vvhoraevQ^ essence and substance, which is often attributed 
to St. Gregory, appeara to belong rather to St Basil : at 
least it is containea in his 43rd epistle. The epithet eMten- 
tied denotes those indispensable qualities in a thing, with- 
out which it could not be what it is ; and the name eMeti- 
tiale^ as the essentials of logic, signifies those parts alone 
which are valid for general or particular uses. 

ESSENES. [Hbssskbs.] 

ESSEQUIBO. [Guiana, British.] 

ESSEX, an English county, situated on the eastern 
coast of the islana of Great Britain. It is of irregular 
form, approximating to the quadrant of a circle, of which 
the nortti-westem point of the county may be considered 
as the centre; the southern, south-eastom, and eastern 
sides a portion of the circumference ; and the northern stid 
western sides the circumscribing radii. It is bounded on 
the north by the county of Suffolk (from which it is sepa- 
rated by the river Stour) and by the county of Camhriclgi* 
(from which it is separated for a very short distance by the 
river Cam) ; on the west by the county of Herts (from 
which it is separated, along a part of the boundary-line, b) 
the river Stort, a feeder of the Lea, and by the river Lea) ; 
and by the county of Middlesex (from which it is separated 
throughout by the Lea, which joins the lliamos at the 
south-western extremity of the county) ; on the south Mde 
and on a portion of the south-east side it is bounded by tJie 
gradually widening costuary of the Thames, by which it is 
separated from the county of Kent ; and on the remainder 
of the south-east side and on the east side by the German 
Ocean. The length of a straight line drawn from the north- 
western to the north-eastern extremity of the county, is o3 
miles; but the northern boundary of the county, following ii> 
turnings, is about 75 miles; the length of a line joining the 
north-western with the south-western extremity, is 37 miles ; 
but the boundary-line, from its many windings, extends to 
53 miles. The length of a line joining the south-western 
to the north-eastern extremity of the county (which would 
be the chord of the circumscribing arc of the quadrant) is 
63 miles ; but the boundary along the bank of (he Thame:: 
and the coast of the ocean is about 85 miles. The area of 
the county is estimated at 1533 square miles; or, taking 
the estimated areas of the several parishes, 979,000 acres. 
The population, according to the return of 1631, tios 
317,507, giving 207 to a square mile. In magnitude it is 
the tenth of the English counties, being a little smaller 
than Kent, and a little larger than Suffolk. In absolute 
population it is the thirteenth, and in relative population 
the eighteenth, of the English counties. Chelmsford, the 
county-town, is on the river (IJhelmer, 29 miles from S:. 
Paul's, London, in a straight line north-east by east ; ainl 
the same distance from wliitechapel Church, London, by 
the road through Romford, Brentwood, and Ingatestone. 
{Ordnance Survey.) 

Coatt, Islands, <Jc— The bank of the Thames and the 
sea-coast of Essex arc marshy almost throughout. From 
the junction of the Lea with the Thames to Purfleet, 1 1 or 
12 miles, the marshes extend from a mile to a mile and a 
half or even two miles inland, and the river is confined to 
its bed bv an embankment. At Purfleet the hills come 
down to the river ; and from Purfleet to Grays Thurrotk, 
5 miles, the marshes consist only of a very narrow strip 
along the river-bank; the embankment is, however, carried 
on, except just at Purfleet. West and East Tilbury marsliess^ 
on each side of Tilbury Fort, extend 6 miles along the 
river, and from one to two miles inland; but below them 
the breadth of the marsh land is again contracted, along 
that bend of the river called The Hope, 3 miles long, from 
the lower end of which they again widen, and extend above 
9 miles along the river, and nearly 4 miles inland, beini^ 
intersected by an inlet called Hole Haven, the branchc^s 
of which cut ofT from the mainland tbe low marshy It<lc of 
Canvey. The embankment of the river is carried round 
the inlet of Hole Haven, along the bank of the creek 
which separates Canvey Island from the main, and round 
the whole of Onvey Island; those portions of the marsh- 
land which are not «»omprehended within the embankment 
arc, below Tilbury' Fort, bftlt marshes. From the eastern 
end of Caxyi^^sland the marshes cease ; and about heif^h 




east ; the coast and the banks of the Thameg present a suc- 
cesnon of unhealthy marshes commonly known as the 
hundreds of Bssex. High Beach, on the north- vest side of 
Bpping Forest, near Waltham Abbey (390 feet high), 
Langdon hill, south of Billcricay (620 feet high), Dan- 
bufy hill, between Chelmsford and Maldon, of nearly the 
same height, and Tlptrey Heath near Witham, are probably 
the highest parts of the ooimty. The Chalk downs which 
form the continuation of the Chiltem hills just cross the 
north-western part of the county in their extension towards 
the north-east. 

The rivers of Essex are — the Thames with its affluents, 
the Lea (into which flows the Stort), the Roding, the Bourne 
Brook, the Ingerburn, and some smaller streams; the 
Crouch with its affluent the Broom-hill; the Blackwater 
with its affluents the Pods Brook or Witham river ; and the 
Chelmer (into which flow the Sandon Brook, the Ter, and 
some other streams) ; the Colne with its affluent the Roman ; 
the Stour ; and the Granta or Cam. 

The Thames bounds the county on the south side. Its 
eour^, though winding, is on the whole nearly from west 
to east It is a tide river, and navigable for the largest mer- 
chant ships (that is, for Eastlndiamen of the ftrst class, 1400 
tons buraen), and for frigates and other smaller ships of 
war throughout that part of its course which belongs to this 
county. The mouth of the Thames contains numerous 

The Lea bounds the county on part of its west side. It 
more properly belongs to Hertfordshire, in which it has a 
considerable part of its course. It meets the border of Essex 
at the point where it receives the Stort, along which the 
boundary previously runs and flows south past Broxbourn 
(HertaX Waltham Abbey, Chingford, Layton, and Strat- 
ford (all in Essex), 20 mfles, into the Thames. The banks 
of this river are marshy ; and the marshes are from half a 
milo to a mile wide. The stream is fi^uently divided and 
flows in several channels, and in some places cuts have been 
made in order to improve or shorten the navigation, which 
comprehends all that part of the river connected with this 
odunty. Some of the acts of parliament relating to the 
navigation of this river are above 400 years olcL 

The Stort rises in H«tfordshire, but soon enters Essex, 
through which it flows for some miles, and then touches 
the border again, and flows sometimes on the border, some- 
times in Hertfbrdshire, into the Lea. Its whole course is 
about 24 miles, for about 10 miles of which it has been 
made navigable. The navigation of tlie Stort and the Lea 
serves for the conveyance of com, malt, wool, and other 
agricultural produce to London ; and for the conveyance in 
return of coals, timber, deals, bricks, paving stones, gro- 
ceriea» cloth, and other articlee of daily consumption. 

The Roding rises in the western nart of the county, near 
Easton Park, a short distance north-west of Ounmow : it 
flows southward about 15 miles to the neighbourhood of 
Chipping Ongar, where it receives the Cripsey Brook (about 
9 miles long) from the north-west. From the junction of 
the Cripsey Brook, the Roding flows south-west in a very 
winding channel 14 miles past iCelvedon Hatch, Nave^tock, 
Abidge, Loughton, and Chigwell, to Woodford bridge : and 
from Woodibrd bridge it flows about 7 or 8 miles south and 
south by east past Ilford and Barking into the Thames. Its 
whole course is about 36 or 37 miles. The banks are low 
and marshy from the neighbourhood of Ongar. The west 
bank, from Ilford, and both banks firom below Barking, 
are protected by embankments. It is navigable under the 
name of Barkine Creek up to Ilford bridge, and serves to 
convey coals ana other articles for the supply of Romford 
and the neighbourhood. 

The Bourne Brook rises between the villages of Nave- 
stock ftnd Havering-atte-Bower, and flows in a wmding chan- 
nel past Romibrd (below which it receives a small brook 
from Homchurch), and between Dagenham and Hom- 
chuich Marshes into the Thames. Its length is about 12 
miles. In the lower part of its course the Bourne Brook is 
eonnected with the pool formed by Dagenham Breach. 
This breach was occasioned in 1707 by the blowing up of 
a small sluice that had been made for the drainage of the 
land waters : an opening was formed by the rushmg in of 
the Thames, 300 feet wide, and in some places 20 feet 
deep: 1000 acres of rich land in the adjacent levels were 
overflowed, and the surface of nearly 1 20 acres was washed 
into tlie Thames, where a bank was formed nearly a mile 
an length^ and extending halfway across the river. After 

various ineffectual attempts, the breach (which in course o« 
time had been, by the force of the reflux every turn of the 
tide, worn into several channels like the arms of a river) 
was stopped, by driving dove- tailed piles and other expedi- 
ents, under tne direction of Captain Perry, who com- 
menced his works in 1718. Within the embankment 
there is yet a pool of between 40 and 50 acres, where the 
soil was carried away by the tide. [Barking.] Through 
the upper part of this pool the Bourne Brook flows. 

The Ingerburn rises near Havering-atte-Bower, not far 
from the source of the Bourne Brook, and flows southward, 
past Upminster, into the Thames. It is about 12 mile^ 
long. A stream of about the same length, which rises close 
to Thomdon Park near Brentwood, falls into the Thames 
near Purfleet 

The Crouch rises on the slope of the hills, south of Bil- 
lcricay, and flows east by north about 25 miles into the sea. 
passing the villages of Kamsden Cray. Wickford, Runwell, 
and much lower down, the village of Bumham. The tide 
flows about 13 miles up the river and is kept from overflow- 
ing the low lands on its banks by mounds. In the tide- 
way there are many arms ; and the various channels by which 
the river communicates with the sea form the group of 
Foulness, Wallasea, and the adjacent islands. Just above 
its mouth it receives the Broom-hill river (10 miles 
long), which is navigable for seven miles nearly up to 

The Blackwater, which in the upper part of its course is 
called the Pant, rises near the village of Wimbish, three or 
four miles from Saffron Walden, in the north-western part 
of the county. It flows fii*st south-east and then south about 
30 miles, past Redwinter, Great Sampford, Little Sampford, 
Great Bardfield, Weathersfield, Shalford, Panfield. Booking. 
Stisted, (Joggesliall, Kelvedon, Great Braxted, and Little 
Bmxted, to the neighbourhood of Witham. Here it is 
joined hy the Pods Brook, a stream 14 or 15 miles long, 
wliich rises near Great BardAeld and flows past Rayne, 
Breintree, Black Notlcy, White Notley, Faulkbourn, and 
Witham. From the junction of this stream the Blackwater 
flows south about 4 miles to the junction of the Chelmer; 
after which it flows east about 12 miles into the sea, having 
a course of about 46 miles. From Maldon, which is below 
the junction of the Chelmer, it is a tide river ; and its lestu- 
ary, which is at high- water from 14 to 2} miles wide, contains 
the islands of Northey, Osey, Ramsey, and Pewit. Law- 
ling Creek and Goldhanger Creek are channels in the ooze 
or strand of this tideway. 

The Chelmer rises near Debden, two or three miles south 
of the sources of the Blackwater, and flows south-south-east 
about 23 or 24 miles to the town of Chelmsford, passing 
Thaxted, Tiltey, Great Easton, Dunmow, Great Waltham. 
and Little Waltham. At Chelmsford it is joined by a stream 
which rises near Thomdon Park and flows iu>rthward be- 
tween Billericay and Ingatestone to Widford and Writtle. 
and then turns east and runs into the Chelmer after a course 
of about 14 miles. From Chelmsford the Chelmer flo«^ 
east about 10 miles till it falls into the Blackwater near 
Maldon. Its whole course is about 34 miles. The Sandnn 
Brook, which rises near Stock, two miles north-east of Bil- 
lericay, and has a course of about 1 miles, joins the Chelmer 
between Chelmsford and Maldon. The Ter rises between 
Foisted on the Chelmer and Rayne on the Pods Brook, and 
flows south-east 13 or 14 miles into the Chelmer, which it 
joins about two miles below the junction of the Sandon 
Brook. It passes Little Leighs, Great Leighs, Terling, and 
Hatfield Peverel. 

The Colne rises in the north-western part of the county* 
between Great Sampford on the Pant, and Steeple Bump> 
stead on the Stour. It flows east about 7 mues to the 
neighboiurhood of Great Yeldham, where it is joined by 
another stream of nearly the same length. From this junc- 
tion it flows south-east 6 miles past Castle Hedingham 
and Sible Hedingham to Halsted ; and from thence east- 
south-east about 13 miles to Colchester. Below 0>lchester 
it becomes a tidewater and flows 8 or 9 miles south-east 
into the sea at the north-east end of Mersey Island, lu 
whole course is about 35 miles. 

The Roman rises about 2 miles north of Coggesliall 
on the Blackwater, and flows east by south about 13 miles 
into the tideway of the Colne, which it joins midway be- 
tween Colchester and the sea. A brook eight or nine miles 
long fh>m Layer Mamey and Layer Breton joins the Roman 
about three miles above its junction with the Colne, 




•oHbet ftf te ^ngwtahte nonld does Mt MnnBoniy Best im-, 
fliidittUlT oa Uie Lsodoa daf , frat on ailavial beds of neh 
marl aim loaaw which often alternate with gaml and aanil, 
and inuii riiim bate a thirkngaia of M or 40 fceC 

The laada and elKf% of th« pUatie elaf ftirBatioa skirt 
tha dwtriet of the Loodoo day oa the north-west. Haimed 
and CoggathaU, with the intermediate tract, are both on 
the fiaacie elay. The border of Eawx, near Hadkigh, is 
the moet oortherly point at which this formation haa been 

The novth-^aatem ezttemief of the eoonty, about Sofion 
Walden, canaiali af chalk: the great dialk district, in la 
extenaiofk from tovth-west to nerth-eaal^ jnat croaaea that 
part of the eomty. The chalk appears also at Purlleet 
and Gray'a Thnrrock. on the banks of the Thames. At 
the former place is an extenaive chalk-pit be]ona;iDsr to Mr. 
Whitbread. Gnn-Hinta are made at or near Purlleet. 
A tabierrancan forest nnderiiea the manhes on the banks 
of the Thames. 

Agriculiwre, The dimale of Essex is foroorable to vege^ 
tation : the sea and the numeroos astuahes which bouiid 
It on the sonth and east sofecn the rigour fA winter, and 
keep np a certain deface of moistore in sommer. The iame 
cause, however, prt^laees cold fogs and exhalations in 
spring and autumn, which are very prejudicial to the 
health of thcMc who are not inured to the climate. In con- 
MX|uence of this the most fertile portions of the county, 
which lie along the Thames and the sea coast, towards the 
Colne river, and which are usually called the hundreds of 
Eflsex, contain few scats of men of fortune ; and notwith- 
standing the richness of the soil, and the great advantage 
of the marshes for fecfling cattle, few men from other conn- 
ties venture to take farms in this part of Essex. This 
reproach to the climate of the hundreds of Essex is rapidly 
dimininhing, since the marshes have been better drained 
and the wuuds, which prevented the free circulation of the 
air and the dispersion of the fogH, have been gradually cut 
down, and the land brought into cultivation. The soil all 
alunff the coast, and 10 or 12 miles inland, is of a very 
excellent quality, being a friable luam of greater or less 
tenacity in diflerent parts, but peculiarly adapted to the 
cultivation of wheat, beans, and oats. The Isle of Mersey, 
which lies at the mouth of the Colne river, has been Ions 
noted for the fertility of its soil, which is a fine allunal 
loam composed of the various earths deposited from the 
river and the sea, like the warp lands along the H umber, 
or tlie polders in the NctherUiads. The whole island ia pro- 
tected by a sea-wall, and produces every kind of grain which 
is usually cultivated ; wneat, barley, oats, beans, and rape 
seed are the principal produce. Sir Humphry Davy found 
tliat the noil uken from Mersey Island ana dried recovered 
%U moisture from the aimospbere in less time than any 
other on which the experiment was tried ; and this gives 
perhaps a better measure of fertility than any chemical 
analysis of its constituent parts. The best soils oif Essex lie 
low, and require to be protected from the sea by embank- 
ments. Many marshes which formerly produced nothing 
but herbage, and were subject to inundations, are now oon- 
verted into arable fields ; and a gn*at tract of land all along 
the coast, which used to be covered by the sea at high 
tides, is now laid dry by proper deep and broad ditches, 
liere called fleets, and protected bv high and well-con* 
«tructed sea-walls, the repairt of wnich are a great ex- 
fiTfise to fhe proprietors. In some of these mushes the 
want of fresh water in summer was often felt severely. 
Hut lately recourse haa been had to boring, which has 
b^'en attendd with great success, especially in the marshes 
at 8t. 0«>th, where the finest uprings of water have been 
found, wliirh flf>w over the surface, and keep ample re- 
servoirs contmually full. The depth at which the water 
was found did not exeeerl fifty feet. This discovery greatlv 
fttrreases the value of these marshes in dry summer s, such 
as that of ]fi36. The soil in the uplands along the coast 
consists chiefly of good loams varyinj^ in tenacity from a 
strf>ng rUy ro a light ^vel ; most of it is of such a nattire 
an to bear bf«th turnips and beans. The stiffcst soils, as 
well aa the lightest^ which form the two extremes, are 
more intnnd* The whole county has an undulating sur- 
fscit, which is Vi'ry plrnning when fields and woods are in- 
lartpersed, as is vf^rv gcnernlly the case in this county. The 
only level tract is ttist along the Thames, which extends to 
Its month and along part rif the south-eastern coast. The 

of geotlo elovationa just tuificiont lo 

give agwatvapgtyef soil and lapart Thedayaoila* on 
the whole, prevail in moat parta of the coonty, and fimn 
this circumstance arises the nuidea of cnittvation and the 
mtationa of eropa which are moat cu ou m m ly adnptfd Tbere 
are very tern such light soils in Essex aa there are in Nor- 
folk and in Uneoinshire, and except on the bwd e ia of 
Hertfordshire and Gunbridireshize^ dmlk and nnrl are 

The cold wet days have given riae ta a laode of till.i^. 
which ia minutely descri b ed by Arthur Toong in hia * Vi«w 
of the Agriculture of this County, and held oat aa a pattc m 
for the cultivation of cold wet clays. It eonsists of repented 
plong^ia^s in spring mod, summer, and ezpoaora Id finoat in 
winter ; two thini^ no doobt, highly beneficial to stiff land. 
But since the introduction of extensive nnder^dnining and 
high manuring, much of the labonr of the banes m plough- 
ing and harrowing has been saved. The pecaliarity of i1k> 
E^x method, on stiff clays, was to work the fiiUows tvo 
winters for barley, daring which period the hmd was 
ploughed in ail directions eight or nine times, and even 
more, until it was sufficiently puHerned. The rotation waj» 
follow ; barley ; follow : wheat ; beans : that iB» two follov^ 
in five years. The beans were frequently omitted : so 
the land was alternately cropped and followed. No stock 
waa kept on the form, but a few cows for the nae of the 
fanner, and the horses required to plough the gnrand ; an<l 
the soil not being fovourable for artilic^ grassy very little 
manure coald be made except upon those fturms vhi^h 
have mazibas attached to them, which is not generally the 
case where the soil is the stifiest. There was eonaeqaently 
no sufficient manure for the land, and fidlows were un- 
avoidable to keep the soil in a moderate state of fiertility. 
From sixteen to twenty bushels of wheat per acre;, and from 
twenty-four to thirty of barley, was a common avem^'v 
produee on very good clays, which, with under-dramiit.: 
and proper manuring, now produce thirty-two of wheat and 
forty-eight of barley. The follows at the same time an* 
now removed to every fifth or sixth pmr. 

The present mode of ploughing in Essex is similar to thut 
of Norfolk and Suffolk; the ploughs most oommonlv m 
u.4e are Suffolk wheel-ploughs, or swing-plooghs without 
wheels. The great manufactory of th^e instnunents is 
that of Messrs. Ransom, at Ipswich, which diielly supph<^ 
the three eastern counties. In good loams, not too stiff, r»-i> 
horses are driven abreast with reins, whether the ploOi:h 
has wheels or not. In the very heavy wet days three burx*^ 
are used, who walk one before the other in the furruw. 
The object is that they may tread the land less ; but some 
very judicious agriculturists maintain that three hone» 
treading the bottom of the furrow render it quite imper- 
vious to water, and do more harm than if they had vnlke<i 
abreast over the land already plouj^ed, where they would 
only have trod in small cavities. This ia rather a new 
mode of viewing the subject, but it is worth considenng, 
and making triids to ascertain the real effect. 

After Inrvest the stubble is generally ploughed in, and 
before winter the field is laid in narrow ridges which an; 
formed by two turns of the plough, and sometimes by four 
turns, or two boats, as they are called. The plou^men axv.' 
expert in this, and lay the ridges very regularly, aometini«*» 
diagonally across the field, which has a good e&ct in 
dividing the soil more completely. In this form a greater 
suxfooe is exposed to the frost and air, and in spring it l^ 
mellow and crumbling, where in autumn it rose in an un- 
broken frirrow. If a faUow is intended to clean tlie landr it 
is ploughed at intervals, and the roots of weeds gathered 
and burnt; if it is not very clear of these by wheat-sovring 
time, it is put in ridges again till the next spring, by which 
time it is quite pulverixed, and fit to be manured for barlev 
and clover. If wheat is sown in autumn, the manure is put 
on before the last ploughing. 

The most common rotation on the stifiest clays which 
will not bear turnips is now l, follow; 2, wheat or barle> ; 
3, clover; 4, oats ori»4ieat ; 5, beans; and whore man ujx- 
is abundant, a second crop of wheat is taken in the sixth 
year before the course begins again. On the rich sM..iN 
which bear turnips the usual retation is turnips, harlo\, 
clover, wheat, beans, oats, or Wheat The manure is put on 
for the turnips and the beans: pease and tares are taken on 
part of the land, which otherwise would have had clover, 
and on that where the clover has ikiled. The mole plou|rh 
has been used with good effect in many stiff soila, but the 
treading of the horses when the ground ia soft, the only 




|riven under their respective names. Of the other towns 
we subjoin an account 

Billericay is in tho hundred of Barstahlc : »it appears in 
one antient record, under the name Beleuca, which is pro- 
bably a variation of tho old word Baleuga or Banleuga (in 
French Banlicu), the territory or precinct round a manor 
or borough. Hie town- stands on an eminence on the road 
leading mm London, through Brentwood, to Rochford and 
Southend. In Camden's time the market was considerable, 
but fo( a long time past it has been much decayed. The 
town has been much improved of late years by a number of 
good houses, and from its situation commands a beautiful 
prospect over the valley which extends southward to tho 
Thames. It is in tho parish of Great Burghsted or Bursted, 
tho church of which is about a mile and a half or two miles 
south of the town. There is a chapel in Billericay, sup- 
posed to have been founded in the fourteenth century : the 
tower, which is surmounted by a leaden spire, may be of 
that date, but the body of the chapel is of more modem 
origin. There are places of worship for Baptists, Inde- 
pendents, and Quakers. 

The inhabitants of the parish of Great Bursted, in 1831, 
were 1977, of which about two-fifths were engaged in agri- 
culture. There is a weekly market on Tuesday. There 
are scarcely any manufactures. The living is a vicarage, 
with the chapel of Billericay annexed. By tho Education 
Returns of 1 833, there were in the parish twelve day and 
five boarding-schools with 260 children, and two Sunday- 
schools with 171 children. One of the day-schools, with 
49 scholars, has a small endowment. There is a parish 
alms-house for poor women. 

At Blunts-walls, near Billericay, are some earth works, 
the remains of a ditch and rampart, enclosing an area of 
about four acres: within the area were some artificial 
mounds, now chiefly levelled. Some remains of Roman 
pottery, several Roman copper coins and two silver coins, 
line of Trajan and one of Adrian, have been found in the 

I^raintree is in the hundred of Hinckford, and on the 
north bank of Pod*s Brook ; it is on the high road from 
London to Norwich, through Bury, 40^ miles from London 
and 1 1^ from Chelmsford, the county town. Antiently the 
manor of Braintree, or, as it is terme<l in Domesday, Raines, 
comprehended the neighbouring parish of Rayne as well as 
that of Braintree : part of the lands in it belonged to the 
bishops of London ; it was alienated by Bishop Ridley at 
the time of the Reformation : the manor-house (long since 
destroyed) was an episcopal palace. The parish was dis- 
membered from that of Kavne, of which it was previously a 
hamlet, about the time of John or Henry III., the former 
of whom constitiitcd it a market-town. The growth of the 
place is to be ascribed to its situation on one of the high 
roads from London into Norfolk and Suffolk, and to the 
building of inns and lodging-houses for the reception of the 
numerous pHgrims to the shrines of St. Edmund at Bury, 
and our lady of Walsingham in Norfolk. At the Reforma- 
tion this source of its prosperity foiled ; but the town, and 
the adjacent village of Booking, obtained consequence by 
the settlement of me Flemings who lied fVom the tyranny 
of tho duke of Alba and established here the manufacture 
of baize and other light woollens, which for some time con- 
stituted the staple manufacture of the place, and is still 
carried on, though not to so great an extent as formerly. 

It will be desirable to consider, in connection with Brain- 
tree, the adjacent village of Booking ; for although Bocking 
Church and Church Street are a mile and a half from 
Braintree. and on the north-east bank of the Pant or Black- 
water, what is tenned Bocking Street is contiguous to 
Braintree, and the two form one continuous place, the main 
street of which covers two-thirds of the extent between 
Pod*s Brook and the river Pant, and stretches about a mile. 
Braintree consists of this street and of some others, formed 
by the intersection of the road ftom Bishop's Stortford and 
Dunmow to Coggeshall and Colchester, with the Norwich 
rood, and by the convergence at this point of bye-roads from 
the surrounding villages : there are some back streets or 
Sanes. The streets are inconveniently narrow ; and many 
of the houses are of wood, and of considerable antiquity. 
The church is on the right at the entrance of the town 
firom London ; it is large, built chiefly of flint, and mostly 
in tho perpendicular style of English architecture: the 
tower, at tho west end, is of early English, and is sur- 
mouDtwl by » lofty shiuglod apira of mu<^ latec date. This I 

church was enlarged in tho time of Henry VIH., the 
expense of the alteration being partly defrayed by the 
profits of three mysteries or plays performed in the church. 
There are places of woi-ship for Independents, Baptists 
Quakers, and Methodists. Bocking Church is remote from 
the town : it is spacious and handsome, and chiefly in tho 
perpendicular style ; the tower is lofty and well designed. In 
the neighbourhood of Braintree are the remains of an an- 
tient church, formerly the parish church. Some coins, 
sepulchral urns, and other Roman antiquities, have been 

The parliamentary returns for 1831 assign to the parish 
of Braintree an area of 2500 acres, 708 inhabited houses, 
and a population of 3422, about one-sixth agricultural: to 
that of Bocking an area of 3800 acres, 647 inhabited hou^ci. 
and a population of 3128, about one-fourth agricultural, 
giving an aggregate of 6300 acres, 1355 houses, and GjOo 
inhabitants. The woollen manufacture has been in a great 
degree superseded by that of silk and crape, which is carriejl 
on to a considerable extent. The market is on Wednesday 
for com, eg^, poultry, and occasionally cattle and Um* 
stock of all kmds. There are several fulling and corn tailU 
on the Pant. 

The living of Braintree is a vicarage, of the yearly vali.v 
of 212/., with a glebe-house, in the archdeaconry of Slidille- 
sex : that of Bocking is a rectory, of the yearly value of 
923/., with a glebe-house, in the peculiar jurisdiction of tin 
archbishop of Canterbury, being subject only to his juris- 
diction, or that of his commissary, who is called Dean (>f 

There is at Bocking an almshouse or hospital, originally 
for seven poor people, but now divided into nine teneuients. 
with an endowment from the benefactions of several indi- 
viduals. The returns made to parliament show that there 
were in the two parishes in 1833 twelve day or boa rdin- 
and day-schools (two of them with 255 to 275 scholars, en- 
dowed, and three others with 340 scholars, supported l>y 
subscription), containing 813 to 833 scholars; one dame ('t 
infant school, with 60 or 70 scholars; and four Sunda}- 
schools with 540 scholars. 

Coggeshall is in Lexden hundred, on tho northern 
bank of the river Block water, 44 miles frx)m London Iv 
Chelmsford, Witham, and Kelvcdon, where the Coggeshall 
road turns off from the Ipswich and Norwich road. It is> 
sometimes called Great Cfoggcshall, to distinguish it fruii 
the adjacent hamlet of Little Coggeshall. This town ha<* 1a 
some antiquaries been considered to be the Canoniura '•; 
Antoninus ; and several Roman remains have been fouji i 
in and about the town, but these are not deemed by otht^r> 
sufficient to prove anything more than that a Romish villa 
existed here. Morant, the historian of Essex, ascribes tli- 
origin of Coggeshall to an abbey, fotinded here in \14'1 )•. 
King Stephen and Maud, his queen, for Cistertian raf)i;k . 
To this abbev succeeding princes granted various privilo*: ■% 
among which was that of holding a market weekly. T. 
yearly revenue of the abbev at the dissolution was i£9S/. m 
gross, or 251/. 2*. clear, the town was formerly much c: 
gaged in the clothing trade, and was particularly famou^^f r 
a white baize of superior fabric, called Coggeshall Whiti-- 
The clothing trade has much declined for many vca^ 
past. ' 

The town is irregularly laid out, and the streets ar- 
narrow and ill paved. The church, at the north-eastern 
end of the to\ra, is a spacious and handsome building in th.' 
Perpendicular style of English architecture : the windov*, 
especially tho east window, are large and handsome: ihcr.' 
IS a large square tower at the west end. A small part . f 
the abbey is yet remaining; and near it is a bridge of thm 
arches, originally built by King Stephen over a cut made t • 
convey the water of the river nearer to the abbeyr-^ 
abbey has some good plain lancet windows, and the intefi 
has some good groining and windows, with shafts ; it ,i 
occupied as a farm-house. At Little Co^peshalU a hamlel 
of the town, half a mile south of it, said to have been onci 
a distinct parish, were formerly two churches, one of theri 
built by the monks of the abbey for their own use, the othoi 
the parish church : the former has been long demolishetl 
the latter, or what remains of it, is now used as a bari^ 
There are meeting-houses for Independents, Bai>tist< 
Quakers, and Methodists. *^ "* 

By the returns of 1831, the parish comprehended an are* 
of 2770 acres, and had 624 inhabited houses, with a ih> 
pulation of 32J7, about tvo-sovenths agrieultural. Thi 




Romford, Upinin&tAr, and Stifford. This little town con- 
sihts chiefly of one irregular street on a creek of the Thames, 
accessible to hoys and other small vessels. The chunh, 
near the north end of the town, is built in the form of i 
cross, with a tower on the north side. 

The area of the parish is 1570 acres ; the number of in> 
habited houses bv the census of 1831 was 243, the popula- 
tion (including that of the liberty of Lee, in East Tilbury 
parish, Barstiwle hundred), 1248. The population had 
greatly increased before the census, owine to the number 
of labourers employed in brick-making. The market is on 
Thursday, and is chiefly for the sale of oorn ; it is much 
i\'eouented : there is one yearly foir. 

The living is a vicarage of the yearly value of 160/., with 
a glcbc-house : it is in the archdeaconry of Essex. 

There were in 1833 eight day-schools, with 138 scholars, 
20 of whom G>oys) were educated from the proceeds of an 
endowment ; and two Sunday-schools, with 202 children. 

Tliere are two villages near this town which also bear the 
name of Thurrock : Little Thurrock, to the east of the town 
(population 302), and West Thurrock, to the west of the 
town (population 804). The chalk-quarries of Purfleet are 
in the parish of West Thurrock. In Little Thurrock parish, 
and in Chad well parish, which adjoins it, are some remark- 
able caverns or holes in the chiuk, to which tradition has 
nssigned the name of 'Cunobelin*s gold-mines.' It has 
UiHiU coiijtTtui'ed that they were granaries of the antient 
Brilons. Thcv are also called ' l>ane holes,* from having 
beon used by tnose invaders as lurking-places or receptacles 
for plunder. 

1 1 a1 .stud is in Hinckford hundred, on the north-east 
bank of the river Colne, and on the road from London by 
liury to Norwich, 46^ miles from London, and 17^ from 
Chclmsfurd. It is supposed that a market was established 
here in the Saxon times : a hill at the upper end of the 
tuwn. on wliich for several centuries it was neld, retains the 
name of Cheping hill. 

The town stands on the slope of a gravelly eminence, 
risihk; frum the river, and consists of the main street along 
the Norwich road, and some other streets. The church is 
near the centre of the town. It is a large edifice, capable 
of accommodating 1200 persons, and consisting of a nave, 
rbanrcl. and side-aisles, chiefly in the Perpenaicular Eng- 
lish 8t>lc: the chancel is in the Decorated style, with a 
good vk indow of five lights, and others of two lights. There 
is a ti»\(er at the west end surmounted by a wooden spire, 
the third that has been erected on the same tower, two 
])re\ ious ones having been destroyed by lightning. There 
nre places of worship for Independents, Baptists, and 
Quakers. There is a house of correction at Halsted. 

Tlie parish comprehends an area of 6230 acres ; and had, 
in 1831. 9^9 inhabited houses, and 4637 inhabitants: about 
ihrc'c'-ci^hths of the population was agricultural. The silk 
nianufactm'e is carried on to a considerable extent: the 
manufacture of baize and other light woollens has been 
discontinued. There is a market on Friday, one of the 
principal in the county for corn and occasionally for cattle 
and other live stock. Some hops are grown round the 

The living is a vicarage, of the yearly value of 390/., with 
a glebe-house, in the gift of the bishop of London : the 
minor canons of St. Paul's are the impropriators. There was 
a college of priests at Halsted before the Reformation ; the 
foundation was for eight, but it is doubtful tliere was ever 
the full number. The revenue at the dissolution was 26/. 
5s. Hfi. iier annum gross, or 23/. IBs. 5d. clear. 

There were in Halsted, according to the returns made 
to parliament for 1833, ten infant or dame schools, with 150 
s^'lioloi's ; four day-schools, one supported by voluntary con- 
tributions, containing 40 children, and three others with 
100 children ; and four Sunday-schools, with 695 scholars. 
There is a grammar-school, founded by Dame Mary Ramsey, 
for 40 poor chddren of Halsted and Colne Engain^ (a 
neighbouring parish), which is not distinctly mentioneil in 
the return. 

* At a house in this parish in a Greek inscription, brought 
frum a village near Smyrna, where it was erected one hun- 
dred and fifty years before Christ, to the honour of Crato, a 
musician.' iBfatthes qf Englattdaml IValeSn 1803.) 

Near Halsted are the remains of the antient manor- 
liouse of Stani»ted Hall. 

Manningtreu lh in the hundred uf Tendriug, on the 
natUMy of iba Stoui^ 60 iail«M k^n LuaiIod, through 

Chelmsford and Colchester. This place was antient ly 
known by the name of Sciddinchou ; the origin of its |ir*'- 
sent appellation, formerly written Many-Tree, is not know t.. 
It is a small place, irregularly laid out The church '•r 
chapel, built out of the ruins of a more antient one, whi<'h 
stood on a site not far removed firom that of the presi-nt 
building, was formerly very small, but has been lately cmi 
larged. There are meeting-houses for Independent .% 
Quakers, and Methodists. 

The parish, or rather the ohapelry, by the return of I "^ > i . 
comprehended only 30 acres, and had 241 inhabited houi»<><, 
and a population of 1237, a very small proportion of x\ hit )i 
was agricultural. Manningtree oppears to be the resid<Mi( t* 
of an unusual proportion of genteel families. A cousuU i 
able trade in malt is carried on ; and com. coal, deals, iic' . 
and fish are imported. The market is on Thursday. 

The living is a perpetual curacy, united with the retMuf \ 
of Mistley (of which parish the cbai)elry of ManningtrLi^ i« 
a dependency) and the vicarage of Bradfield. The whoic 
are of the yearlv value of 698/., with a glebe-house. They 
are in the archdeaconry of Colchester. 

The chapelry contained, in 1833, one national schni ). 
containing 223 children; and one Sunday-school, with ti<> 

Mistley is adjacent to Harwich. Mistley Hall, the **cn( 
of the Rigby family, is on a pleasant eminence in the nud-t 
of gardens and plantations elegantly laid out. On the bRiin, 
of the Stour is a quay with warehouses, at which con.^^nlc i - 
able trade in corn, malt, and coal is cairied on. The:»i; h- - 
long to the proprietor of the mansion. 

Ongar, distinguished as Chipping Ongar from anotli. t 
parish of the same name (High Ongar), is in Ongar Kmi. 
dred, near the right or west bank of the Roding, and tiu 
left or east bank of the Cripscy brook, just above the jutH- 
tion of these two streams: it is 21 miles from London b\ 
Woodford bridge, Chigwell, and Abridge; or 24 miles b\ 

A castle was built here by Richard de Lucy, one of tiio 
principal nobles of the time of Henry II.: the keep sttcKi 
on the summit of a lofty artificial mound. The castle having' 
become very ruinous, was, in the time of Queen Eiixabcti . 
pulled down, and a brick house was built by the then owmx 
of the place on the site of the keep. This house wuh lii- 
molished in 1744, and a large summer-house, of castoUatri 
architecture, built in its room. The moat which surroundt-l 
the keep, and other earthworks of the castle, still remain. 
The sides of the mound are planted with trees ani 

The town chiefly consists of one long and wide street, ex- 
tending from the bridge over the (^ipsey brook, up tic 
slope and along the brow of a hili. The church, which i- 
in a central situation, is a small neat structure: the Win- 
dows are remarkably small, so as to resemble the loop-h4>»-« 
of a castle. The church contains a monument of Jane, «.>.. 
of the daughters of Oliver Cromwell. Many Roman bnrk* 
have been worked into the building, and the foundations «s' 
Roman buildings are said to have been dug up in Uw 
churchyard. The principal road from Londinium (London » 
to Camulodunum (0)lchester) is supposed by some to hav^ 
passed this way, though others make it pass near or throu^'. 
Romford and Chelmsford. The town is within the an- a . : 
an antient entrenchment, which may still be traced ou it> 
different sides. It was anliently called Ongar ad Castru* i. 
perhaps with reference to this entrenchment There i:> uii 
Independent meeting-house. 

The area of the parish is 480 acres: the number of inh., 
bited houses in 1831 was 134, and the population 79 >» . ; 
which a small proportion is agricultural. The market > 
on Saturday. 

The hving is a rectory in the archdeaconry of Essex, •? 
the yearly value of 127/., with a globe-house. 

There were in 1833 nine boarding or day-schools, with U 
scholars; and two Sunday-schools, containing 95 cbililt^:i 
One of the day-schools is endowed. 

High Ongar, which is on the other side of the Rodin*^. i- 
a much larger parish than Chipping Ongar, and had, u. 
1831, a population of 1205, chiefly agricultural. 

Rochford is in Rochford hundred, on theBroomhill riwr 
which is navigable to within about a mile of the town. t< 
nailes from London through Romford, Brentwood, and Bilu 
ricay. The town consists principally of two streets runntiic 
one into the other in the form of the letter T: the liou><> 
are ill built: Iho market-house, which is of timber, fitaii^L 




mtny (genteel tuni\U» in tlio town. Tlie chief trade it in 
bnrluy and molt: tho market b on Saturday. Walden is a 
municipal though not a parliamentary borough. By the 
Municipal Reform Act the corporation consists of a mayor, 
four aldermen, and twelve councillors. The borough is co- 
extensive with the parish. 

The living is a vicarage in the archdeaconry of Colchester, 
of the annual value of 237/., with a glebe-house. Lord 
Bfaybrooko is jnitron and impropriator. 

There were in Walden in 1833 one infiuit school with 
70 children: two national schools, containing 124 boys and 
106 girls (with the addition of 10 boys on Sundays); a 
school for 26 boys and as many girls, chiefly supported by 
I^ord Braybrooke ; and six other day-schools with 212 cbil- 
dren ; and two Sunday-schools with 289 children. 

Walt ham Abbey, or UolyCro))s,is in the half-hundred of 
WaTtham, 1 2^ miles from London, a little to the right of 
the road to Ware, Roynton, and Huntingdon* It is on the 
river Lea (which m here separated into several channeb, 
M)ine of which flow through the town) near the junction of 
tlie (^bbin brook, which flows a short distance from the 
town on the east and south. 

The first notice of Walt ham occurs in the reign of 
Canute, whose .standard -bearer, Tovi, founded here a reli- 
gious house with two priests, probably secular canons of St. 
Augustine. The place derived sanctity and name (Holy 
Cross) from a cross with the figure of Christ upon it found 
at Montacute and transferred here, to which miraculous 
|)owers were ascribed. Harold, afterwards king of England, 
enlarged the foundation of Tovi, a.d. 1062, furnished it with 
ample endowments, increased the number of canons to 12, 
one of whom had the rank of dean, rebuilt the church, and 
established such a school of learning as the state of the 
uge admitted. When the unfortunate Harold fell in the 
battle of Hastings, a.d. 1066, his body, which had been 
given up to his mother, was brought to Waltham for inter- 
ment and his tomb erected. William the Concjueror treated 
the religious of Waltham harshly, and depnved them of 
their moveable valuables, but left their lands untouched or 
nearly so. In the reign of Henry II. (a.d. 1177) regular 
canons wore substituted for seculars, tho number enlarged 
to 10, the endowments of tho establishment augmented, 
and tho dignity of abbot conferred upon the head of it. 
Sul>(uH}uent monarchs favoure<l the establishment : Henry 
III. frofiuently resided in the abbey, and granted to the in- 
habitants of the village tho privilege of a market and a 
fair. Somo accounts make tho market more antient. In the 
reign of tliis king, a.d. 1242, the conventual church was 
again solomnly dedicated, the king and several of his nobles 
being present. The yearly revenues of the abbey at the 
dJKHdution were 1079/. \'ls. \d. gross, or 900/. As. 3d. clear. 

The town consists principally of one main street, running 
nearly east and west. The church, formerly part of the 
conventual church, is on the north side of the main street, 
near the centre of the town. As the conventual church it 
\\n% very extensive, conHisting of nave, transept, choir, and 
cluuiels. At the intersection of the transept, which may 
still be traced, rose tho great tower, which contained a ring 
of five bells. Part of this tower having fallen in, the re- 
nmindcr %ias blown up by underminers, and the whole choir, 
tower, transept, and cast chapel domoliHhed. The nave 
and some adjacent dmpels alone remained: the nave, with 
its side-aJMles, forms the hoAy of the present church. The 
extent of tho original fabric may lie entimated by the fact, 
that Harold's tomb, which was in tlio choir or in a chapel 
beyond it, stood about 120 feet eastwanl from the termina- 
tion of the present building. The church is about 90 feet 
in length, and in breadth, including the side-aisles, 48 feet : 
it in in the Norman style, with round massive piers (some 
of which have indents of wave and zig-zag lines), dividing 
the nave from tho sidoaiiilos ; nemicircular arches, and zig- 
sag enrichments. Tlie great arch of the cross, now walled 
up, is a \orv fine one. Above the arches dividing tho nave 
from the aule-aisl«*K are two other raiigiM or tiers of arches : 
lho»<e of the iecond tier correnpnnd in width to thoHc of the 
lomer, but are not of e^iual htught; the arches of the third 
tier are three to rnrh uirh of the lower ti<*rs, with a window 
• - • in the middle nrrh of the three. Tho roof in mo- 
liitle ornamenlod. The ^ide aihlcx ari*Hurniotmted 
jrii'M, eti'iUul ahuiit hnlf a century tv^o. At the 
(if the rhtirch in a hrnvy Mpmin ctii))uttl«'d stone 
li-ot hiL;h, iM'urtiig the thw IJO'i. From the south 
; church projects the Lady Chupel, now used as u 

vestry and school-room, under which is a fine erypt. An- 
other little chapel, at the south-east end of the cnurch, is 
now a repository for rubbish. These chapels have some 
beautiful and well-executed portions in the Decorated Eng- 
lish style. There are in the church various inserted wm- 
dows of different dates. The font is apparently very an- 
tient, and there is a fine wooden screen. The building ha» 
been much injured and its beauty deformed by dilapida- 
tion and alterations, but it is still well worthy of attenuun. 
Exclusive of the nave of the abbey church, the reiuauia 
of the abbey are but few. They consist of an entrance- 

rway, and bridge across an arm of the Lea, which bouii«!> 
enclosure of the abbey on the west side; some walK 
and a few vaulted arches in a garden belonging to the abUy 
farm. The refectory is reported to have stood eastward of 
the church ; and what is now the abbey (arm is said to have 
been antiently the stables. The gateway is in a diucIj 
later style of architecture than the church. .In the garde u: 
formerly belon^ngto the abbey, now occupied as a nurvcn- 
ground, is a tulip tree, reported to be the largest in Eng- 
land. There are at Waltnam Abbey meetiiig-hou2»cb lur 
Baptists and Wesleyan Methodists. 

The parish of Waltham Abbey is extensive, comprehend- 
ing 11,870 acres: it had, in 1831, 760 inhabited houses, and 
a population of 4104; but of these 344 houses and l^oj 
innabitants were in the three hamlets of Holyfield, Seward^ 
stone, and Upshire ; leaving for that part of the pari^h 
which contains the town 416 houses and 2202 inhabitants- 
only a small proportion of the population of the town di>b 
sion is agricultural ; but the greater part of the populaUon 
of the hamlets is so. The powder-mills belonging to (ro- 
vernment employ many hands : many are engaged in the 
printing of sUk handkerchiefs, and some in the manufac- 
ture of pins : some also, though not in the town division, arc 
engagea in throwing and spinning silk. The market is vu 

The living is a donative curacy, in the peculiar jurisd: lo- 
tion of the bishop of London: it is of the annual value uf 
237/. There is an almshouse for eight poor widows. 

There were in the year 1833 one infant school, with 1 lj 
children: three day-schools, viz., one endowed for 20 bo\> 
and 20 girls, one national school for 60 girls, and a school 
with 24 boys at High Beach, besides many small pri\u'c 
day-schools; one evening-school, supported by voluntar} 
contributions, with 42 boys; and four Sunday-schooU, viih 
310 children. 

Witham is in the hundred of Witham, and on the hi^'b 
road from London to Norwich by Ipswich, 38 miles furr.\ 
London. It is on Pod's Brook, just above the junction ol 
that stream with the Blackwater. 

This town is generally reputed to have been built hv 
Edward the Elder, but it is questionable if that prince chd 
more than restore a place that bears marks of having bi*cQ 
a Roman station. On Cheping Hill or Chipping Hill art 
the remains of a circular camp, with a double vallum. A 
quantity of Roman bricks are worked up in the tower and 
body of the church, and one or two Roman coins were dl^• 
covered in levelling the fortifications of the above-mentioned 
camp. From these indications it has been supposed that 
Witnam was the Canonium of Antoninus, which is placc^i 
by others near Kelvedon. 

The town consists of two portions: the larger portion 
consists of one main street along the high road and a 8h«trt 
street or two branching from it : the other portion, in wbirh 
is the church, is situated half a mile to the north of the prin- 
cipal part, on Cheping Hill, mentioned above. There i-^ iw 
kind of manufacture carried on ; but the trade of the place 
arises from the wants of the neighbourhood, and its situa- 
tion on a great public thoroughfare. Several genti** I 
families reside in the town ; and a mineral spring, Withur.i 
Spa, attracted some years since, and perhaps stdl attracts, 
visiters in the summer. The church is a tolerably lan^ 
building, containing some antient monuments. There au 
places of worship for Independents, Baptists, Quakers, ari>l 
Catholics ; and several almshouses, but none very extensi> v 
or richly endowed. 

Tho parish comprehends an area of 3280 acres; and haL 
in 1831, 652 inhabited houses, and a population of 2736, of 
which less than a fifth was agricultural. The market is on 

lite lining is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Colchester, 
of the yearly value of 473/., with a glebe-house, in the git^ 
of tho bishop of London. 




Raleigb or Ri^leigli is in Rochford hundred, 34 miles 
from London. It was, at the time of the Domesday sur- 
vey, one of the numerous lordships of Suene, who, having 
joined the Con(|ueror at an early period, was allowed to re- 
tain his possessions. He built a castle here, of which some 
earthworks yet remain, consisting of a mo,und with an oval 
base, surrounded by a double ditch and embankments. The 
village stands on an eminence, and has, at the upper end, 
the church, an edifice principally in the Perpendicular style, 
with some portions of an earlier date : the tower has a short 
spire and a staircase turret battlementcd. The Baptists 
have a place of worship here. When Morant wrote, a weekly 
market was held at Rayleigh : it is now given up. There 
is a cattle fair. The population of the parish in 1831 was 
1339, chiefly agricultural. The living is a rectory of the 
yearly value of 774/., with a glebe-house, in the archdeaconry 
of Essex. 

Thaxted is in the hundred of Dunmow, 44 miles from 
London by Harlow, Hatfield Broad Oak, and Dunmow. 
This is a very antient place, and probably existed in the 
time of the Saxons. It was incorporated by charter of 
Philip and Mary, and its government vested in a mayor, 
bailin:}, and chief burgesses ; but the corporation becuime 
extinct ia the time of James II., the corporate otiiccrs 
having retired from their offices on being: served with a Qtw 
Warranto, The town is irregularly laid out; its chief 
ornament is the church, which is in the centre of the town, 
and is one of tho tlnest in the county. It is mostly in the 
Perpendicular English style, and consists of a nave and 
chancel with side aisles, transept, and tower at the west 
end. The nave is not so wide us either of the side aisles, 
from which it is separated by eii^ht clusterud pillars on each 
side with pointed arche^i. The windows are mostly largo, 
and many of them are ornamented with tracery and painted 

5 lass, but the latter is much broken and otherwise defaced, 
'he north and south porches arc richly ornnniented with 
sculpture. The tower u sustained by buttresses, and is em- 
battled, and terminated with a very rich crocketted spire, 
supported by flying buttre.-scs. Most of the buttresses of 
the aisles have fine pinnacles, and are enriched with pan- 
neling. Tho height of the tower and spire is 183 feet, 
which is also the length of the church: the breadth of the 
church is b? feet. It is supposed to have been built in the 
fourteenth centur)*. There are at Thaxted meeting-houses for 
Quakers, Independents, and Baptists. There is a free gram- 
tnar-school, which contained, in 1 b33, 30 boys on the found- 
ation and 3U others whose education was paid for by their 
parents. Upon the same foundation 20 girls were educated 
at another school. 

Tlie population of Thaxted parish (which comprehends 
5890 acres) wa% in 1S31, -2293, more than half agricultural. 
The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Middlesex, 
of the vearly value of 450/., with a glebe-house. The mar- 
ket, which had been long disused, was revived about the 
close of the last century, but was not much attended, and 
has since been again discontinued. Tliere arc two fairs in 
the year. There are several almshouses in the place, and 
the benefactions to the poor have been very considerable. 
Near Thaxted is the antient hall, Iloreham-hall, the seat of 
Sir William Smith: it is a castellated gothic mansion partly 
covered with ivy. 

Beside the above, which have been market towns, there 
are several other villages which, from their importance, call 
for notice. 

Ashdon, the parish of which, including the hamlet of 
Bartlow End, had, in 1831, a population of 1103, is in the 
half hundred of Freshwell, three miles from Sufiron Wal- 
den. It is supposed by some to have been the scene of a 
dreadful battle fought between Edmund Ironside and Ca- 
nute ; but the battle was more probably fought at Assingdon 
in the hundred of Rochford. At Bartbw hills, in the parish 
of Bartlow, Cambridgeshire, two miles north of Bartlow 
church, four contiguous barrows have been regarded as the 
tumuli raised over those who were slain in this battle, but 
this rest.s on tradition only. 

Brightlingsey (population in 1831 1784) is on the sostu- 
wy of the Colne, in Tendring hundred. The inhabitants 
are engaged in the oyster fishery. The parish forms a pe- 
ninsula, surrounded by the marshes of the Colne and its 
inlets, except on the north-east side, where is the only en- 
trance to the parish, except by a ford. The church is near 
this entrance, the village is a mile distant nearer the sea. 

Morant speaks of an establishmont fbr preparing copperas 
here, and the ' copperas house* is marked in the Ord nance 
Survey. Brightlingsey is a member of Sandwich in Kent, 
one of the Cinque Ports. The population has nearly doubled 
within the present century. 

Burnham is in Dengie hundred, on tho north bank (f 
the sstuary of the Crouch, which has here a depth of wat^r 
sufficient for a ninety-gun ship. It had a good street in- 
wards the river and a commodious quay. The church .* 
nearly a mile from the village. The population, iu 1 ^ : ! . 
was 1393: the inhabitants are engaged in the uy-u: 

Chigwell liesbetu'een Epping and Henhault forests : fr<n, 
Chigwell Row, on the border of the latter, a most exteii»;\L' 
view is obtained over the south of Essex and the Thatric^ 
into Kent. There is an endowed grammar-school which, ii: 
1833, had six scholars, and another endowed school wrt. 
sixty boys. Population in 1831, 1816. 

Tho Hams are in Becontree hundred, and in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of London. West Ham parish oviu 
Eies the south-west corner of the county, and is bouo^i' '. 
y the Thames and the Lea, by which it is respoctixc \ 
separated from the counties of Kent and Middlesex. It ,« 
divided into four wards: All Saints, Church Street, Phi:>- 
tow, and Stratford. West Ham had formerly a market. U.- 
charter for which was procured in the thirteenth centur* 
There was formerly at Stratford Langthorn, in this purvjt. 
an abbey for Cistertian monks. The abbey having beioun- 
dilapidated from the Hooding of the marshes, amid whu li r 
was built, the monks were removed to Burgeste<le (»»•<• 
Burstead), near Billericay, until 'one of the Richards, kii .^ 
of England,' (probably Richard 11.) repaired the abbey .uil 
brought the monks into it again. In 1307 the abbot ^ -^ 
summoned to parliament. At the dissolution the yeuu; 
revenues of this house were estimated at 573/. 159, 6d, gn -% 
or 511/. 16j. 3d. clear. The chief remains now existing • f 
the conventual buildings are a brick gateway, the entrai:'* 
to the precincts, and an ornamented arch in the Early £i>:: 
lish style, which appears to have been the entrance to f - 
chapel: they are nearly half a mile south-west of t. >• 
church. The site of the precincts was moated and contaiiL . 
about sixteen acres. West Ham church consists of a n:i\»- 
and chancel, and side aisles to both : it is large, butnotd.>- 
tini^uished for its architecture. 

Stratford, which is one of the wards of this parish. ! r-^ 
along the road to Homford, Chelmsford, &c., and ma} • 
regarded as a prolongation of the suburbs of the metrup* ..-. 
being joined to it by an almost continuous line of buildinjv 
constituting the village of Bow, and the hamlet of M.i 
End in Middlesex. A new church has been lately erec- 
here. The Newmarket road branches off fcom the Cheii.. - 
ford and Colchester road at Stratford. 

The population of West Ham parish was in 1831 11,;.- • 
of which less than one-sixth was agricultural. A con^i-^ r 
able number of the inhabitants are labourei-s, emplo}*.*: ' 
the East and West India docks at Poplar and Blac'kv :1 
Calico and silk dyeing and printing are extensive!} rarr ■ . 
on: chemicals are manufactured, and porter is breuc' 
The West Ham water- works supply the eastern subiirU ( 
the metropolis with water. Several of the wealthier iii..»- 
bitants of London have residences at West Ham. 

The living of West Ham is a vicarage, in the anhtl-. :- 
conry of Essex, and in the git\ of the crown: its \e.. . 
value is 875/. There are several dissenting meVii:.^ 

There were in this parish in 1833 two infant gcln- \ 
partly supported by contributions, with 150 children ; ti.r. 
endowed aav-schools, with 257 children, some of \%l! . 
were clothed; a national school, partly supported by cixIk • 
ment and subscription, with 50 boys; a school ^ith , 
children, supported by contribution by Roman Catb.<l.-- 
another of 10 children, supported by Dissenters; aiid .. 
other school of 120 children, partly supported by con n • 
tions; and four Sunday-schools, with 390 childix»n. T* ^ 
were also many private boarding and day schools, cvm:. 
ing 488 children. 

East Ham parish joins that of West Ham. The cln;r 
consists of a nave with two chancels; the upper chai: 
which forms the eastern extremity of the chiu-t h, is -. 
circular at the east end, and has narrow pointed wind ' 
Part of the walls of the nave and lower chancel are m . 
Norman style, as is the lower part of the tower ; but ' _ 




•walloved up by the tea nining on the Und. Morant, 
writing near ihe middle of Uie lant century, says, ' it had a 
church, or chapel of ease, the remains of which were visible 
not long ago at low-water mark.* The village consists of 
two streets, on the slope of a hill, forming a right angle 
with each other, and havine the church at the vertex on the 
summit of the hfll. The church has a nave and chancel, a 
side aisle running the whole length of the building, and of 
nearly equal breadth with the nave. There is a fine western 
tower (in the Perpendicular English style) embattled, with 
strong buttresses and rich ninnacles : fh)m its height and 
lofty situation it is a gooa sea-mark. There was once a 
priory of Cluniac monks here, cell to an alien prioiy of the 
same order at Lewes, in Sussex, but afterwaras made 
independent: its yearly revenue at the dissolution was 
194/. Mf. 3d, gross, or 155/. Us. 2d, clear. 
^ Southend is a hamlet of Prittlewell. It is pleasantly 
situated on the side of a wooded hill, and is in some repute 
as a bathing-place. The terrace, in what is commonly called 
New Southend, or the upper town, is a handsome range of 
buildings. There are a good hotel, an assembly-room (beside 
one at the hotel), a theatre, and a library, the last some- 
what in the Gothic style. There is an Independent meet- 
ing-house. The population of the whole parish of Prit- 
tlewell was, in 1831, 2266 ; nearly half agricultural. 

Stansted Montfichet is 32^ iwles from London, on the 
Newmarket road, partly in Clavering half hundred, and 

I»artly in Uttlesford hundred. It consists mainly of a 
ong straggling street. The name, Stansted, is supposed 
to be corrupted from Stone Street, the name of a Roman 
way, on or near which it stood ; the epithet Montfichet 
was the surname of William Gemon, to whose father Uie 
lordship had been given by the Conqueror, and who built 
a castle here ; the artificial mound on which the keep was 
built yet remains. It may be doubted whether the place took 
its name from the builder of the castle, or vice versa: popu- 
lation in 1831, 1560. 

The Sokens, including Kirby le Soken, Thorpe le Soken, 
and Walton le Soken, are in Tendring hundred: these 
parishes are for ecclesiastical purposes consolidated, and 
form a benefice in the diocese of London (exempt from 
the archdeacon's jurisdiction), of the annual value of 513/., 
with a glebe-house. The word Soken is derived from 
the Saxon Soc, or Soca, si^i^ing a peculiar power to 
administer justice within itself, and likewise the circuit 
within which such power was exercised. These villages 
possess some peculiar immunities, to which they owe their 
designation. They comprehend the promontory of the 
Naze, which formerly extended much farther to the west, 
but has been contracted by the encroachment of the sea. 
Ruins of buildings have been discovered under the water, 
particularly on a shoal called the West Rocks, nearly five 
miles from the shore, which is left di^ at great ebbs The 
spot where the ruins are found is distinguished by the name 
or The Town. The wall thrown up to keep out the sea 
gave name to Walton parish. There is a church in each 

Krish ; that at Thorpe is the largest. There is also a 
ptist meeting at Thorpe, and a customary market is held 
there on Wednesday evening. Walton having the recom- 
mendation of a firm and extensive beach, has been resorted 
to fcr bathing by invalids from the eastern parts of Essex. 
The population of the three parishes in 1831 was as follows: 
—Kirby 972, Thorpe 1 173, Walton 469 ; total 2614. 

Walthamstow, is in Beoontree hundred, a little to the left 
of the Newmarket road, about 6 miles from London, between 
the marshes of the Lea and Epping Forest It contains a 
number of good houses usually occupied by persons engaged 
in business in London ; but Walthamstow is not so much 
resorted to by these as formerly ; its population has there- 
Ibre diminished. The population in 1831 was 4258; above 
a third were employed in agricultiure. The church pos- 
sesses no architectural beauty. There are copper and oil 
mills in the parish. Wanstead, in the same neighbourhood, 
is a Tillage occupied, like Walthamstow, by persons doing 
business m London ; it is much smaller however, containing 
in 1831 only 1403 inhabitants. Wanstead House, formerly 
the seat of Earl Tylnev, was one of the finest residences in 
the county of Essex. It was pulled down a few years since, 
and the materials sold. The park is let out in portions for 

5 ruing of cattle. A tesselated pavement of considerable 
imenskms, and several other Roman antiquities, were dug 
upinthejear 1735. 

Wivenboe is in Lisdon hundred* 4 miles from Col- 

chester and 55 from London. It is on the north-aut banli 
of the river Colne, just at the junction of the Ronoan. 
The village is on the slope of a hill, and commands m plea- 
sant prospect down the river. Wivenhoe has a commoaious 
quay and a custom-house ; it may be considered as the port 
of Colchester. The population of the parish in 1831 wa^ 
1714, of which about one-fourth was agricultural. The 
living is a rectory, of the yearly value of 37 1 /., with a glebe- 

Woodford is in Beoontree hundred, 8 miles from Lon- 
don on the Newmarket road. It is a long straggling place 
with a number of good houses, inhabited by mercnant^ 
and tradesmen from London. The population in 1831 was 
2548, of which about one-fourth was agricultural; iLe 
number of inhabitants had materially diminished since the 
previous census. The church is a modem erection, but in 
the antient English style. A group of houses about a mile 
north from the main part of the village takes the name of 
Woodford Wells, from a mineral spring, now in little re- 

Writtle is a large village, in Chelmsford hundred, about 
3 miles west from the town of Chelmsford. It was for- 
merly a market-town, but dwindled as Chelmsford rose into 
importance. Morant was incHned to place the Cfeesaromagu^ 
of the Itineraries here ; but there is no proof of its haviug 
ever been a Roman station. King John is said to ha>v 
had a palace here, and a square plot of ground, with a mo£t 
round it, in which the foundations of a building were du,; 
up about the middle of the last century, is thought to ha\e 
been the site of it The church contains a number of 
monuments, some of them elaborate and elegant. There 
was, before the Reformation, a hermitage in this parish, 
attached to St. John*s Abbey, Colchester. The population 
in 1831 was 2348, nearly two-thirds agricultural. 

There are several large villages in Essex beside those 
already noticed. Four (Dagenham, Finchingfield, Horn- 
church, and Great Waltham) had, in 1831, alMve 2000 in- 
habitants; five others had above 1500; and nineteen othcn 
had more than 1000. 

Divisions for Ecclesiastical and Legal Purposes. — Es<ei 
constitutes the largest part of the diocese of London, whi< h 
is in the ecclesiastical province of Canterbury ; and is di- 
vided between the three archdeaconries of Colchester. 
Essex, and Middlesex. The office of rural dean has btvr. 
disused for many years ; the county is, however, still di- 
vided into deaneries, which are thus arranged. 

The deaneries of Colchester, Lexden, Tendring, Newport* 
and Sandford constitute the archdeaconry of Colchcj»:c>r. 
The deaneries of Barstable, Barking, Chafford, Chelmsfortl. 
Dengie, Ongar, and Rochford constitute the archdeaconry 
of Essex. The deaneries of Dunmow, Harlow, and Hedinv;- 
ham constitute part of the archdeaconry of Middlesii. 
which extends beyond this county. 

The number of benefices we cannot exactly give. Tii^ 
Population Returns for 1831 contain the names of 4i'< 
parishes and 4 district chapelries (Basildon, Brentwoi^Ni. 
Carney Island, and Epping), together 413 benefices ; but 
of these three (Bures, Haverhill, and Keddingtonor Kittoi.i 
are mostly in Suffolk; and Ballingdon or Brundon (an- 
tiently Berington) is for ecclesiastic purposes united to 
the parish of All Saints, in Sudbury. The parislies <{ 
Booking, Stisted, Latchingdon-with-LAwling, and Soutb- 
church are in the neculiar jurisdiction of the archbishop of 
Canterbury. Of the above parishes, 16 are in the borough 
and liberties of Colchester, 2 in the borough of Harwich, 
and 3 in that of Maldon. 

Morant, in his History of Essex, gives the following as 
the number of churches and chapels. In the azchdea* 
conry of Colchester, 161 ; in that of Essex, 175; in that 
of Middlesex, 83 ; peculiars 4 ; total, 423 : but this, i.o 
doubt, includes chapels of ease, or non-parochial chapcU. 
In Gorton's Dictionary the number of parishes is given -t 
405, which agrees with the number in the Population Re- 
turns, deducting the three which are mostly in Suffolk, and 
that of Ballingdon, which is ecclesiastically united to a 
Suffolk parish. Lewis's Dictionary gives the number cf 
parishes at 400. of which ^50 are rectories, 134 vicaragv-, 
and the remainder perpetual curacies. 

Dissenters are numerous in Essex, especially the In 
dependents; nearly all the towns and many of the vilUij;v>j 
have con{;regations of this persuasion, and some of ti:e 
congregations are very large. The Baptists have also manv 
meeting-houses; the Wetleyans, we believe, not to manv \ 

E S ft 



RomaA road iru lbnn«rly Tisible; at Watsoe bridge, be- 
tween Birdbiook and Steeple Bnmpstead parishes, near the 
Btour, where is a Roman camp ; and at Great Chesterfbrd 
(near Saffron Walden), which was undoubtedly the site of 
a Roman station. Antiquaries hare sought to identify this 
station with the Camboricum or Iciani of Antoninus ; but 
it is Tery difficult to reconcile its site with the distances of 
the Iter y. of Antoninus, in which it is mentioned. 

Colchester appears to have been, in the latter period of 
the Roman dominion, the seat of a bishop's see. Adelfius, 
the bishop of Colon or Colchester, assisted at the coun- 
cils of Aries, aj). 314; Sardica, a.d. 347 ; and Ariminum, 
A.D 359. 

When the Saxons established theraseWes in Britain, 
Essex, with some parts of Hertfordshire and Middlesex, 
constituted a small kingdom, the possessors of whieh were, 
from their relative situation, called the East Saxons ; from 
them the county has derived its present designation. Mid- 
dlesex also, it may be observed, owes its name to its situation 
betNveen the East and West Saxons; although it never had 
the rank of an independent kingdom. 

Essex, according to Morant, was part of the territory ex- 
torted from Vortigern or Gwrtheym (a.d. 477) by Hengist, 
a chieftain whose fame, like that of other heroes in semi- 
fabulous periods, seems to have been augmented by the 
achievements and acquisitions of others of inferior reputa- 
tion. Mr. Turner {Hist, qf Anglo-Saxons), with better 
judgment refers the foundation of the kingdom of Essex 
to a later period (a.d. 530), and to a leadert whose name he 
dues not give, but who is elsewhere called Eichenwin. 
Morant supposes this Erchcnwin to have revolted from 
under the weak government of Octa, king of Kent, without, 
so fur as appears, any reason except that he had originally 
included Essex in the conquests of Hengist, and therefore 
in the kinpdom of Kent This kingdom of Essex gra- 
dually extended across the Lea into Middlesex and Hert- 
fordshire, and comprehended Loudon, then a flourishing 
tradinf^ place, and which appears to have become the capital 
of the East Saxon kingdom. The successor of Erohenwin 
was Sledda, and the successor of Sledda Saebyrht or Sabert. 
The latter was the nephew of iKthelbyrht or Ethelbert, 
kin^ of Kent, the first of the Saxon urinces that embraced 
Christianity, and was in subjection to his uncle, at that time 
tlie most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Saebyrht em- 
hrarrd Christianity; the episcopal church of St. Paul in 
London was fbunded by iEthelbyrht, and Mellitus, who had 
btton sent from Rome to assist the missionary St. Augustin 
in evangelizing England, was appointed bishop of Essex, 
into which kingdom he had been sent as missionary bv 
Augustin. Saebyrht himself founded the abbey and church 
of Tborney, afterwards called, fVom its situation with re- 
spect to St. Paul's, West Minster (a.d. 604-6 1 1). We notice 
these events because, though not immediately connected 
with the county of Essex, they are among the most impor- 
tant occurrences in the scanty annals of the East Saxon 

Upon the death of Saebyrht (a.d. 616), Saxred, Si ward, 
and Sigebriht ascended the throne, and reigned conjointly: 
they restored Paganism and persecuted Christianity, and 
appear to have been killed together about a.d. 623. Sige- 
briht the Little reigned after them trotn a.d. 623 to 653 ; 
and after him reigned Sigebriht or Sigeberht the Good, 
who, beinjj converted by his friend Oswy, king of Northum- 
berland, whom be used frequently to visit, and baptized by 
Finan, bishop of Lindisfarne, restored Christianity m Essex, 
and sent for some Northumbrian monks to come and in- 
sn-uot his subjects. Codd, one of these, was consecrated 
bishop of the East Saxons (a.d. 653). Sigebriht was assas- 
sinated two years aAerwards (a.d. 655). The subsequent 
kinj(s of Essex wore as follows: — Swithclm, Sibbi, and 
Sighere; the latter died a.d. 683, and Sibbi turned monk 
a.d. ()94: Sigehard and Senirid: Offa, whu went to Rome, 
and turned monk, a.d. 707: Suebricht, called Selicd by 
Koino, but erruncously : Swithred was reigning a.d. 75S. 
'J*hi')i) were a few others, whose very names are unknown. 
The dates are from Morant chietiv, but in so uncertain 
und confuftod a period they cannot bo relied on as very 

In A.D. fl23, Egbert of Wessex, who had just gained over 
Boornwulf of Mercia that victory which established the 
permanent supremacy of Wcsscx over the other kingdoms 
-' tbo Octarchy, despatched his son Ethelwulf and the war- 1 

like Btatesman Balstati or Alstan, bishop of Sherboume, 
into Kent and Essex ; and these kingdoms, whidi had sunk 
into mere dependencies of Merda, were subdued, and pro- 
bably united under the designation of the kingdom of Kent, 
occupied by Ethelwulf as subordinate to his fkther, and of 
which mention is occasionally made in the history of Ethel- 
wulf and his sons,- until the reign of Alfred, by whom the 
Saxon kingdoms were finally incorporated ; and England, 
with the exception of those parts which were occupied by 
the Danes or retained by the Britons, was consolidated under 
one sceptre. 

When Alfred, after the recovery of his throne, assigned 
to the piratical Northmen, or Danes, a settlement in an^l 
about East Anglia (a.d. 878), Essex was included in the 
ceded territory. One or two of the naval conflicts between 
the ships of Alfred and those of the piratical Danes « ho 
continued to infest the coast, were fought off the £s»cx 
shore. Thirteen or sixteen sail of Danish vessek were 
destroyed in the mouth of the Stour, near Harwich (a d. 
884); but the victorious fleet was destroyed near the 
Thames mouth by some ships fitted out by the colonists of 
East Anglia in violation of their engagements with the 
king. On the death of Godrun (a.d. 690) Essex returne'l 
under the government of Alfred, who appointed Bertheolf 
earl of the county. When Hastings invaded England, a.i>. 
894, and the main part of his army had been defeated at 
Famham, in Surrey (a.d. 894), part of the fugitives escaped 
over the Thames and marched across Middlesex and Es^ex 
pursued by Alfred, until they crossed the Colne and found 
refuge either in Mersey Island (Turner), or more probably 
in the peninsula of Brightlingsea (Breklesey, Speed, Mo- 
rant), where some of their ships had come, and where the 
king had not any navy at the tinie to press the siege. 
Alfred in person, and afterwards when he was called away, 
his generals, maintained a close bloekade on the land side, 
and at last the Danes sued for peace and agreed to retire fn'ia 
England ; but instead of doing so, they hastened to join Hun- 
tings, who, with another part of his ^ces had, in the mean 
time, landed at South Bemlleet, or Benfleet, in Essex, on 
the rostuary of the Thames, and built a fort there. In tht^ 
absence of Hastings, the Londoners and the troops who had 
blockaded Mersey, stormed his fort, took his wife and t^io 
of his children prisoners, recovered a quantity of plunder, 
and broke up and burned many of his ships, or carried them 
away to London and Rochester. The wife and children of 
Hastings were loaded with presents by Alfred and st-nt 
back to the piratic chief; but his hostility was not thereby 
softened. He erected another fortress (of which lar<^e 
traces appear still to remain) at South Shoebury, in E^sex. 
a few mites from his fbrmer one. With his main army h^* 
crossed the island to the Severn ; but was compelled tu 
return with baffied and weakened forces. Before the wintiT 
came on he assembled another army, and marched to 
Chester and into North Wales; but being every wherv 
watched by the vigilance of Alfred, be marched bark 
through Northumberland and Mercia to Mersey Island, tn 
Essex, the coast of which he always chose for his strong- 
holds, and in which he seems to have wished to establish a 
kingdom. Ultimately the Danish chief was compelled tu 
abandon England aAer three years of incessant hostihry 
(a.d. 894—896), and Essex returned peaceably under tlie 
West Saxon sway. 

After the death of Alfred (a.d. 901), and the choice <f 
Edward the Elder as his successor, iEthelwald, or Ethvl- 
wold. son of Ethelbriht or Ethelbert, Alfred's elder brother, 
claimed the throne, and having taken to a piratical life, an^i 
obtained foreign aid, returned and subdued Essex. Tho 
subsequent death of the invader in battle (a.d. 905) put an 
end to the strife, and restored Essex to the sway of Edward, 
who subsequentlv rebuilt or fortified Witham (a.d. 9I3>, m 
order to bridle the rebellious temper of. the Danish colo 
nists ; and some years after (a.d. 920) fortified Maldon. In 
A.D. 921 he took by storm Colchester, which the Danes, with 
whom he was now at war, had held, and strengthened the 
place by repairing the fortifications; he alsio defeated an 
attack of the Danes upon Maldon. 

In A.D. 991. in the reign of Ethelred II., Essex was agnin 
the object of Danish attack. A large force landed and 
attacked ^swich, in Sufiblk, and marching from thence i.» 
Maldon, defeated and slew the governor, or earl of fhtr 
county, who had collected some forces td oppose tbt?m 
they were bought off by the payment of a large wm. In 




iTc a 0treagthtemei br bnek 
Icaftii of tbe <9rigTsai «r voodra pnt of the ckoreii ■ i9 
fKt'fec^ bT 14 hrad, aad H ^^^ ^ <!>« fpnns of thenoC 
vkrb m tiiedL aod boC w antKut at the s^d^ 'Little 
Maplcsfcad €ii..irii (Bear Halsted) k a bsf^iui^ of great 
Btcreft, birn^ tiie htett of the fcv rovDd chnrHws m the 
kingd/ra : It it of pcre PrcorateH diancter, and to details 
fiAA, b^t TCfT nod.* The chancel ccd of thi» chorch u 
alio iciBJnrcalar, and m profaabiT the latert crectiaii of that 
i»m in Eo^iaBd. The diioMter of the cirmlar pait is 
aboot 2$ feet <ct 34 feet arcordm^ to othen) : it has a pe- 
riitf le of lix clustered eoiaans, sapportio^ pointed arches: 
the vho4e len^h of chorch and chaneel is aboat 64 feet 
South OdLendoo church, near the Thnrrocks* has a nmid 
lover* each as WMf be commoahr seen in NodUk, but boC 
m«'*h eL««ahe.e : it has aa etabonOeiy aad Tariooslj ca- 
nehed Norman door : Coii ingh aiB and some otha* churches 
hare Noixiia i»rt»a*. 

When the Cathoiic reiision resained a temporary pre- 
doaiBacee orer the Reformation nndcr Marj L, the pene- 
cuiton was wegjwtw^m in Eawx. Serenteeo persons (ire 
of then women) were bomt at Colchester, and one died in 
prisoii; aad two persons (one a woman) were bnmt at 

The Tear 1571 was remarkable for the settlement of the 
Flemish refii^ees at Colchester; ther introduced the 
woollen manu^cture into that and seTcral other towns in 

mad itm 


which laj ia the rfscr to 

of hetweea two and three 
dK rofalists w«iB forced 

it Beeeamrr la nahe aa fxa mat e of the'lcadefs jf 
this rising, and beinr mTfinaed hf the dcCenaiaation nf 
a eooncil of war« otueied Sir Qarles Locas* Sir Goorfe 
Lisle, Sir Bernard Gascoigne, aad Cofead Fvre to be 
dacated the day Ae town was giwea api Fanw had 
escaped; Gascoigne^ who was a FkircBtiaa^ was tew icf eJ ; 
bat the other twa were ihal aader the walk of Golchester 

Ia AJL 166i and 1M6 Colcheiter safced se^neraly frtnn 
the pla^^ae. In the ahorenamed yean 4731 penons died 
of it: aearly SM of them ia oae waek. Ia ajk 1684 the 
charter of Colchester was sanrcadered to the cniwii, and a 
new charter granted the saaw 3FCBr, whkh was reniodelled 
by James II. ajk 16&9 ; but after the Re v ol uti on the oh> 
gmal charter was restored. 

The faistoiy of the eoonty pmeats no later erents of any 

When the Spaniards were expected to attack England 
with their Innncible Armada fA.D. loSS), a camp was 
formed at Tilbury, where a body of more than 18,<»l men, 
nnder the earl of Leicester, was posted. Tilbury Fort was 
then a block-house, which had been built by Henry VIII. 
to defend the passage of the rirer; it was at a subsequent 

Criod (upon the alarm caused by the Dutch sailing up the 
edway. A.n. 1667, and burning the ships at Chatham), 
enlarged and made a regular fortification, as it is at present. 
The camp at Tilbury was lisited by Eltraheth, whose pre- 
senee increased the general enthusiasm. Colchester on 
this occasion ftimishea two ships and a pinnace to the Eng- 
lish fleet. In 1593 the same town furnished three ships 
lor the expedition to Cadis. 

In the war with Spain at the beginning of the reign of 
Charles L, a Spanish fleet eaosed alarm by appearing off 
Harwich; but they made no attempt to ]and(A.i». 1625). 
In the civil war at the close of the mine reign, Essex was 
almost entirely in the interest of the parhament, and joined 
in an association for mntual aid and succour with the other 
eastern counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambrid^, and Herts; 
this was called the Eastern Association. The towns of 
Essex and Suffolk, tmon a requisition fiom the committee 
of both houses^ raised 8000 men ibr the serrice of the par- 
liament, besides large supplies both of men and money 
which they sent to the parliament at other times. Tlie 
county appeals to have been exempt from the immediate 
sufferings of the civil war during the oontmuanee of the 
main contest ; but m the year 1648 it was the scene of one 
of those isolated and abortive attempts of the royalists, the 
namtives of which fonn so many episodes in the grmt his- 
tory of the war. A part of the royalist forces, whieh had 
baea nieed in Kent tinder Gccing, earl of Norwich, and 

flMorant*s Hittnrjf f^Enex; BtmtHf ^f En^and and 
Bales; Ordmamee Smrvef of Emwct ; Convbeare and Phil- 
lips s Omthmes ^ the Geoiogf of EngUmd and HafeM ; 
Yonng^s Asrindiare of Etter ; Rickinn*s Gothic Arrhi- 
tertmrt; Turner's AngJo-Saxotu ; Ercunkm m Es»rr; 
Parliowtentanf Faperty ^.) 

Pofulatiom. — ^Essex is an agricultural county, and but 
few of its inhabitants are ea^ged in manu&ctures. Of 
79,023 males twenty years of age and upwards, living in 
the county in 1831, 4 3,6 S3 were engaged in a^cultunl 
pursuits, and only 871 in manufactures or in makuii: 
manufacturing machinery. Of these latter 500 were cm- 
ployed in the manufiMAare of sflk goods, principally at 
Braintree, Great and Little Coggeshall, and Bockiog' ; at 
Halsted there were SOsflk-machine makers ; about 30 men 
were engaged in the manuftctare of gunpowder at the gt>- 
vemment establishment at Waltham Abbey. At Wcs; 
Ham, in the vicinity of the metropolis, operative cheinistr> 
gives employment 'to several of the inhabitants. Es>€\ 
ranks the eighth on the list of agricultural counties, and m 
this respect retains the sime position as in 181 1. 

The population of this connty at each of the fimr periods 
in whica the census was taken diving the present century 










Showing an increase between the first and last periods of 
91,070, or a little more than 40 per cent, which is 17 per 
cent below the whole rate of increase throughout Rng* 

Hie following table is a summary of the population, &c^ 
of every hundred as taken in 1831 :— 

ChdiuHfbrd . 
Ci lire ring 

Tliursiable . 

Uttll•^ford . . . . 

W;ililiam .... 
W.nstrce .... 

Withara . ■ . 
Cclclicstcr (borough & liberty) 
Iliivwicb (borough) 
RIaWuQ (borough) 
SuilVoH-Walden (town) . 


37,152 6i,319 354 1,660 





































48 -i 

















2.9 Ul 













2,0 ; 9 























e 137,140, being 

312,230 „ 

272,593 „ 

12 1 fur each inhikbilaut. 
4 8 
17 7 

17 2 

Tlie sura expendsd fur the same purpose in the year 
enrluii; Much, I83fi. was 185,394/. 17(.; and assuming 
tlial tlie population had increased at tlie tamo rale of per 
ri^ntage since 1631 as in the ten preceding years, the 
iibove sum gives an averace of llf. for each inhabiunt. 
These averages are above those for the whole of England 
311(1 Wales. 

Tho sum raised in Essex for poor-rale, couiUy-rafe, 
find other local purposes. In the year ending the 25lh 
of March, 1833, was 311,961/. I8»., and was levied upon 
ihe various descriptions of properly as follows: — 

£. «. 
On land . . . 231.571 IS 

Dwelling-houses , . 52,137 2 

Mills, factories. Sec. . 6,859 2 

Manorial profits, navigation, &c. 1,373 16 
Tiiu amount expended was; — 

£. *. 

I Tor Ihe relief of the poor . . 263.629 6 

In suits of law, removal of paupers, &c. 8,190 5 

yor oiher purposes . , . 39,928 3 

313,747 14 

In the returns mode up for subsequent years, the de- 

~ -- lions of property assessed ore not specified. In the 

i 1834, 1835, and 1636 there were raised 291,010/. Is., 

124/. S»., and 228.811/. 19*., respectively, and the ex- 

peiidilure of each year was as follows : — 

d., disbursed as 

(IS,U3 M 

|S3,71fl 6 

■1 noMiapiDriid ,C9W,3!a 19 S53.311 8 ',09,010 3 
■aving effected in the whole sum expended in 1836. 
:>ared with that expended in 1634, was therefore 
» C, No. 899. 

about 20 per' cent. ; and the savinj( effected on the sum ex ■ 

pended for the relief of the pout was not quile 23 per cent. 

I 1836. 01 compared with the expendilure in 1834. 

The number of turnpike trusla in Esstw, as ascertained in 

i34, is 11 ; the number of miles of road under their charge 

249; the annual income in 1834, arising from the tofts 

and parish composition, was 34,304/. 1 5/. 1 d., and the annual 

-(penditure 39,357/. 12». 4d. 

The county expenditure in 1 834, - exclusive of that for 

the relief of ihe poor, was 18,847/. IOj. 6 

follows :— 

Bridges, buildings, and repairs, &c. . 

Gaols, houses of correction, &c., audi 

maintaining prisoners. &c. . ) 

Shire balls ana courls of justice—) 

building, repairing, &c. . J 

Prosecutions . . , 

Clerk of the peace . . 

Conveyance of prisoners before trial 

n oflranspwls 

Vagrants— apprehending and conveying 
Constables— high and special . . 

Coroner ... 

Miscellaneous ... 

Total . . . 18,847 10 6 

The number of persons charged with criminal offences, 
n the three septennial periods ending with 1820. 1827, and 
834, were 19U8, 2686, and 3837 respectively; making an 
average of 273 annually in the first period, of 384 in the 
second period, and of 978 in the third period. The num- 
ber of persons tried at quarter-sessions, m eoch of the years 
1631, 1832, and 1833, in respect to which any' costs were 
paid out of the county-rales, were 386, 351, and 398 re- 
spectively. Among the persons charged with offencesi 
there were committed for— 

. 1B31. ISSi, 1833. 

Felonies . . .293 319 321 

Misdemeanors . . ' 93 32 77 

The tulal number of committals in each of Ihe same 
eats was 407, 445, and 460 respet lively, 

1S31. ItSi. IS33. 

The number convicted was . 323 313 337 

acquitted , 52 59 72 

Discharged by proclamation 32 71 Si 



315 1 

. II 


1 2 

345 1 



7 11 




In 1836 at tbe ajeises and sessions 619 persons were 
diarged with crimes in Essex. Of these 49 were charged 
with oflences against the person, 3 1 of which were for com- 
mon assaults; there were 74 offences against property, 
committed with violence ; and 442 committed without vio- 
lence ; 1 for sending threatening letters ; 6 for forging and 
uttering fklse money ; I for killing cattle ; 2 for deer steal- 
ing ; and 42 for riot. Of the whole numher of offenders, 
446 were convicted, 123 were acquitted, and against 51 no 
bill was found, or no prosecution ensued. Of those con- 
victed, 20 were condemned to death, none of whom were 
executed, 1 7 had their sentence commuted for transportation, 
and three for imprisonment; 133 were sentenced to trans- 
portation for various periods ; 279 to imprisonment, 235 of 
whom for only six months or under; 2 were whipped; 5 
were fined, and 6 discharged on sureties. Of the number of 
offenders, 547 were males and 72 females; 293 could neither 
read nor write; 283 could read and write imperfectly; 31 
could read and write well, and only 1 had received superior 
instruction ; the state of instruction of the remaining 1 1 
could not be ascertained. 

The number of persons qualified to vote for the county 
members of Essex is 11,119, being 1 in 29 of the whole 
population, and 1 in 7 of the male population, twenty years 
of a^e and upwards, as taken in 1831. The expenses of 
the last election of county members to parliament were to 
the inhabitants of the county 1 59^. 5«. 9d., and were paid 
out of the general county-rate. 

There are fifteen savings* banks in Essex. The number 
of depositors and amount of deposits on the 20th of No- 

vember were : — 







Number of i 

Ainount of l£268,333 277,754 289,767 302,061 312,386 
deposits . J 

The various sums placed in the savings* banks in 1835 
and 1836 were distributed as under: — 

Not exceeding £20 





Above 200 

1836. 1836. 

Depositors. DepostU. Depositors. Deposits. 











9390 302,061 9827 312,386 

Education. — ^The following summary is taken from the 
parliamentary returns on education, made in the session 
of 1835:— 

Scbools. Scholars* TotaL 

Infant schools 88 

N umber of infants at such schools ; ages 
from 2 to 7 years:— 

Males ... 684 

Females ... 766 

Sex not specified 932 

Daily schools 1075 

Number of children at such schools; 
ages from 4 to 14 years: — 

Males . . • 
Females . . . 
Sex not specified 





Thirty-seven Sunday-schools are retumed from placM 

where no other schools exist, and the children (1513 id 
number) who are instructed therein cannot be supposed ic 
attend any other school ; at all other places Sunday-scb(><»! 
children have opportunity of resorting to other schools a'^- 
but in what number or in what proportion duplicate eutr> 
of the same children is thus produced must remain unccr 
tain. Seventy-seven schools, containing 5250 children, 
which are both daily and Sunday-schools, are returned 
from various places, and duplicate entry is therefore knovn 
to have been thus far created. At a few of the Sunday- 
schools some scholars are 16 and 17 years of age. Makinc 
allowance for these two causes therefore, it appears that per- 
haps not more than one-half of the children between the 
ages of 2 and 15 are receiving instruction in this county. 

Maintenance qf Schools, 

DcacnplioB of 

Inrnnt SrhooU 
Daily Sch(X)ls 


Bye,down.«.t.|Byi,t,ert|.»ii.(,S;JSa^' S^t^SS,' 











4835 600 


Schools. . 1163 — 

Total of children under daily instruction 32,977 

Sunday schools 438 

Number of children at such schools; 
ages from 4 to 15 and 16 years: — 

Males . . . 12,594 

Females . • . 13,354 

Sex not specified 3,712 


If we assume that the population between the ages of 2 
and 15 has increased in the same proportion as the whole 
p«ipulation .since 1821; and that the whole population has 
increased in the same ratio since 1831 as during the ten 
yi'ar- precedm!r that period, we find that the number of 
children between the ages of 2 and 15 residing in Essex in 

The schools established by Dissenters included in tl *. 
above statement are : — 

Seliools. Scbolafs. 

Infant schoob • ... 

Daily . . .31 1235 

Sunday . • .91 7600— SSlJ 

The schools established since 1818 are: ^ 


Infant and other daily schools 647, containing 18,533 
Sunday-schools . . 230, containing 18.5 SI 

One hundred and one boarding-schools are included i:* 
the number of daily schools given above. No school in tb*. 
county appears to be confined to the children of parents i : 
the Established Church, or of any other religious denomina- 
tion, such exclusion being disclaimed in almost everv in- 
stance, especially in schools established by Dissenters. 
whom are here included Wesleyan Methodists, togetl.c 
with schools for children of Roman Catholic parents. 

Lending libraries of books are attachea to forty-H . 
schools in this county. 

ESSEX, EARLS OF. Walter DEVERKtrx, first ea-! . 
Essex, the son of Sir Richard Devereux and Dorothy, dau. :- 
ter of George, earl of Huntingdon, was born in CaennariL«-n- 
shire, at the castle of his grandfather, Walter Viacovr 
Hereford, about the year 1540. He succeeded to the tit] ^ 
of Viscount Hereford and Lord Ferrers of Chartley in hi- 
nineteenth year, and was early married to Lettice, daugh- - 
of Sir Francis Knolles. When the rebellion, headed bv i\ . 
earls of Northumberland and Westmorland, broke out it; 
1569, he raised a considerable body of troops, and, in c .. 
junction with other forces, compelled the rebels to ret n • 
into Scotland. The courage that he displayed durin.: li . 
warfare recommended him to Queen Elizabeth, who \ .. 
ever esteemed his loyalty and superior inteUigence : in sr - 
titude for the service that he had rendered her, she c* -- 
ferred on him the order of the Garter, and created him t . - 
of Essex (1572). He now became so great a favourite w .. 
the queen, that Leicester and others about the court, jeal- l* 
of his increasing influence, encouraged Essex to enter uj .. 
a scheme for subduing and colonizing a district of the pr 
vince of Ulster. He had for some time contemplated sv 
an expedition, and having been persuaded to take the cct 
mand, embarked from Liverpool in August, 1573, in t-*. r 
pany with Lord Darcy, Lord Rich, and other persons 
distinction. He contracted to furnish one half of the e\' 
pense of the undertaking, in consideration of which lie \» • 
to have one half of the colony as soon as it was establi&l?^^. 
His arms at the outset met with various success : but ai - ' 
a time his English friends deserted him, and their lo5i«, i - 
gether with the enmity of many courtiers at home, *o«»'. 
multiplied difliculties round him. He was obligetl to re- 
sume the government of Ulster, which he had jreviovi-.' 
resifrned ; and he was compelled to make peace with 0'N« 
when his pursuit of the rebels under that leader gave e^er-. 
prospect of success. He was required to give up his o<.r 
mand when he had nearly dispossessed the Scots, who b: - 
mvaded the western islands in his territory, and w:tli t : 
higher title than that of captain was made to serve at the 




ihat hii general popularity vas undiminished. So deep 
was his impression of resentment against those whom he 
conceived to have hiassed the queen against him, that he 
listened to the rash and desperate advice of Cuffe, his 
secretary, to remove Cecil, Cooham, and Raleieh hy force 
from the queen's councils. In order to strengtncn his in* 
terest, the gates of Essex House were thrown open to all 
persons who were discontented with the queen or her ad- 
visers. With the same view, he courted both the Roman 
Catholics and Puritans, and a concourse met daily to hear 
sermons in his house. The multitude that attended the 
delivery of these discourses could not fail to attract the 
attention of the vigilant government Essex was warned to 
be careful of his safety, and his attendance was required 
before the counciL At this summons he took alarm, fear- 
ing a renewal of his imprisonment, and consequently the 
defeat of his scheme. He determined therefore to com- 
mence his proceedings on the following morning (Sunday, 
February 8, 1600-1); and during the night messengers 
were sent in all directions to acquaint Essex's friends that 
his life was threatened by Raleigh and Lord Cobham. In 
consequence of this intelligence, Lords Sandys and Mont- 
eagle, the earls of Rutland and Southampton, with nearly 
300 other gentlemen, assembled at Essex House, where it 
was divulged that Essex had resolved at once to rid himself 
of his enemies by forcing his way to the queen, and inform- 
ing her of his danger from those who had so long abused 
their influence with her majesty. Essex having shut up 
within his gates the lord keeper, the chief justice, and 
others whom the queen, aware of what was passing, had 
Sent to inquire into the cause of the tumult, proceeded with 
his friends to the city, where, crying * For the queen, for the 
queen, a plot is laid against my life,' he tried to enlist the 
citizens in his favour. But notwithstanding his popularity, 
not one man took arms. The cause of the tumult was either 
mistaken or unknown. At length the earl endeavoured to 
return home, but a party of soldiers met him at Ludgate, 
and a skirmish ensued, in which he was twice shot through 
the hat. At length he reached Essex House, but after a 
short defence he was compelled to surrender himself, and 
with Lord Southampton was committed to the Tower : the 
Test of the conspirators were lodged in %^rious other prisons. 
He was tried for treason in Westminster-hall on tne 19th 
of February, condemned, and executed 25th of the same 
month. (Criminal Trials, vol. i.) 

A sketch of the character of Essex has lately appeared 
in an article in the Edinburgh Revieto (vol. Ixv., p. 21), 
which also dispkys the ingratitude of I^rd Bacon to- 
wards his zealous friend and patron. We extract the 
following remarks :— * Nothing in the political conduct of 
Essex entitles him to esteem ; and the pity with which we 
regard his early and terrible end is diminished by the con- 
sideration that he put to hazard the lives and fortunes of 
his most attached friends, and endeavoured to throw the 
whole country into confusion for objects purely personal. 
Still it is impossible not to be deeply interested for a man so 
brave, high-spirited, and generous : for a man who, while he 
conducted himself towaitls his sovereign with a boldness 
Fuch as was then found in no other subject, conducted him- 
self- towards his dependants with a delicacy such as has 
rarely been found in anv other patron. Unlike the vulgar 
herd of benefactors, he aesired to inspire not gratitude but 
atfection. He tried to make those whom he befriended feel 
t«i wards him as towards an equal.' His mind was ardent 
and susceptible, and naturally disposed to the admiration of 
all that is great and beautiful. 

He left one son (of whom we give an account in the next 
article) and two daughters. Frances married first the earl 
of Hertford, and afterwards the duke of Somerset. Dorothy 
was the wifb first of Sir Henrv Shirley, and lastly of William 
StaiTord, of Blatherwyck, in Northamptonshire. 

Robert Deverextx, third earl or Essex, was bom in 
Essex House, in the Strand, in 1592. He was sent to 
Eton bv his grandmother, who, after his father*s death, 
received him into her house; and in 1602 he was re- 
moved to Merton College, Oxford, where the warden, Mr. 
(afterwards Sir Henr}) Sarile, who had been an intimate 
friend of his &ther, took charge of his education. He was 
restored to his hereditar)- honours in 1603, and three years 
afterwards was unhappily married to lady Frances Howard, 
a child of no more than thirteen years old. The new-married 
rouple being too yonnff to live together, Essex was sent to 
«iproye himself abroad ; while the bcide, who was celebrated 

for her beauty, continued wift her mother. It was Ibor jMXf 
before he returned to claim his wife, and in the maan 
time she had contracted so great an affection for lord 
Rochester, afterwards earl of Somerset, that until she 
was compelled by her &ther, she coidd not be brooghft 
to cohabit with her husband. The union never waa a 
happy one. Not many months after they had met. abe 
instituted proceedings against him praying for a aepa* 
ration on a real or pretended charge of pnyucal diaability. 
A divorce was granted, and the lady was soon after maLrried 
to lord Rochester. The slur thus cast upon Baaex drove 
him to the retirement of his country-house and the pursuit 
of rural occupations. After some years however, a solitary 
life became irksome to him. Tired of inaction, he joined 
lord Oxibrd in 1620, raised a troop* and marched with the 
Elector Palatine in the war against Holland. In the winter 
he returned to England, where his opposition to the 
government rendered him unpopular at court ; indeed the 
reception that he met with at nome was so little agreeable 
that he willingly renewed his mditary avocatiooa abroad 
during the two following summers, and in 1625 aeain raised 
a troop, with which he sailed lo aid the United Frovinces. 
His disposition and capability for military service now struck 
the king, and he was appointed vice-admiral of a fleet w hich 
was employed in a fhiitless expedition against Spain, lie 
engaged in another expedition in the Low Countries, and was 
afterwards bold enough to marry a second time. In this 
second choice of a wife (the daughter of Sir William Paulet) 
he was scarcely more fortunate than in his first It is true 
indeed that tne lady soon after her marriage bore a son, 
which Essex owned and christened after his name, but her 
familiarities with Mr. Uvedale gave him cause to auspert 
her fidelity, and after much mutual crimination, on the one 
side for inconstancy, on the other, a renewal of former 
charges, a separation took place. The child died at the age 
of five, and Essex never showed ftirther inclination to ma- 
trimony. Between his journey to Ireland in 1632 and his 
appointment in the fleet that sailed to Holland in 1633, 
he spent his time either in his house at Chartley, or in 
London. His inclination to seek popularity among the pres- 
byterians was evident and undisguised ; nevertheless the 
king employed him as lieutenant-general of his troops that 
were sent against the Covenanters (1639). In 1640 be wa^ 
one of twelve peers that signed a petition that a parliament 
should be called and an attempt made to settle the dif- 
ficulties of the state without further bloodshed. He «a» 
also one of the commissioners sent to Ripon to treat with 
the Scots ; and when, at the opening of the Long Parliament, 
the king saw that it was necessary that he shovud endeaviiir 
to conciliate the presbyterian party, he made Essex loitl 
chamberlain. It was the wish of many of the royaUsls tLat 
Essex, whose popularity was great among the presby tcrian>s 
should also have been placed at the head of the army, but 
Charles, who disliked him on account of the roughness of 
his manner, and doubted the firmness of his attachmeDt to 
him, refused to appoint him, and would ]rield to their re- 
quests no further than to make him lieutenant-eeneral vf 
his forces south of the Trent. When the Commons demandid 
of the king that a guard should be raised in the city of 
London, it was Essex whom they desired to have plaoeil 
at its head. Charles, unwilling to hsten to this requi^u 
left London suddenly, and called upon Essex to follow him , 
but Essex, indisposed to the king on account of the thank- 
less incivility with which he had always been treated a; 
court, refuscNl to follow, pleading his duty to remain in at- 
tendance of parUament. Vehemently angry at thia refusal, 
the king instantly deprived him of all his otficea. Essex 
now became the chief favourite and leader of the parlia- 
mentary or presbyterian party. He became parUamenlary 
general in 1642, and was in consequence proclaimed a 
traitor by the king. He opposed Charles m person ni 
Edgehill (1642); be also took Reading (1643), but oti 
account of a disease with which his troops were infected, be 
was obliged to abandon any further attack; at which rbe 
disappointment of the parliamentary leaders was so great, 
that they nearly dismissed him from his command. Ou 
the recovery and reinforcement of his soldiers he triumph < 
antly entered Gloucester, from which he had driven ih.e 
king away, surprised Cirencester, and after fighting cou- 
rageously at the doubtful battle of Newbury, succeeded i-x 
covering London. As the supporters of the parliam^fiit 
were supposed to be numerous m (Cornwall, in the hope <»f 
increasing his forces he marched to that county pur»ucU 




by the niya4ut troopt; the number of adberents bov* 
ever had been exaggerated, his expectations were disap- 
pointed, and aa he was completely hemmed in by his pur- 
suers, the scaraty of provisions began to be severely felt 
At this crisis the king proposed a treaty; but Essex had no 
authority to make any agreement without the sanction of 
his narliamentary masters; and as the royalists, finding 
that he did not comply with the king's offer, continued to 
press their advantage, after some of his troops had aban- 
doned him, he was obliged to escape by sea firom Fowey. 
Having sailed ftom Plymouth to London, he onoe more 
collected an army, and was placed at its head, but an 
illness compelled him to quit nis command. When he re- 
turned to London he found a state of confosion and distrust 
that scarce oould be exceeded. At a meeting held at his 
house it was proposed to impeach Cromwell, but this served 
no other purpose than to irritate that leader. iThe inde- 
pendents soon afterwards succeeded in carrying the ' self- 
den3ring ordinance,' which forbad members of either house 
of parliament to hold any command in the army: thus 
Essex ceased to be parhamentary general. It was voted 
that ibr his services he should be raised to the rank of a 
duke, and be granted a pension of 10,000/. a year. He did 
not however live to enjoy these honours, being carried off 
by a sudden and violent illness in the fifty-fifth year of his 
age. He was publicly interred in Westminster Abbey. 

The chief defects in his character were indecision and 
vacillation ; when he erred it was more firom want of Judg- 
ment than from bad intention. His bearing was always 
manly, and his courage has never been impeached. At his 
death the title became extinct. (Hume's History f^ Eng- 
land; BioffTMhia Britannica; Biographie IhdverMeUe.) 

ESSLINGSN, the seat of provincial government for the 
Wiirtemberg province of the Neckar, as well as for the baili- 
wic of Esslingen, lies in a fine and fertile country on the 
banks of the Neckar, surrounded by heights crowned with 
forests and vineyards, in 48** 44' N. lat, and 9° 19^ E. long. 
It is an old town, and was a free city of the German empire, 
and the fiivourite residence of some of the emnerors. The 
inner town has massive walls and towers rouna it ; and the 
five suburbs, one of which stands on an island in the river, 
while another is attached to the old burg which lies upon a 
hill, are also protected by stout walls. It has five churches, 
that of St. Mary being distinguished by its fine Gothic 
spire, a handsome town-hall, an hospital richly endowed witii 
the property of some suppressed religious houses, a high 
school, the head seminaiy of the kingdom for educating 
teachers, an orphan asylum, several elementary schoolsr and 
a population of about 6250, of whom about 100 are Roman 
Catholics and 100 Jews. Esslingen has manufactures of 
woollens* cotton and woollen yarns, wine, lackered iron and 
tin ware, paper, &c., and a good trade in agricultural 
produce. The parish of Esslingen comprises the well- 
known Esslingen-Gebiet, a succession of hamlets scattered 
along the heights between the town and Rothenberg, and 
carried up to the very summit of the range. 

ESSLINGEN, or fiSSLING, is likewise the name of a 
small village of about 280 inhabitants, in the circle of the 
I^wer Mannhartsberg, in Lower Austria, about seven miles 
ea«»t of Vienna. It is connected by historical recollections 
with the adjacent village of Aspem which lies to the west of 
it. The ground between these two places was the scene of 
a sBA^ere conflict between the French under Napoleen, and 
the Austrians, which begun on the 21st and terminated on 
the 22nd of May, 1809, when the latter remained in posses- 
sion of Aspem, and the former of Esslingen. By the Aus- 
trians the conflict was therefore called that of Aspem ; but 
by the French that of Essling, firom which village Marshal 
Massena covered the retreat of Napoleon's forces, and after- 
wards derived the ducal title bestowed upon him by the 
French emperor. 

ESSOIGNS. Latin Essornum, French Esfoigne, or Ex- 
nine (apparently from the Latin Exonerate, to exonoate, 
but see Du Gauge, in voc Sunnis), is the allegation of an 
excuse for non-appearance by a person summoned to answer 
^n action at law, or to perform service at a court baron. 
There were various causes of excuse, such as illness, 
fulling among thieves, floods, &c 

A party might essoign himself three times by sending a 
substitute to explain the reasons for his non-appearances, 
and it formerly served as an imparlance or a craving for a 
longer time by a defendant to make answer in real and 
mixed actions 

Enoign deny qfihe Term. The first return day in every 
term was, properly speaking, the first day of the term (until 
essoigns were no longer allowed to be cast in personal ac>- 
tionsj, and on that day the courts sat to take essoigns or 
excuses fh>m such as dud not appear to the summons or the 
writ; wherefore it was called tne essoi^ day. 

The essoign or general return day is now regulated by 
1 William IV., chap. 3, which enacts ' That all writs usually 
returnable before any of his majesty's courts of King's 
Bench, Common Pleas, or Exchequer, respectively, on ge- 
neral return days, maybe made returnable on the third day 
exclusive, before the commencement of each term, or on any 
day, not being Sunday, between that day and the third day 
exclusive before the last day of Uie term; and the day for ap- 
pearance shall, as heretofore, be the third day after such term.' 

ESTATE, in law, signifies that title or interest which a 
man has in lands, tenements, hereditaments, or other efi^ects. 
It is either real, comprising lands, tenements, and heredita- 
ments held or enjoyed for an estate of fireehold ; or personal, 
comprising interests for terms of years in lands, tenements, 
and nereditaments, and property of every other description. 
Personal estate [Chattels] goes to the executors, and is 
primarily liable for payment of debts. 

Real estate may be considered under three heads : — (1) 
the quantity of estate, t. «., the amount of interest in the 
owner ; (2) the time when that interest is to commence ; 
and (3) the quality of estate, or the mode in which it is to 
be enjoyed. 

1. All real estates not being of copyhold tenure [Copy- 
hold], or what are called customary freeholds, are either 
of fireehold or less than freehold. The former may be 
divided into two kinds ; freeholds of inheritance, and free- 
holds not of inheritance. Freeholds of inheritance admit 
of a further subdivision, into inheritances absolute, called 
fees simple, and inheritances limited, called qualified or 
base fees, and fees conditional. A fireehold of inheritance 
absolute or fee simple is the largest estate which the law 
allows to a subject; the owner may freely dispose of it to 
whom he pleases in his lifetime by deed or by will, and if he 
dies without making any disposition, it descends to such of 
his kindred as the law marks out as his heir. 

A qualified or base fee has some qualification or limit 
annexed, which may determine the estate, as in the in- 
stance of a grant to A and his heirs tenants of the manor 
qf Dale. Whenever A or his heirs cease to be tenants of 
Uiat manor, their estate is entirely determined, though 
during its continuance the proprietor has the same rights 
and privileges as if he were absolute tenant in fee simple. 

A conditional fee at common law was a fee restrained to 
some particular heira exclusive of others, as to a man and 
the heirs male of his body, by which limitation his lineal 
hein female and collaterals were excluded ; and this is the 
origin of estates tail. It was held that if the donee, in the 
case supposed, had no heirs male of his body, or if, after a 
male child was born, no alienation were made, the land 
should revert to the donor on the failure of heirs male of 
the donee's body : in fact, for all purposes of alienation 
it was a fee simple, on condition that the donee had 
male issue ; for it is a rule of law, that when any condition 
is performed it is thenceforth entirely gone, and the thing 
to which it was annexed becomes absolutely and wholly 
unconditional. The nobility however, being anxious to pre- 
serve their estates in their own fiimilies, procured the Stat. 
Westm. the Second, 13 Ed. L, c 1, commonly called the 
Statute de Donis Conditionahbus, to be made, which 
enacted that the will of the donor should be observed, 
and that the land should go to the heirs specified, if tliere 
were any, or if none, should revert to the donor. Thus 
the donor acquired an estate in reversion, which could only 
be allowed, consistently with the nature of estates in rever- 
sion, by considering the conditional fee to be changed into a 
limited^ or, as it is called in technical language, a particular 
estate. This kind of estate was called an estate tail, from 
the word taUiare, to cut, being as it were a portion of the 
whole fee. Means were soon however discovered by the in- 
genuity of the lawyers to enable the donee and his heirs of 
the specified description to cut off the entail, as it was called. 
[CoNVBYAifCB, Fins, Rbcovxey.] 

A freehold, not of inheritance, is an estate which the 
owner has for his own life only, or the life of some other 

?sr8on, or until the happening of some uncertain event. 
he<followmg are mstances : — A gift to A until B returns 
from Rome ; but if the gift had been to A and his heira 



^mtfl B retunu ttom Rome, the MUte would liara been a 
aualifled or base fee ; and if B bad died without returning 
Rom Rome, would bave become a fee simple absolute. 
Some freeholds not of inheritance, arise from operation of 
law, as tenant in tail after uossibility of issue extinct, which 
is where an estate is limitea to A and the heirs of his body 
to be begotten on the body of B his wife, which is called an 
estate tail special (as distinguished from an estate tail ge- 
neral, to A and the heirs of his body, without speci- 
fying the woman ftom whom they must spring). If B dies 
without children, A is no longer tenant in tail, but tenant 
in tail after possibility of issue extinct, and is regarded by 
the law, as to the duration of his estate, as simple tenant 
for life. As to tenant by courtesy and tenant in dower, see 

Of estates less than freehold there are three kinds — 
estates for years, at will, and by sufferance. An estate for 
years (wbicn includes an estate from year to year) is per- 
sonal property, and, like other chattel [Chattels], upon 
the death of the owner, without having disposed of it 
in his lifetime, devolves upon his executors or administra- 
tors. An estate at will arises where a man lets lands 
to another expressly at the will of both parties or without 
limiting any certain estate ; either party may put an end 
to the tenancy, though, for the sake of general conve- 
nience, the courts strive to construe them as tenancies from 
year to year, for the purpose of rendering a six months' 
notice necessary to tneir determination. An estate by 
sufferance arises where a tenant, who has entered by lawful 
title, continues in possession after his interest has deter- 
mined : this estate may be put an end to at any time by 
the lawful owner, though, aAer acceptance of rent, the 
law would consider it as a tenancy from year to year, as in 
the case of a tenancy at will. 

Neither of these two last estates confers any power of 
alienation. All these estates, real and personal, freehold 
or less than freehold, freeholds of inheritance or not of in- 
heritance, may become subject to another qualification, and 
he called estates upon condition, being such whose existence 
depends upon the happening or not happening of some un- 
certain event whereby the estate may be either originally 
created or enlarged or finally defeated. [Condition; 


2. Estates are either in possession or in expectancy. 
The former kind of estate requires no explanation here. 

The latter, involving some of the nicest and most abstruse 
learning in English law, are divided into estates in remainder 
and reversion, and by executory devise or bequest; and 
a^ain, remainders are divided into estates in remainder 
vested or contingent. [Remainoxr; Retbrsion.] An 
executory devise or bequest is such a limitation of a future 
estate or interest in lands or chattels as the law admits in 
the case of a will, though contrary to the rules of limitation 
in conveyances at common law. It is only an indulgence 
allowed to a man's last will and testament, where otherwise 
the words of the will would be void ; for wherever a future 
interest is so limited by a will as to fall within the rules 
laid down for the limitation of contingent remainders, such 
an interest is not an executory devise, but a contingent re- 
mainder. [Will.] 

3. Eistates may be enjoyed in four ways ; in severalty, in 
joint tenancy, in coparcenary, and in common. 

An estate in severalty is when one tenant holds it in his 
own right without any other person being joined with him. 

An ^2Ktate in joint tenancy is when au estate is granted 
to two or more persons at the same time, in which case the 
law construes them to be joint tenants unless the words of 
the grant expressly exclude such construction ; they have 
unity of interebt, of title, of time of vesting, and of posses- 
hion,and upon the decease of one, his whole interest, unless 
disposed of by him in bib lifetime, remains to the survivor or 
sur% ivon. 

An estate in coparcenary is when an estate of inheritance 
descends from the ancestor to two or more persons, who 
are called parceners, and amongst parceners there is no 

An estate in common is when tr^o or more persons hold 
proiKTtv. by dii»tinct titles and for different interests, but by 
unity ot possession. 

All thcHe three last -mentioned modes of joint and undi- 
vided possession may be put an end to by the parties iu- 
t«retted, either by prescribed modea of conveyance or by 
pvtitioiu [Partition.] 

EstatM aid abo le^ or aquitaUe. It ia a lagal estate 
when the owner is m the actual seisin or poaaesaion, mz<d 
also entitled to the beneficial interest himself or in tru»i 
for some other person. An equitable estate ia when aooic 
other person, not the person who is the actual and ler^ 
owner, is entitled to the beneficial interest of the property 
of which that other is in possession. The power of ib* 
beneficial owner over his equitable estate is as complete u 
if he were possessed of the legal estate. [TaijeT ; Equitn* ' 

ESTE, HOUSE OF, one of the oldest histohoal famil >^ 
of modem Europe, and the oldest among those which have 
retained sovereign power to the present time, the hou^c • «' 
Savoy uerhaps excepted. Some chronologista, such »* 
Pigna, have endeavoured to trace back the genealogy < i 
the house of Este to the fifth century of our sera, when ^K«.• 
find the names of Atius, Aurelius, and Tiberius mentioned •> 
princes of Este, V icenza, and Feltre. But to pretend : j 
ascertain the Uneal succession of these princes down to th'> 
ninth century is a matter at least very dubious. Tlie m •.-•• 
sober and judicious Muratori, in his * Antichit4 Esteit t.' 
has traced the ancestry of the Este to the dukea and mnr- 
quises who governed Tuscany as a great imperial fief umltr. 
the Carlovingian emperors, and who were probably, iiKv 
most other great Italian feudatories at that time, of L^rit»- 
bard origin. Some old chroniclers, such as Mario £quit\. 1 1, 
in his ' History of Mantua,' state positively that they \(»:j 
Longobards, and related to theLungobard dukea of Spuli i . 
The succession, however, of these marquises or duk^v 
among whom are registered two of the name of Adalbi n. 
in the ninth centurv, is not clearly ascertained until v'^ 
come to another Adalbert, who is styled marquis, but - 
whom little is known, and who died about a^d^ 917. IIo 
left, however, two sons, Guide and Lamberto, who v r* 
stripped of their fiefs by Hugo and Lotharius, kiiigb • i 
Italy. A son or nephew of either Guide or Lamb^i*>. 
named Oberto, took the part of Berengahus II., who h '_« 
elected king of Italy about a.d. 950; and this Obertu v::* 
possessed, either by inheritance or through the favoui . 
Berengahus, of several fiefs in Tuscany and Lunie:ai .. 
Being afterwards dissatisfied with the conduct of Ben-ri;:'.- 
rius, he was one of the Italian nobles who repaired to O- 
of Saxony to ofier him the crown of Italy. Otho, ou t .« 
exaltation, appointed Oberto comes sacri palatii, which \« .> 
one of the first dignities of the kingdom, and gave him i : 
marriage his daughter Alda. Oberto died about the >i i: 
972, leaving two sons, Adalbert and Oberto II., the la::.: 
of whom was lord of Lunigiana and of the county of Obe rt c r. . 
in Tuscany. Oberto took the part of Hardouin. man^^ • 
of Ivrea, against Henry of Bavaria, for the crown of Itii.^ 
Oberto died about 1014, and was succeeded by his ^.^. 
Alberto Azzo I., who in his turn was succeeded by bis o'. . 
Alberto Azzo or Albertazzo U. This Albertazzo, be«: i'<< 
his paternal fiefs of Lunigiana and Tuscany, inherited wl^. 
from his uncle Ugo the fiefs of Este, Rovigo, and Ca>..- 
maggiore, in Lombardy. In the ye^ 1046 he waa appoir.- . 
by the emperor Henry III. count and governor of M.Ln . 
and soon after he married Kunitza, or Cunegonda, of \^: 
great German house of \Vel( and sister to Welf III^ <. 
whom the Emperor Henry had bestowed the duch> m 
Carinthia and the march of Verona. Welf III., dyiz 
without issue, his inheritance fell to his sister's eldest s . 
by Albertazzo, who took the name of Welf IV. This W- : 
IV. was made duke of Bavaria about 1070, and from h... 
the line of Brunswick and Hanover, known also by t:. 
name of Este-Guelphs, is descended. 

Albertazzo having lost his German wife, married Gun- 
enda, countess of Maine in France, by whom he had tn 
fions, Folco and Hugo. To Folco he left his Italian vhtrw*. >, 
and Hugo inherited the French property of his niuil.t ;. 
namely, the county of Maine, which he afterwards &i . i 
Hugo married a aaughtor of Robert Guiscard, the o :,- 
qucrorof Naples, and died without issue. Muratori tr* 
scribes a diploma of the emperor Henry IV., dated a_. 
1077, confirming the possessions of the Italian fiefs to 11. . . 
and Folco, sons of the marquis Azzo of Este. Folco a: : 
his father's death was sued by his half-brother Welf K-. . 
share of his paternal inheritance ; but aAer a long cont^ i 
tion, an arrangement was made by which Folco retai: ■ . 
the greater part of the Italian estates, including the tU' : 
K^te. Folco died in 1135, and his son Obizzo suc^in <• 
him. Like his father, he assumed the title of ma rqu^- : 
Este, from the town of that name, by which his house \» >• 
designated ever after. The town of Este, buili lu-*: 




Fniid* L was not much better than bit iktber. He 
aflected a great zeal for religioii, bad bis food scnipuUmily 
iwiffhed 00 fast ^ys, and be sentenced a relatiye of Mar- 
•M Gassion to be sbot forwent of proper respect wbQe at 
church. He first separated the Jews from the rest of the 
pepulation at Modena in 1630« and confined them to the 
Obetto. He began the magnificent ducal palace at Mo- 
dena as well as the country residence and gardens at Sas- 
«uolo. His successor* Alfonso IV., received in 1660 of the 
«mperor Leopold the investiture of the principality of Cor- 
reggio, which he had previously purchased. Alfonso loved 
the fine arts, and he was the founder of the Este gallery of 
paintings. He left at his death a son two years old, who 
was afterwards duke by the name of Francis II. During 
his minority his mother, Laura Martinozzi, Cardinal Maza- 
rin's niece, held the ^vemment. She collected together 
all the bad characters m her dominions, and delivered them 
over to the Venetians, who employed them in the war of 
Candia against the Turks. Francis II. founded the uni- 
v«r«ity of Modena as well as the splendid library caUed 
Bstcnse, of which Zaccaria, Muraton, and Tiraboschi were 
successively librarians. Fiuncis II. dyinj^ in 1694 without 
issue, was succeeded by his tmcle, Cardinal Rinaldo, who, 
after resigning his hat, married a daughter of the Duke 
4}t Brunswick Lunenburg, and sister-m-law to the em- 

feror Joseph I. By this marriage the two branches of 
tste and Brunswick, which had been separated since 1070, 
became again connected. During the war of the Spanish 
aucoessiou, the Duke Rinaldo, notwithstanding his pro- 
ftased neutrality, was obliged by the French to quitMocfena 
and to take shelter at Rome. The victorious Austrians, 
commanded by Prince Eugene of Savoy, restored him to his 
dominions, wnere he resided quietly till 1733, when the 
war for the succession to the crown of Poland, in which 
Italy had no concern whatever, but for which Italy was as 
usual devastated by the belligerents, obliged Rinaldo again 
to leave his territories, which became the theatre of war 
Ibetween the French and Piedmontese on one side, and the 
Austrians on the other. In 1 736 Rinaldo returned to Mo- 
dena. His repeated misfortunes affected and perhaps im- 
proved his disposition: he became serious and economi- 
«al after having been inclined to pomp and magnificence. 
fie enlarged his dominions by the purcnaie of the duchy of 
Mirandouk and the county of Bagnolo. Rinaldo was suc- 
ceeded in 1537 by his son Francis III., who was serving in 
fiunganr agunst the Turks at the time. During the war 
4ii the Austrian succession he took part for the house of 
Bourbon, and commanded the Spanish armies in Italy. 
The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle restored him to the quiet 
IMMsession'of his dominions. In 1754 Duke Francis was 
mppointed by Maria Theresa governor of Lombardy during 
the minority of her son the ^chduke Ferdinand, who was 
betrothed to the duke's grand-daughter Beatrice d^Este, a 
child then four vears old. In 1771 Francis gave up his 
trust to the Archauke Ferdinand, but continued to reside in 
Lombardy, and died at Varese in 1780. His son Ercole 
Rinaldo, Uie father of Beatrice, succeeded him as duke of 
Modena. His administration was peaceful and economicid. 
He was ever watchful against the temporal interference 
of the court of Rome in his dominions; and he was 
•qually averse to the remains of feudality which still 
lingered in his states. "When the French entered Italy in 
1796, the duke made a convention with Bonaparte, paid 
a heavy contribution, gave up some valuable paintings, but 
not trusting to the faith of the conqueror, he withdrew to 
Venice with his treasures, leaving a council of regency at 
Modena. An insurrection excited at Reggio by some 
Corsican soldiers in the French service afforded a pretext 
to Bonaparte to violate the convention, and to occupy the 
states of Mudena, which were afterwards annexed to the 
Cisalpine republic (Botta, Storia d^ Italia; Paradisi, Let- 
iere a Carlo Botta,) When in the folio wins year the 
French occupied Venice, the duke had cscapea to Trieste, 
but a deposit of 200,000 sequins which he had left behind 
was seized. Ercole Rinaldo died in the Austrian States in 
1803. His daughter Maria Beatrice, the last offspring of 
the house of Esic, lost her husband, the Archduke Ferdi- 
nand of Austria, in the year 1800, and their eldest son, 
Francis IV., was restored by the peace of Paris in 1814 to 
the dominions of bis maternal ancestors, namely, the duchy 
of Morlena. Re^^io. and their dependencies, including the 
district of Garfagnana. on the borders of Lucca. By the 
death of his mother he has also inherited the duchy of 

Massa and Carrara, of which his grandmother, of the hoc^* 
of Cibo Malaspina, was the heiress. [Cawkara ; Mode n > 

ESTELLA. [Navarrb.] 

ESTHER, The Book of; a canonical and historical b^ >. 
of the Old Testament, placed aft^ that of NeheniD^.. 
but coming chronologically between the 6th and 7th rhr- 
ters of Esra. It is thus denominated fVom the Persian re l ^ 
of the Jewish woman, Hadaasah, whose history it re1:<t.^ 
She was an orphan niece and adopted daughter of M :■ 
decai,tfh>m a Benjamite family of the Babylonian capt 



> i> 

of Nebuchadnessar (ii. 5-7). The scene of the nartatior: .< 
in the city Shusan, or Susa, now Sua (not Shuster, wa %\.\^» : 
bv Dr. Adam Clarke— see Trans. Geog, Soc„ vol. iii. >, ^ h-y. 
throughout the book, is in English mistranslated Sbu^h .. 
the palace, though, in the Septuagint version, it is rul? . 
iv lov^otc ry sr^Xei, that is, 'in Susa the city.' Aii^u^'r, 
Epiphanius, and Isidore supposed the author to have Li* * 
Ezra. Eusebiua assigns a later date. Some writers ) . 
attributed it to the high priest Joachim ; others believe .. 
to have been composed by the Jewish synagogue, to \^ h :.. 
Esther and Mordecai wrote (ix. 20-29); but by the s^*«^"' ' 
number Mordecai himself is thought to be the author, a.-.: 
Elias Levita, in his Mass. Hamura, asserts this to be :i !'«• ' 
unquestionable. The original, according to Dr. Adam Chi. k- 
was probably written in the language of antient !*• r- . 
St. Hieronymus and several other fathers regarded t..:. 
book as wholly uncanonical, because the name of Gol .. 
religion is not once mentioned or alluded to, and they I- ^ 
been followed by some modern writers, as Cajetan an \ i '- 
Lyra; but the Council of Trent pronounced it to be ^ :. 
canonical; and while the Protestant churches admit n. 
the canon only what is found in the Hebrew copies, th.i* •> 
as far as to the end of the third verse of chap, x., the Gn 
and Roman churches use as canonical the Greek ver^ 
and Latin Vulgate, which contain each ten more ver^L- 
chap. X. and six additional chapters. By the J ews tho ) 
has been always considered as one of the most preri>>u- • 
tbeir sacred scriptures, and as a perfectly authentic hi^* - 
ofreal events whirh took place about B.C. 519. The> r. . 
HTM. Megilah, that is, The Volume, and hold it' in ■ 
highest estimation; believing that whatever destrui-' 
may happen to the other scriptures, Esther and the Pu 
touch will always be preserved by a particular Provider • 
Copies exist in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldaic, Greek. .. 
Latin ; each of which widely differs from the other*, ar:a ., 
especially the Greek and Chaldaic, are greatly different t: 
the Hebrew. The Chaldaic text contains five times o 
than the Hebrew, and a notice of the various readings ^M 
fill a large volume. (See the London Polyglot Bible.) C 
mentators differ much in determining to which of the P^ • 
sian and Median kings belongs the name of Aha^ucr. 
whose kingdom extended from India to Ethiopia over ;: 
provinces (i. 1). Some suppose htm to be Darius H>^*- 
pes. Scaliger apd Jahn say Xerxes. By Capellui^K .• 
identified with Ochus, and by Archbishop Usher ^ith r>. 
rius the son of Hystaspes. Dean Prideaux and Dr. A\ : 
Clarke with greater probability take him to be Artxixci\ - 
who received the cognomen of Longimanus, or Longh jr. i- . 
The following is a brief abstract of the book of Esther \u \ 
words of the text This monarch (chap, i), after havir.j r- 
tertained alibis nobles and princes witn sumptuous fo- . . ' 
during more than six months, gave a great feast in his (.u •. 
garden to all the men of Susa, great and small, while '. 
women were separately feasted by the queen in the r-; 
house. To the men royal wine was supplied in abundj:. . 
and the drinking was according to every man's plea^u:- 
when, the king being, on the seventh day, merry with w _ 
sent his seven chamberlains with orders to bring the q'.».- 
to exhibit herself (the Talmud says naked) before his gi.v •- 
but Vashti (which in Persian means the beauti^illy n : 
refusing to com^ he was very wroth, and his anger bi;r • 
within him. Ahasuerus however punished her by dcgr.* . 
tion and banishment, and by his royal mandate letters v. . 
despatched to the people of each* province, decreeing u \ 
every man bear rule in his own house. To furnish the r . 
harem with the greatest means of choice there was n: 
throughout the empire (ch. ii.) a general levy of the fa r « 
virgins, and Esther, the beautiful young Jewess, beinp : 
ferred by Hege, the keeper of the' king's women, befon* . 
others of the numerous assemblage, she succeeded to ^ 
place of the banished queen Vashti. The twelve mur - 
cosmetical purification of the maidens previous to their « .• 
mission to the king (ver. 12) was required* says I>r. Clark.;, 




have not more thkn eight or ten churches in it. Tlic super- | 
intendencc of all ecclesiastical affairs in the Lutheran 
church is vested in the provincial consistory at Reval, and 
the number of parishes is 134. The department of educa- 
tion, which includes a gymnasium at Reval, and about fifty 
(ither schools, witli about 1500 pupils only, is under the 
control of the university of Dorpat. In 1831 the proportion 
of pupils to the whole population was not more than one in 
every 148 individuals. 

The manufactures of Esthonia are extremely limited ; the 
petisantry are clothed not only with linen but with coarse 
woollen cloth woven in their own houses. The only esta- 
blishments of any importance are in Reval, where hats, 
leather, powder and starch, vinegar, and some iron ware are 
made. In 1830 indeed, there were but three large manu- 
(hctories in the whole province, and 297 workmen attached 
to them. Vessels are constructed in the capital and in the 
islands ; and brandy is made on many estates as well as in 
the towns, and even by the farmers themselves ; the distil- 
leries of this spirit amount to nearly 400. 

Reval is the emporium of trade, but for want of water 
communications it is not of any great extent. The exports 
consist of grain, brandy, salt fish, skins and hides, butter, 
tallow, sraoKed herrings and salmon, and salt. 

Though public affairs are administered on the same foot- 
ing as in the other Russian governments, the country 
retains some vestiges of its autient constitution, among 
wliich are a provincial college or council, an inferior tri- 
bunal of justice, a consistory, and the right of making 
brandy without a license from the government. 

Ksthonia is divided into four circles, viz., North-west, 
Reval, or Revel, formerly Harria, chief town Reval 
(13,000 inh.), with the islands of Narjjen (250), Wrangel 
(600), Rokshaer, Malus, Ramosaar. the Roogs, and Odens- 
holm; South-west, Hapsal, formerly Wiek, chief town Hap- 
sal ( 1 450), with the islands of Dagoe ( 1 0.000), Worms ( 1 1 00), 
and Nuckoc (450) ; South-east, Weissenstein, formerly 
Yervea, chief town Weissenstein (600) ; North-east, We- 
senberg, chief town Wesenberg ( 100). with the islands of 
Eckholm, Heft, and Kranholm: besides the districts of 
Kunda, chief town Kunda (400), and of Laal (324 inhabit- 

ESTIENNE. [Stephens.] 

ESTOPPEL, an impediment or bar to a right of action, 
ari.^ing from a man\ own act, or the act of some person 
through whom he clainr.s. Tliere are three kinds of estop- 
pel. 1 . By matter of record, as letters patent, pleading, 
&c. Thus in an action against a patentee by his assignee, 
the patentee is estopped from pleading that the patent is 
invalid. ^ 

2. By matter nf trriting, as by deed, &c. parties and 
privies are estopped from alleging any thing contrary to the 
deed. It is frequently laid down that an indenture is more 
effectual in working an estoppel than a deed poll [Deed] ; 
but from the statement in the book from whence this 
position is derived {Shep. Touchy 53) it does not appear that 
the fact is so, inasmuch as it is there admitted that if both 
parties sign and seal a deed jx)ll, they are equally estopped 
as if the dec<l ha^l been indented. 

3. By matter in pais (in the country), i. e., transactions 
between the parties not evidenced by record or writing, as 
livery, entrj'. acceptance of rent, &c. Thus after accept- 
nnre of rent a landlord cannot treat his lessee as a tres- 
passer. The rules which govern the appUcation of this 
doiMrine are laid down 1 Inst., 352 b. 

ESTOVERS. S pel man, in his Law Glossary, says that 
111 is word is derived from the French etoffe, and that from 
vtnffrr, which is to supply with necessaries, and is of the 
same signification as tne Saxon wonl Ixite. In legal phrase- 
f)lo^ it IS the liberty which the owner of an estate for life as 
Well as a tenant for years (in the absence of any stipulation 
to the contrary) possesses of taking a reasonable and neces- 
sar>' hupply of wood from the estate for the use or furniture 
of fuH house or farm, and this, according to the use to which 
It was applicHl, was either called house bote, plough bote, 
cfiri bote, or hedge bote. House bote is a sumcient allow- 
ance of wood to build or repair the house, or to burn in it, 
>\hi<-li latter is also sometimes c\iX\t^ fire bote ; plough bote 
or ctirt bote is the wood employed in the making or repair- 
trig all i Instruments of husbandry, as carts and plouglis, 
narrows rakes, &c, ; hedge bote or hay bote for repairijig 
hinlgrs. fences pales, stiles, and gates, and to secure in- 
c I OS u res. 

If a tenant takes more than is needful for toese parp> •«» , 
he may be punished for waste, as if he cuts down woo'l i 
bum when he has sufficient dead wood upon the estar/- : 
and a tenant, although he may cut down and take sulfici' '.' 
wood to repair pales and fences as he found them, stUl l^ 
cannot do so to make new ones. 

A rector may also cut down wood ibr the repair of h^ 
parsonage-house or the chancel, and even fbr any old p*. v • 
which l^long to the rectory ; and, like other tenants fur l.u. 
he is entitled to estovers for repairing the barns and our 
houses belonging to the parsonage. 

Bracton uses the word estovers in a different sense, vu . 
as the sustenance, which a man committed for a felon \. < 
to have out of his lands and goods for himself and fuiiio> 
during his imprisonment ; it also occurs in the :»taii;:c • 
Ed. I. c. 3, as an allowance of meat or cloth ; but the il >. 
common and usual signification by which it is kiioun :• 
lawyers has been already stated. (Woodfall, Latull u' 
Tenant ; Comyn.) 

ESTRAY, any valuable tame animals found wandei: :^ 
at large within any manor or lordship, and whose owner i- 
unknown. Having been impounded, and proclaimed m rli' 
church and the two nearest market-towns on a market ciii^ 
they become, if not claimed in a year and a day, the a' 
solute property of the king, as lord paramount of the ^-. . 
though generally the lord of the manor or liberty is 'h 
special grantee of the crown. Animals upon which the 1 i 
sets no value, as a dog or a cat, or such as are of a w.. . 
nature, as a fox or a wolf, cannot be taken as estrj\> 
Swans may be taken as estrays, but no other fowL IL. 
king or the lord does not acquire the absolute property l 
the estray, until the full expiration of the year and a d.. . , 
which runs from the first proclamation, and not from L:.t 
seizure; therefore if it escape before the time to anoil.o: 
manor he cannot reclaim it. 

The king or the lord is bound to take care of the e>ir^» 
and find it in provision; he must not use it, but is iiublf ; 
an action for so doing, though he may milk a cow or i . i 
like, for that tends to the preservation of the animal. niA ;• 
necessary. The owner on the other hand, if he clan..- 
within the time allowed, must pay the charges of find.:.:. 
keeping, and proclaiming the estray. 

It may be observed, that if any person not being entit'.. . 
to estrays, finds and takes care of another's property, i 
owner may recover it or its value without being obligv^I i 
pay for the expenses incurred in keeping it, 

ESTREAT, from the Latin word extractum, is a tr . 
copy or note on the rolls of a court of some original \u-;.i. . 
or record, especially of fines and amerciaments which j:> 
to be levied by a bailiff or other ofiScer. In all ca&es iji \ 
lony or misdemeanor where persons bound by recogui/u.. - 
either to appear themselves, or for the attendance vi a \ 
witness on trials of felonies or misdemeanors, neglect to li • > 
the recognizance becomes forfeited ; an ofiicer of the ••. .. 
whose duty it is at the end of the assize or session, ])rep .. . 
a list of the defaulters, and when the same has b<.vii 
proved by the judge presiding, the fine or forfeiture i_. j 
tioned in the recognizance is said to be estreated or cert, i* 
into the Exchequer, and process is awarded for it? r. 

These fines, when levied, are paid into the Treasury . ■-. 
the lords of the Treasury may, if they think fit previoii-;^ 
the issuing of the process, stay the execution and r'\ • 
the fine. 

The barons of the Exchequer were also empowered h\ . 
standing writ of privy seal to discliaige, mitigate, or * t . 
pound forfeitures estreated into the Exchequer froiu t .! 
courts; and by the 4th Geo. III., cap. 10, they art- ., - 
authorized, upon afi^davit and petition, to dischai^c <.> 
treated recognizances and forfeitures, except those ii\»'i. . . 
before justices of the peace. iTenn I\c/.orts ; !».. . 

The various acts of parliament which now regulate i 
mode in which fines are to be levied upon estreated if- : 
nizances, &c., are the 4th Geo. IV. c^p. 27, with regaiu ' 
those before justices of the peace ; the 7th Geo. IV,, raji. • » 
before judges of assize, recorders, Stc., and the 3rd and 4 
Wm. iV., cap. 99, which relates to such only as are i 
feited in the Houses of Lords and Commons. 

ESTRELLA. FPortugal.] 

ESTREMADU RA, a province of Spain, bounded on 


north by the province of Salamanca, on the east by N . * 
Castile, on the south by Andalusia, and en tin '««'e:»t li 




Portugal. Its length ftom north to south is about 180 Eng- 
lish miles, and its average breadth is about 90 miles from 
east to west. Iti area is reckoned at about 14,800 English 
square miles. Two large rivers, the Tagus and the Guadi- 
ana, both coming from Castile, cross the province from east 
to west, and their respective basins form the two natural 
divisions of the province, that of the Tagus being Northern 
Estremadura, called also Alta or Upper Estremadura, and 
that of the €^uadiana forming the southern part, which is 
railed Baja, or Lower Estremadura. A range <3i mountains, 
which is a continuation of the montanas de Toledo, in New 
Castile,, and which, under the various names of Sierra de 
Guadalupe (5000 feet), Sierra Marchal, and Sierra de San 
Pedro crosses Estremadura in a south-west and west direc- 
tion, and then joins itself to the Sierra del Portalegre, on 
the frontiers of Portugal, forms the division between the 
waters which flow into the Guadiana and those which-run 
into the Tagus. To the north the basin of the Tagus is 
bounded by another and still loftier ridge, the Sierra de 
Gredos, a continuation of the mountains of Avila, in Old 
Custile, which runs westward under the names of Sierra de 
Francia and Sierra da Gata, along the boundaries between 
Estremadura and Salamanca, and afterwards entering Por- 
tu<^al joins the Sierra d'Estrella in the neighbourhood of 
Alfaiates and Penamacor. From this northern ridge several 
considerable streams, such as the Alagon and the Tietar, 
flow southwards into the Tagus. The Alagon rises in the 
mountains of Las Batueeas, waters the fine plain of Pla- 
Hencia, passes by Coria, and enters the Tagus above Alcan- 
tara. Its whole course is about 70 miles. Of the streams 
which enter the Tagus, on the opposite or southern bank, 
the principal one is the Salor, which rises in the Sierra de 
San Pedro, and enters the Tagus below Alcantara. The 
principal towns of the northern division of Estremadura 
iiie: Plasencia, a bishop's see, with 6700 inhabitants, and 
a fiiio aqueduct: it lies in the midst of one of the finest 
and best cultivated territories in all Estremadura : the con- 
vent of S. Justo, in which Charles V. ended his days, lies 
at tho foot of the Sierra de Gredos, to the east of Pla- 
sencia: Caceres, south of the Tagus, with 10,000 inhabit- 
«ints, the residence of the audiencia, or upper judicial court 
of the province : Alcantara on the Tagus, with 3300 ; its 
handsome bridge built by Trajan was partly destroyed 
during the Penuisular war : Valencia de Alcantara, near 
the frontiers of Portugal and at the foot of the Sierra Fria, 
with 4700 inhabitants : Truxillo, near the borders of Castile, 
the birth-place of the Pizarros, with 4600 inhabitants : 
Coria, north- of the Tagus and west of Plasencia, with 

The basin of the Guadiana, or southern division of Estre- 
madura, is bounded to the south by a continuation of the 
Sierra Morena, which, under the name of Sierra de Gua- 
dalcanal and Sierra de Monasterio, divides the waters of the 
Guadiana from those of the Guadalquivir, running west- 
wards along the borders of the provinces of Estremadura and 
Seville, and then entering that part of Alentejo which is 
east of the Guadiana. This branch of the Sierra Morena is 
comparatively low, &w if any summits reaching 2000 foet 
above the sea. Tlie banks of the Guadiana, especially be- 
low Badajoz, are low, tlat, and unhealthy. The finest dis- 
tricts of this part of Estremadura are those of Llerena, near 
the foot of the Sierra Morena, of Xeres, and la Serena. 
Badajoz is the capital of all Estremadura, and the residence 
of the captain-general. [Badajoz.] The other towns of 
the southern division are: Merida, the antient Emerita 
Augusta, with about 5000 inhabitants, a handsome Roman 
bridge on the Guadiana, restored by Philip II., a triumphal 
arch, the remains of a theatre, of a naumachia, and circus, 
and numerous other traces of its former splendour ; Xeres 
de los Caballeros, south of Badajoz, with 9300 inhabitants ; 
Alburquerque, north of Badajoz, and near the frontiers of 
Portugal, with 6700 inhabitants; Olivenza, a fortified p.ace 
formerly belonging to Portugal, with 2000 inhabitants ; 
Llerena, near the foot of the Sierra Morena, with 6500 ; 
Zafra, an industrious place, with tanneries, and manufac- 
tures of hats, &c., 7500 inhabitants; Medellin,on the south 
bank of the Guadiana, tho birth-place of Cortes, with 1700 

The whole population of Estremadura is vaguely reckoned 
at 550,000 inhaoitants, divided among seven towns, 212 vil- 
las or boroughs, and 121 aldeas or villages, mostly thinly 
inhabiird. The ecclesiastical division consists of three 
bi>hupnc8, namely, Badajoz, Plasenoia, and Coria« and 415 

parishes. There were also 170 convents previous to the 
late suppression. Estremadura is one of the least populous 
provinces of Spain ; its deponulation dates firom the expulsion 
of the Moors, and the subsequent establishment of the 
Mesta, or administration of the flocks of migrating sheep 
which took possession of the vast tracts which had remained 
abandoned. About four millions of sheep come to graze, 
during winter, from the other prm4nces on the open spon- 
taneous pastures of Estremadura. Other tracts are covered 
with underwood and wild odoriferous herbs. There are 
also forests of oak, beech, chestnut, and pine trees, m here 
numerous herds of s^wine feed: the flesh of these animnls 
forms a considerable article of commerce with other pix)> 
vinces of Spain. Game of every sort is plentiful. The cul- 
tivated parts produce some wheat, oats, Indian corn, flax, 
hemp, and the vine, olive, mulberr}', and lemon trees. Ex- 
cellent honey and wax are also gathered. Many ruined 
and deserted villages are met with over the country, with 
traces of form^ cmtivation and of a population which has 

The Estremenos, or inhabitants of Estremadura, are 
reckoned the most grave and taciturn of all the people of 
Spain. Living in a remote inland province, with few means 
of communication with the rest of the world, they have, 
generally speaking, no notion of the luxuries or even com- 
forts of other countries, and therefore do not exert them- 
selves to acquire them. When they have an object in view, 
they are capable of great exertion and pei^severance : they 
are frank, sincere, and honourable, and robust of body, and 
disposed to military service, especially in the cavalry. Some 
of the boldest adventurers who discovered and conquered 
America were natives of Estremadura. The great number 
of emigrants who left this > province for the New World 
during the sixteenth century nas been considered, but with 
little reason, as one of the causes of the depopulation of 
the country. The name of Estremadura is said to be 
derived from the Latin ' extrema ora,' it being the furthest 
and latest conquest of Alonso IX. over the Moors in 

The high post-road from Madrid to Lisbon crosses Estre- 
madura, and is kept in good repair. The other roads are 
bad, and impassable for carriages in the rainy season. The 
posadas or inns on the roads are among the worst in Spain ; 
provisions are scarce, and the markets few and ill supplied. 
On the side of Portugal, the frontier north of the Tagus be- 
tween Estremadura and Beira is marked by a ridge of hills, 
an offset of the Sierra de Gata, which extends from Pena- 
macor, a town within the Portuguese firontier, southwards 
to the Tagus, a few miles west of the bridge of Alcantara. 
A road leads f^om Plasencia across these hills by Zarza and 
Zibreira to Castello Branco in Portugal. South of the 
Tagus, the western boundary of Estremi^ura is much further 
advanced towards the west; beginning near Montalvao, 
about 35 miles west of Alcantai*a, it continues south- 
wards, passing a little to the east of Castello de Vide and 
Campo Mayor, which are in Alentejo, down to the Guadiana, 
a few miles below Badajoz. From thence, for about 30 
miles southwards, the Guadiana serves as a boundary, after 
which an ill-defined tortuous line, of about 50 miles more, 
first south and then south-oast, marks the limits between 
Estremadura and Alentejo to the foot of the Sierra Morena, 
which forms the nortli boundary of Andalusia. 

Estremadura has mines of copper, lead, and iron ; and 
one of silver at Lagrosan, near Alcocer. The manufactures 
are few, consisting chiefly of leather and hats at Badajoz, 
Zafra, and Caceres. The annual net income derived from 
the land belonging to lay proprietors is estimated byMiiiano 
at 55 millions of reales vellon, or little more than half a 
million sterling, and that belonging to the clergy both re- 
gular and secular, before the late suppression, at 21 millions 
and a half, or about 210,000/. sterlin<r. (Mifiano, Dicdonario 
Geoerc^co, article * Estremadura ;' and also ' Statistical 
Tablea' annexed to the art. * Espaiia ;' Ancillon ; Bowles.) 

ESTREMADURA, a province of Portugal, is bounded 
on the north by Beira, on the east part^ by Beira and 
partly by Alentejo, on the south by Alentejo, and on 
the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the 
province from north to south, from the village of Lavaos, 
which lies on the sea-coast south of the mouth of the 
Mondego, to the borders of Alentejo near Melides, south 
of the lagoon of Sotubal, is about 140 miles, and its 
greatest breadth from east to west is about 85 miles. The 
ridee of the Estrella, which crosses part of Beira from east 

^ G2 




to west, ^uds off a branch to the south-west, which enters 
Estrcmadura easit of Pombal, mod runs obliquely through 
tliH length of the proviuce under the various names of Sena 
de Louzao. Serra de Alberdos, Monte Junto, and Serra de 
Raragueda. The Sierra de Baragueda stretches to near Torres 
Vcdras, and there meets at an oblique angle the ridge which 
hprcacls from east to west from the Tagus to the sea across 
the peuinsula in which Lisbon is situated. This latter ridge, 
which is separated from the former by a narrow but deep 
ravine extending from Torres Vedras towards Sobral, fur- 
nished Lord Wellington in 1810 with a valuable position of 
defence against the French invading army under Marshal 
Masbcna. The line of hills extends from the mouth of the 
Zizandre, west of Torres Vedras, to the town of Alhandra on 
the Tagus, a distance of about thirty miles. The village of 
Sobral lies in front of the centre of the line. 

Tbe central ridge or continuation of the Estrella chain 
already mentioned divides the waters which flow into the 
Tagus from those streams which run direct into the ocean. 
Among the tributaries to the Tagus, the most considerable 
aro^l The Zezere, a rapid stream which has its source in 
the mountains of Guarda in Upper Beira, enters Estrema- 
dura near Pedrogao, and running southwards receives the 
Narreo from Thomar, and then enters the Tagus at Pun- 
hete below Abrantes. 2. The Azembuja, called also Rio 
Mayor, which rises north of the town of Rio Mayor, and 
Ao\rs in a tortuous course, passing near Cartaxo, and at the 
ibot of the hill of Santarem, and enters the Tagus above 
Villa Franca. The streams which flow from the north-west 
slope of the ridge into the ocean are— I. The Lis, which 
rises near Alcanhede, flows by Batalha, receives the Lena 
near Leiria, and enters the sea south of Cape Papedes. 2. 
The Alcoa, which rises south of the Lis, is joined by the 
Ba^a (the two together giving the name to the town of Al- 
coba^a), and after a short course enters the sea. 3. The 
Arnoya, a small stream which rises in the group of Monte 
Junto, passes by Obidos and Rolixa, where the first en- 
^dgeroent between the English and the French in the Pe- 
ninsula took place on the 17th of August, 1808, and then 
enters the lake or lagoon of Obidos which communicates 
with the sea. 4. Farther south towards Torres Vedras is 
the river Marceira, which passes by Vimieiro, and after a 
short course enters the sea south of Peniche Point. 5. The 
stream Zizandre rises below Sobral, flows through the ra- 
vine above mentioned between the Serra de Baragueda and 
the ridge of Torres Vedras, and enters the sea at the west 
extremity of the lines. 

That part of Estremadura which lies north-west of the 
central ridge and between it and the sea is mostly flat and 
sandy towards the coast, and either barren or covered with 
forests of pines. Leiria lies in a fine valley on the Lis, at the 
foot of the hills which are covered with ohve plantations. The 
country which lies to the south-east of the ridge sloping to- 
wards the Tagus is finer and better cultivated, especially 
the plains about Thomar and Santarem, which are very fer- 
tile, and abound with olive and other fruit-trees, and fine 
pasture grounds. The country about Cartaxo produces much 
wine. But the finest part of the whole province is that 
which lies to the south of the lines of Torres Vedras towards 
Libb'jn. A second range of hills rises behind the first, ex- 
tending from Mufra and Ericeira on the sea, to near Povoa 
on the Tagus, the high summit called Cabe9a de Monta- 
chique standing in the centre; and south of these are the 
hills of Ciiitra, Qneluz, Bellas, &c., which command the 
city <»f Li^l)on and the banks of the Tbgus down to Fort St. 
J ulian. Between these various ranges are delightful valleys, 
covered with villages, convents, and quintas or country-seats, 
and with gardens, orchards, and vinevarrls, remarkably well 
cultivated. This pleasing exception to the generally slo- 
venly state of agriculture over the greater part of Portu- 
gal was attributed, in the last century, and by autho- 
rijies not liable to a suspicion of partiality, to the example 
of the Enj,'lish residents at Lisbon, who being partial 
to rural life, took pains to embellish their country-houses 
and gardens accordinj^ to the fashion of their native 
ruuntry, and thus inspired the Portuguese with a taste for 
imitating them by availing themselves of the abundant r^- 
wiurces which a fine soil, a favourable site, and a genial 
clime afford. (Du Cliatelet and Bourgoing, Voyage en Por- 
tugnl.) The vineyards of Burellas, Carcavellat, and Collares, 
pnnluce excellent wmc. The neighbourlwods of Mafimi 
Cintra, Ojllarei', Quelux, Cascaes, are justly celebrated for 
Uieir romantic position. A pleaaiog sketch of theso de- 

lightful spots b given in Beckford*8 RecoUeetkm qf P&riw 

gal, 1835. 

The southernmost part of Estremadura, which lies on the 
left or southern hank of the Tagus, is not so fine as tbjt 
on the right bank, being mostly low and fli^ and unhealthy 
in several places. A range of hills which is a continuatii>ii 
of the Serra de Portalegre in AlentejOp whieh is itself 
joined to the mountains of Spanish Estremadura, runs frou 
east to west at some distance south of the Tagus, enters 
Portuguese Estremadura north of Setubal, and terminates 
on the peninsula of Almada opposite to Lisbon. But tbe 
limits between Estremadura and Alentejo are not markcl 
by thi^s range, the hne of demarcation being a tortuous ui.>i 
capricious one, beginning from the sea north of Cape S:nc^. 
then taking a semicircular sweep to the eastward* cro^Mi.^' 
the river Sadao and the range above mentioned ca^t ' f 
Alcacer do Sal, and then tiiming northwards and fulloam^* 
the course of the river Canha to the Tagus. The count iv 
inclosed within this line, the sea and the Tagus, form» the 
comarca or district of Setubal which is included in tbe pro- 
vince of Estremadura. But farther to the east EstremaiiurA 
again encroaches upon Alentejo, extending along ilie It^tt 
bank of the Tagus from Salvaterra up to Perales» which \ws 
nearly opposite Abrantes and the nills called Cimes <1<: 
Ourem : the limits between Estremadura and Alentejo an* 
marked on this side by the course of the rivers Soro atd 
Zatas, the latter of which falls into the Tagus. This part kA 
Estremadura contains the territories of Chamuaca, Alnieinm. 
and Salvaterra, which are included in the administrative dis- 
tricts of Santarem and Alemquer beyond the Tagus. Ac- 
cording to a new territorial division planned by the Corte» 
of 1 822, the Tagus was to form the southern boundary of 
Estremadura, the whole left bank being considered* as 
belonging to Alentejo. But the political oonyulsiona th<t 
followed prevented the new plui from being put iu.» 

Estremadura is divided into the following comarca^^ (^r 
districts: — 1. Lisbon, which includes the capital and u> 
suburbs ; Belem, with its splendid monastery ; Bemfin, 
near the fine aqueduct of Agoas Livres, which carries itiv 
water to Lisbon ; Campo Grande, with an important maaa- 
fiictory of silks ; Bellas, with 3400 inhabitants ; Oeiraa un 
the Tagus below Belem, once the residence of the mar(]>..> 
de Pombal. The population of the comarca of Lb»bcin > 
estimated at 360,000. 2. Torres Vedras, with the to>^ u c' 
that name, 3400 inhabitants; and also Mafra, with 3i-.". 
and its splendid palace, church, and convent, called Ui- 
Escurial of Portugal, and a vast royal park ; Ericeira, ik .r 
Mafra, a small fishing harbour; and the port of Casc<u> 
near the entrance of the Tagus. 3. Villa ]>ranca, with 'u 
pretty town of that name on the Tagus above Lisl>on, ^:t.. 
4000 inhabitants; and Alhandra, witli 2000, a mauufacticx 
of lime, and brick kilns, which supply Lisbon with brx-kv 
4. Alemquer, witli the town of that name, 2600 tnhabitai.'s 
and a paper manufactory ; and the town of Chamubca bo- 
yond the Tagus, with 3000. 5. Santarem ■ the tovn of ^l^'. 
name stands on a steep hill rising above tho Tagus. ^>'M 
several massive convents and other extensive buildii,;*. 
and an old castle, and 7300 inhabitants. The ii\u<: 
towns of this district are : Torres Novas, a lively pla<v i. 
a fine country, with about 4000 inhabitants ; Golegau . l 
the Tagus, where one of the principal fairs of Portugal .» 
held; Salvaterra de Magos, on the left bank of the rmr. 
with a royal villa and hunting park, which contains n i. 
boars. 6. Thomar, containing the town of Thomar, t..<: 
of Santarem, with 4000 inhabitants, a large manuiac; >:^ 
for spinning cotton, manufactories of hats and wor>tv 1 
stuffs, and a vast convent belongine to the military crdtr 
of Christ. The other towns are: Abrantes, on the ^1 •■ ? 
of a hill above the Tagus, with 6000 inhabitanU, the t.i.'. 
church of St. Vincent, and a bridge of boats over the Ta^u^ 
The navigation of the river does not extend much aUut 
Abrantes, which is about 90 miles above Ljshon bv thr 
course of the river. Punhete, at the confluence of ih* 
Zezere with the Tagus, Sardoal, with 3000 inhabitants, ai «. 
Pedrogao, at the foot of the Estrella, belong also to the cl ^ 
trict of Thomar. 7. Ourem, north-west of Thomar ; u.- 
town of that name has 3000 inhabitants. 8. Leiria, c>i 
taining the town of the same name, with 2000 im * 
bitants, with a bishop*s see and a castle, on a steep ro< i. 
Near it is the village of Marinhagrande, with a &*--« 
manufactory, estabhshed by an English speculator. ^1 ' «• 
Other towns of this district are: PombM, near the U*.* 



JiT H 

ABDILBERCTp vm the fourth king of Kent in lineal 
descent from Hengist, through Eric or Aeac, Ocha or 
Ochta. and Ermeric, whom he succeeded while yet a child 
in the year ^60. Ab the representative of the llrst leader 
of th J Anglo-Saxons and tne founder of the oldest king- 
dom of the Heptarchy, Ethelhert, as soon as he attained 
manhood, engaged in a contest for the title of Bretwalda 
with Ceawlin, king of Wessex, who claimed that supreme 
dignity as the grandson of Cerdic« [England.] He in- 
vaded Wessex in 568 ; but the war was ^edily ended by 
his defeat in a great battle fought at Wibbandune, now 
Wimbledon, in Surrey. This was the first instance of one 
of the states of the Heptarchy drawing the sword against 
another. Ethelbcrt, however, according to Bede, came to 
be acknowledged as bretwalda about the year 589, after 
the decline of the fortunes of Ceawlin, who was deposed 
about this time by his subjects, and ended his days a few 
years after. Ethelhert retained the supremacy during all 
the remainder of his reign, though it would seem that his 
title never was acknowledged by the kings of Northumbria. 

The most memorable event in the reign of Ethelhert was 
Ills conversion to Christianity and the establishment of that 
religion in his dominions by the ministration of St. Augus- 
tine. [AususTiNB, St.] Ethelhert professed himself a 
Christian, and was baptized on the feast of Pentecont a.d. 
597. The Christian worship, however, must have been 
familiar to him long before this time; for he had been 
married to a Christian wife. Bertha, the daughter of Chari- 
1>ert, king of Paris, in the year 570, and she and her at- 
tendants had ever since practised their own religion under 
the guidance of Liudhard* a bishop who had accompanied 
her from France. After his conversion, Ethelhert exerted 
himself with zeal in the diffusion of bis new &ith. He 
founded the bishopric of Rochester about the year 604 in 
his own dominions, in addition to the archbishopric of Can- 
terbury, the establishment of which is dated from the ar- 
rival of Augustine. To him also must be principally attri- 
buted the foundation, about the same time with that of 
Rochester, of the bishopric of London, in the state of Essex, 
which was at this time governed in subordination to Kent 
by Sebert, Seberct, Sabert, Saebryht, or Saba, a nephew 
of Ethelhert. Bede says that the cathedral of London, 
whicli was dedicated, like the others that have since been 
built on the same site, to St. Paul, was erected at the 
joint expense of Ethelhert and Sebert. The conversion of 
tke king and people of Essex had previously been effected 
through the intiuence of the king of Kent. It was also 
through his daughter Edilberga, who married Edwin, king 
of Northumbria, that Christianity was introduced into that 
state. [Edwin.] 

Ethelhert deserves especial remembrance in English his- 
tory on another account. He is the author of the earliest 
of our written laws, the collection of * Dooms,' as Bede 
calls them, ' which he established with the consent of his 
witan in the days of St. Augiutine.' They are written in 
Saxon, or English, as it is termed by Bede, although all 
the other Teutonic nations employed the Latin language 
in their codes ; and they are the earliest laws that exist in 
any barbarous or modern tongue. There is no reason how- 
ever to suppose that the regulations which they established 
were in general new. They relate, to quote the words of 
Su- F. Palgrave {Eng, Com. p. 44), * only to the amount of 
the pecuniary fines payable for various transgressions, the 
offences against the church being first enumerated. These 
were of new introduction ; but every other mulct was 
known before ; and it is |»-obable that the principal benefit 
of the law cooMsted in a fiiirer apportionment of the com- 
peuf^ation to the crime than could be obtained according 
to the older customs.' The collection consists altogether 
of eighty-nine enactments or clauses; at least as it has 
cx>me down to modem times. But the only copy of it which 
wo possess is that contained in the volume called the * Tex- 
luH Rt)irensis,* which was compiled by Ernulphus, bishop 
of Ro<heHter, in the earlv part of the twelfth century ; and 
' it IS dirticult to believe, as Sir F. Palgrave has observed, 
• that the text of an Anglo-Norman manuscript of the 
tweinh reniury exhibilg an unaltered specimen of the 
AuKlo-Saxon of the reii^n of Ethelbert The language has 
e%'iden!ly been modernized and corrupted by successive 
tran-x-i ipiion?*. Some pa-ssajrcs are quite imintelligible. . . . 
Neither is there any proof whatever of the integrity of the 
text. It cannot be asserted with any de8:ree of oonfldenoe 
that we have the whole of the law. Destitute of any sta- 

tutory clause or enactment^ it is from the title or mbnc 
alone that we learn the name of the legislator.* The n*'\t 
oldest Anglo-Saxon laws that have been preserved (lh« -e 
of Hlothaere and Eadric, also kings of Kent) are uinrr 
than a century and a half later than Ethelbert. 

Ethelbert died in 616. Reappears in his old age to ha«t; 
married a second wife, but her name has not been records •! 
All that we know of her is, that after the death of Ethn 
bert, her youth and beauty were sufficient to temnt his ^<.!i 
and successor, Eadbald, to take her to his bed, mul •>< 
course to renounce at the same time the profc^v^i.u ••( 
Christianity. After a short time however Eadbald *\\* 
missed his stepmother, and returned to the faith he Itj'I 
abandoned, of which he ever after continued a firm fv.]^ 
porter. The dignity of Bretwalda went, on the deaili di 
Ethelbert, to Redwald, king of the East Angles. 

ETHELBERT, king of Wessex. was the second m.i 
viving son of Ethelwul^ by whom he was made king of i^' 
subordinate state composed of Kent, Essex, Sussex, a..<l 
Surrey in 802, on the death of Athelstan. [Ethblwulf.] 
On the death of his elder brother Ethelbald, in 860, althou^ \\ 
excluded by his father's will from the succession tu iU** 
supreme crown of Wessex, he was preferred by the AVitan t . 
his younger brother Ethelred, who claimed under the ^ili 
The chronicles celebrate the courage and militaiy ti)lu!ii? 
of Ethelbert : but no events of his short rei^n are distiiu :. ^ 
reconled. It appears however that the Northmen contitiucl 
to make occasional descents both on the coasts of \Ve&M.>\, 
and on those of other parts of the island. All that we we 
told of Ethelbert is, that he died in 865 (ur 866. He appear^ 
to have left a son, Ethelwald, and other children ; but le 
was succeeded on the throne of Wessex by his younger biv;- 
ther Ethelred. 

ETHELRED L (called also Edeh^ and Ethered). ki i^' 
of Wessex and head of the Heptarchy, was the third sur- 
viving son of King Ethelwulf, who in his will (ratifie<l h\ 
the Witan) appointed Ethelred to succeed to the throne im- 
mediately after his eldest brother Ethelbald; he did n^>i 
however succeed till after the death of his elder brothtr 
Ethelbert in 866. (Ethelwulf and Ethblbx&t of \\\ ^ 
sex J The reign of Ethelred was eminently disastrous butn 
for Wessex and for the other states of England. In t he la* ; 
year of the preceding king, the great Danish chief, Ra^: u 
Lodbrog, had been taken prisoner while making an auai t. 
on Northumbria, and put to death with cruel torturer. It 
appears to have been with the purpose of avenging in * 
loss that the various Scandinavian nations immediai* i\ 
united their strength in that great expedition against K in- 
land, which terminated in the conquest of half tlie cuuiiU« 
The invaders, to the number of several thousands, ui..i : 
the command of Inguar (or Ivar) and Ubbo (or Hu^;al 
landed on the coast of East Anglia, immediately afur uw 
accession of Ethelred to the throne of Wessex. Ha\.i . 
encamped and passed the winter on shore, they marth' « 
into Yorkshire in the spring of 867, took possession (.-: 
March) of the city of York, and having there (l*2th Aj . .• 
repulsed with great slaughter an attack of the North.ii 
brians under O&bert and Ella, made themselves ma>u.> 
of all the kingdom of Northumbria to the south of the T) ..> . 
and placed Inguar over it as king. They then marched i:.:» 
the kingdom of Mercia, and parted the winter of 86 7-^ 
the town of Nottingham. Beorhed, the Mercian king, u- .» 
solicited the aid of Etheb-ed ; and the king of Wessex. >• - 
companied by his younger brother Alfred, whom be ap{H:> r- 
to have admitted to a share of the royal power. »•: 
vanced with an army against the foreigners. The Dait> 
however did not venture to engage the allied forces of Wc^^l \ 
and Mercia ; and a treaty was made by which they agret-^i t • 
evacuate Nottingham and to retire to York. In that *r. 
they remained quiet for the remainder of this year, and ~ 
the next, during which England was afflicted by a .v:\t 
famine, followed by a terrible mortality both of huma^ ii 
ings and cattle. But, in the spring of 870, disregardii);z : e 
late pacification, they resumed hostilities, carrying t; . ' 
arms across the H umber into Lincolnshire, whicli w:i> i 
eluded in the dominions of Mercia. Notwithstaml. .; 
some attempts to check their progress, which weretua<io ••» 
Earl Algar, the governor of the district, they speed lU •> . 
ran all Lincoln, and pushed their way into the adjoiiiin- i 
ritory of East Anglia» sacking and destroying in their c^u . ^ 
the abbeys of Croyland and Medehamstead (or Peu r- ► 
rough), the town of Huntingdon, and the nunnery nf V. . 
and massacring and laying waste wheveyer they a^iiK^r. : 



E T H 

with unheard-of ferocity. At a Tillage ealled Hoxton, in 
Norfolk, thev seixed Edmund, the East Anglian king, and 
put him to death : he sustained the torments they intlicted 
upon him With such constancy that he was afterwards re- 
vered as a martyr, and the 20th November, the day on 
which he met his hXe, was assigned to him in the calendar. 
H i« deatti made the Danes mmters of East ^nglia, over 
which they placed Godrun, one of their chiefs, as king. 
They now resolved to invade Wessex, the only state whicn 
tliey had not either conquered or rendered powerless. They 
entered Berkshire, under the command of Halfden and 
Bacseg, and took the town of Reading without encountering 
any resistance ; but they were soon after attacked by Earl 
Ethelwulf at the neighbouring village of Inglefield, and 
driven from their ground with the loss of Sidnor, one of 
their most renowned captains. Four days after they were 
fallen upon at Reading by King Ethelred and his brother 
Alfred ; bnt on this occasion the Saxons were repulsed with 
great lo?*, the brave Earl Ethelwulf-being among the slain. 
The battle of Reading, however, was followed in four daj-s 
nioi*e by another more important encounter at a place which 
the old writers call Aescesdun, or the Ash-tree Hill, and 
which has been supposed by some to be Aslibury in the 
west, by others Ashton in the east, of Berkshire. The Danes 
were here attacked with great impetuosity and valour by 
Alfred, and, notwithstanding their advantageous position, 
were, after a struggle of some length, completely defeated 
and put to flight. It is said that the English chased them 
for the whole of the night and next day o>^er the country 
till they reached the town of Reading, in which they again 
shut themselves up. But a fortni^t after the battle of 
Ash -tree Hill they again met the two kings of Wessex at 
Basing, in the north of Hampshire, and this time the Eng- 
lish were worsted. A similar result attended the next battle, 
fought, about two months after, at a place called Merton, 
which has been variously conjectured to be Merton in Sur- 
rey, Merlon in Oxfordshire, Merden in Wilts, and Morton 
in Berkshire. In this engagement, which must have taken 
place early in 871, Ethelied received a wound, of which he 
died soon after Easter, leaving the now almost shadowy in- 
heritance of the crown of Wessex, and what would at a later 
period have been called the suzerainty of England, to his 
younger brother Alfred. 

ETHELRED II., sumamed the Unready, king of the 
Anglo-Saxons, was the youngest son of King Edgar, by his 
second wife, the infamous ElMda. On the murder by El- 
frida of his elder brother, Edward the Martyr, in 978, he 
was reluctantly acknowledged as king by the Witan, in the 
absence of any other individual having pretensions to the 
croun ; even Dunstan, who had steadily opposed the parly 
of Elfrida throughout the late reign, finding himself now 
obliued to acquiesce in the accession of her son. He was 
crowned by Dunstan, at Kingston on the Thames, on the 
1 4th of April, being at this time only a boy of ten years old. 
The reign of Ethelred the Unready is on the whole the 
most calamitous and disgraceful in English histor}'. The 
feeble and distracted government that arose out of his mi- 
nority and the circumstances of his accession immediately 
drew once more upon England the attention of tlie northern 
piratical powers, who had now remitted their attacks for 
nearly a century. A small body of Danes landed at South- 
ampton in 980; and scarcely a year passed afterwards in 
which one part or other of the coast wa-^ not in like manner 
visited and ravaged, usually with impunity. At length, in 
901, a much larger force than had before appeared arrived 
under two leaders, named Justin andGurthmund, and after 
taking the town of Ipswich, proceeded toMaldon, and theie 
encountering the English army commanded by the alder- 
man Briihnod, obtained a complete victorv, Brithnod him- 
self being slain. On this it was resolved by the English 
Witan, on the advice, it is said, of Siric, who had succeeded 
Dunstan as the king^s chief counsellor, to buy off the in- 
vaders with a sum of money. They agreed to accept 10,000 
pounds of silver, which was accordini<ly paid to them, 
being raised by an impost on all the landed property in the 
kingdom, which from this time became a regulai* tax, under 
the name of the Danegeld, and was perliaps the fii*st direct 
tax imposed in England. It was felt however that this was 
a very precarious expedient to trust to; and, as soon as the 
Danes were gone, the government proceeded to fit out a 
formidable fleet, which might perhaps have been of service 
if it had been ready to meet them when they amved. As 
it was, it was no sooner afloat than it was rendered useless 

by treachery and mismana^ment. A squadron of Danes 
having again appeared on the coast in 992, Alfric, the com- 
mander of the English fleet, when sent to surprise them, 
secretly gave them information of the intended attack, and 
then went over and joined them. The next year, when the 
Northmen made a descent upon the coast of Northumber- 
land, and took by storm the castle of Bamborough, the 
leaders of the force sent against them in like manner de- 
serted to the enemy. In 994 a much more powerful arma- 
ment than had yet appeared sailed up the Thames under 
the command of Sweyu or Svein, king of Denmark, and 
Olave king of Norway ; it consisted of ninety-four ships, and 
directed its first efforts against London, which however de- 
fended itself successfully against the assault. The invaders 
then overran and laid waste a great part of Essex, Kent, 
Sussex, and Hampshire. In the end they were again bought 
off by the payment of a sum of money, their (femand this 
time rising to 16,000 pounds of silver. Olave now con- 
sented to embrace Christianity; and he ftuthfully kept 
his promise of never again molesting England. Not so 
the king of Denmark ; his forces continued their attacks 
year after year; and at last, in 1001, Ethelred found him- 
self once more compelled to rid himself of them for the mo- 
ment by his old expedient. He was now obliged to pay 
them 24,000 pounds of silver. 

For what length of time the relief which ^e thus pur- 
chased might Kave lasted it is impossible to say. Ethelred 
now resorted to another mode of dealing with the evil, which 
was of a yenr different character from that to which he had 
hitherto adhered, but combined the qusdities of being at 
once still more unjustifiable and still less likely to prove 
efficacious. On the 13th November, the festival of St. 
Brice, in the year 1002, the Engli^ inhabitants, in obe- 
dienee, it is said, to secret instructions received in every 
city from the government the evening before, suddenly rose 
in all parts of the kingdom upon the Danes T7ho were resi- 
dent among them, and put them to death, men, women, and 
children. There has been some dispute as to the precise 
extent to which the massacre was carried, and it* cannot he 
supposed to have comprehended all the persons of Danish 
descent resident in the country, for in many districts it is 
certain that the majority of the inhabitants were of this 
description ; but there can be no doubt that a very large 
number of persons perished. This atrocious and in every 
way unwise proceeding did not long remain without its fit 
p&nishment. The next year Sweyn, whose sister, married 
to an English earl, had been among the butchered, again 
appeared on the south coast ; and flx)m this time it may be 
said the kingdom had no rest. After the devastations of 
the invaders had been continued for four years, they were 
once more bought off in 1007 by a payment of 36,000 pounds 
of silver. The next year, by extraordinary efforts, a nu- 
merous fleet was built, and assembled at Sandwich ; but a 
dispute arising among the captains, one of them deserted 
with twenty vessels, and turned pirate, and nearly all the 
rest were soon after destroyed by a tempest. Meanwhile, 
all the other forms of public calamity combined, to afflict 
the nation. The king was an object of general hatred or 
contempt ; the nobility were divided into hostile factions ; 
and famines and contagious diseases vied with the swords 
of the invaders in destroying the miserable people. In 
1 009 a new Danish force arrived, under a leader named 
Thurchil, who for the three following years spread devasta- 
tion throughout the only part of the country that had 
hitherto afforded an asylum from the foreigners, the fens 
of East Anglia. At last, after he had sacked and burned 
the city of Canterbury, Thurchil was bought off in 1012 by 
a payment of 48,000 pounds of silver, and he and his fol- 
lowers agreed, on bein^ allowed to settle in the country, to 
become the subjects of the English king. But the next 
year Sweyn himself again made his appearance, now avowing 
his determination not to depart till he had cft'ected the con- 
quest of the country. Entering the Humber, be received 
the submission both of the Northumbrians and of the parts 
of Lincoln that were in like manner chiefly inhabited by a 
population of Danish descent. He then marched across 
the country to London, putting all the males to the swoixl 
as he advanced ; but the capital, which was defended by 
Ethelred and Tliurchil, resisting his assault, he turned to 
the west, and, compelling the nobles to make their submis- 
sion to hira wherever he passed, he proceeded to Bath, and 
there c;u]«^cd himself to be proclaimed king of England. 
Soon after this London submitted to his authority ; and in 




the middle of January, 1014, Ethelred fled to tbe court of 
Richard duke of Normandy, whose sister Emma he had 
married some years before. He had previously sent thither 
Emma and her two children. 

On the 2nd of February however Sweyn died. His son 
Canute was immediately proclaimed kins by the army ; but 
the English determined to recall Ethelrd. He was brought 
back accordingly, after entering into a solemn agreement 
with the Witan, that he would be a eood lord to them, and 
amend all they wished to have amended, and that all things 
should be foreiven which had been done or said against 
him, they on their parts promising that they would all turn 
to him without fraud, and would ne^'er again permit the 
Danes to have dominion in England. Canute deemed it 
prudent to take flight before the national enthusiasm of the 
moment ; and it is said tliat another general massacre of 
the Danes Uiat were left behind in the country signalized 
the restoration of a national government. But Canute 
returned the following year with a powerful fleet : 'he was 
iramcliately joined by Thurchil, who, till now, had re- 
mained faithful to his English allegiance; other chie& 
followed Thufchirs example, and a great part of the 
country appears to have again speedily submitted to the 
Danes. Ethelred was con h tied to his bed by illness when 
Canute arrived, and he died in London on the 23rd of April, 
1016, at the moment when the enemv was preparing to 
attack that city. He was succeeded by kdmund, sumamed 
Ironside, his eldest son by a lady named Elfleda, who is 
said to have borne him six sons and four daughters, but to 
whom it is doubtful if he was ever married. Edward, one 
of his two sons by Emma ot Normandy, whom he married 
in 1002, also afterwards ascended the throne. [Edmund 
Ironside, and Edward thb Confessor.] • 

ETHELWULF was the son of Egbert the Great, whom 
ho succeeded in the throne of Wessex and the supremacy 
over the other states of the Heptarchy, in 836. The pro- 
vinces of Kent, Essex, and Sussex, which Egbert had 
conquered and annexed to his dominions, and also that of 
Surrey, which had hitherto been included in Wessex, were 
at the same time formed into a separate but subordinate 
kingdom, and nut under the government of Athelstane, 
whom some of the chroniclers state to have been the eldest 
son, others a younger brother of Ethelwulf. There is no 
older authority than that of Malmesbury (whose account is 
indisputably incorrect in several particulars and improbable 
in others) for the story that Ethelwulf was a monk at the 
time of his father*s death. His early education is recorded 
to have been conducted first by Helrostan, bishop of Win- 
chester, and afterwards by Swithin, whom, on coming to 
the throne, he advanced to the same sec; and he had also 
served with distinction in the field in the lifetime of his 
father. When he succeeded to the crown he retained as 
his chief counsellor the able Alstan, bishop of Sherborne, 
who had been in great favour with Egbert. What has 
been preser%'ed of the history of the first fourteen or fifteen 
years of the reign of Ethelwulf consists almost exclusively 
of the detail of a scries of contests with the Danes, who now 
continued with incessant perseverance those descents u^n 
the English coasts which they had commenced in the 
preceding reign. In 8.17 three squadrons of them made 
attacks on different points nearly at the same time. The 
next year they landed a<^ain in great strength in Lincoln- 
sliire, and, after defeating the troojis sent to oppose them, 
marched across and ra valued the country down to the 
ThamoH. In 839 three hard battles are recorded to have 
been fotight at Rochester, Canterbury, and London, besides 
m\ action at sea, near (Jharmouth, m which the English 
tieet, commanded by Ethelwulf in person, sustained a 
<lcfeat. For some years after this however the Northmen, 
abandoning Britain, directed all their efforts against the 
coants of France. But in the latter part of the year 850 a 
y ody of them landed in the Isle of Thanet, when, so ill-pre- 
pared was Ethelwulf for the attack, that the foreigners were 
enabled for the first time to pass the winter in the country. 
In the spring of 8^1 they were joined by ffreat numbers of 
their countrymen, and the whole multituoe ascending the 
Thames in a fleet of 350 vessels, plundered Canterbury and 
London. They then penetrated into Surrey ; but here they 
Were met by Ethelwulf at Okeley,, and after a long and ob- 
stinate battle, were defeated with immense loss. They 
Were so<m after worsted in another iMittle at Wenbury, in 
Devonshire, and also in a sea-fight near Sandwich by 
AthcUtane, the king of Kent. The consequence was, that 

the Danes did not min make any attempt on England 
during the reign of Etnelwult 

In 852, on the death of Ath^tane, the kingdom of 
Kent was assigned by Ethelwulf to his second son, EtheU 
bert, he himself retaining the chief sovereignty as before. 
The following year, at the request of Beohreo, or Burhred. 
king x>f Mercia, he led an army against the Welsh, and 
marched through their country as far as the Isle ot 
Anglesey, compelling them to acknowledge themselves tho 
subjects of himself and Beohred. On the termination of 
this expedition he gave his daughter Ethelswitha in mar- 
riage to the king gf Mercia. In 855 he undertook a 
journey to Rome, accompanied by his youngest son AUred, 
"who had been also carried to that city in the preceding }k'at 
by bishop Swithin. Ethelwulf had bv this time lost hu 
first wife Osberga, a daughter of Oslac, designated the kin^'^ 
cup-bearer ; and now, on his return through France, he 
fell in love with Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald. 
king of that country, and married her, although she had 
not yet reached her twelfth year. Meanwhile however hi^ 
eldest son Ethelbald, taking advantage of his father '<• 
absence (whom perhaps he represented as being in bi? 
dotage), had entered into a scheme for seizing the throne. 
It is said that among his accomplices was the prime minu- 
ter Alstan, and that he was also supported by the chiei* 
nobility, from which we may conjecture, that the attempt etl 
revolution was not without some strong reasons in its favour. 
And although the return of Ethelwulf is said to have pre- 
vented the ftdl success of the design, it was substantmlU- 
carried into effect It was agreed at a solemn meeting ni 
the Witan that Ethelbald should become king of Wes- 
sex, and that Ethelwulf should reign as sovereign, wUb 
Ethelbert under him, in Kent and the other eastern pr^ 
vinces. It may be supposed that in his new position Ethel- 
wulf enjoyed little more than a nominal authority. He 
spent the remainder of his days mostly in exercises of de- 
votion, and died in 857 or 858. By his will, which wai 
confirmed by the Witan, he left the kingdom of Kent to 
his second son Ethelbert, and that of Wessex in succe&sKti 
to his other sons, Ethelbald, Ethelred, and Alfred. 

One of the legislative acta of the reign of Ethelwulf ba< 
given rise to much discussion, namely, the grant which he 
made in 854 or 855, with the consent of the Witan. iw 
favour of the church, and which was wont to be oonsidcr^ i 
as the original foundation of the rieht of theclerg}' to the 
tithes. The grant is recited by uigulfus, Malinesbur>. 
and Matthew of Westminster, but not in the same tenn^ 
Lingard observes that ' the copies are so different, and tl.f 
language is so obscure, that it is difficult to ascertain its> nral 
object ; whether it were to exempt from all secular ser\ ire* 
the tenth part of each manor, whoever might be the pos- 
sessor, or to annex that portion of land to the posse&2>io..» 
which had already been settled on the church.' It can u *. 
Turner thinks, have been the original grant of the tn)>^ 
of all England. The * words,' he observes, 'imply eilltr 
that it was a liberation of the land which the clergy i..! 
before been in possession of from all the services and p:j\- 
ments to which the Anglo-Saxon lands were gener... ^ 
liable, or that it was an additional gift of land» not of tiil.i-^. 
either of the king's private patrimony, or of some oticf 
which is not explained.* Palgrave contends that it was n.t t 
grant of tithes, but a grant of the tenth part of the land \\ 
metes and bouuds, to be held free firom all secular serv;oc^ 
yet he admits that the interpretation which construes i\ . 
grant into an enfranchisement of all the lands which t\ •/ 
church then possessed, is 'not altogether void of piol,.- 
bility.' {Eng, Com, p. 159.) There is a dispute aUo i\U y 
the date of Uie grant. Palgrave conceives that £thelv\ ^.r 
made it on his return from Rome; Turner and Lincu I 
both place it before his joumev thither. The latter aLil<i> . 
' This charter was at first confined to the kingdom of Weii^ex : 
but in a council of the tributary states, held at Winches :« r 
in 855. it was extended to all the nations of the Saxons* 


ETHERE6E, sometimes written ETHERIDGE. SIR 
GEORGE, bom about 1636, was a distinguished \iit a:.i 
dramatic writer of the reign of Charles II. Accordir^e »-• 
the usual routine of a gentleman's e<lucation at that tinv 
he studied law at an inn of court and travelled. In 16G4 Ic 
made his first public appearance as author of the cocnu > 
called * Love in a Tub.* * She Would if she Could' follovi o3 
in 1668, and * The Man, of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter*' ; > 
1676. AU these were received with much favour b>-'u.c 


might ettablish t, iperiei for euh individuel, He notice* 

H. Rang's judicioui observation, that in Iho ume i '-' 

there *re individuBlt umed wilh ajiine*, and othen 
of Ihote Appendages, and that the Bbadeg of this character 
ara u gradual that it is impossible to regard it as of the 
unallMl importance. In following out this principle, M. 
Rang considers Etkeria tvbifera of Sowerby and Blheria 
Cmlliaudi of F^russac as identical, and E. Corieroni of 

gnini Mtdhria should be referred. 

Elhena, or, as some wrile it, Mlheria, has not yet been 
discovered in a fossil slate. It should be remembered that 
KaQnesque uset the term for a genua of Macrourous ftin 
laceans beloiimng lo ihc Paleemnnidie. 

ETHERINE. a peculiar carburettod hydrogen, which hij. 
alito been regarded as ihe basis of Blher, It is supposed to 
cunii!>l of 4 equivalents each of hydrogen and carbon. 

This and i* prepared by passing the vapour of anhydrous 
sulphuric acid sluaflv into abaolule alcohol kept cold- by 
their mutual action on olcacmous Uuid is formed, without 
ibo evolution of any gaseoua matter. This fluid is to be 
mixed wilh water and siluraled with barylcs, by which a 
portion of sulphala is separated, and et hero-sulphate of 
barges is obtained by evaporation in vacuo. 

The acid in this salt is stated lo consist of— 

Two equiv. of sulphuric acid , , 80 
One c|uiv. of etherina .... 28 
One equiv. of water ..... 9 

Equiv. of othero-sulpburic or elhionic acid 1 17 
It may be i^nsidcred either as a hydrafod bisulphale of 
anhydrous bisiilp)ialc of ajllicr. or of o^idu 




mply as pliei 

wliii-h relates t 



(Dr. Thomas Brown's 
0.) The term is derived from 
ijjniflcation, is equivalent with 
I'o the adjfplive m<jra/t>, and 
liist'itle, in the second book of 

LfClurrf, p. 4Kf,. K.liiil,., I-.T 

the Oreek tJOuij, «birh, in • 

the Laim m«, mnr/.,. wher 

the Engti.h word mom/t. t 

hi* Ethics, aildre^-rd to his son Nifomaphu^ gay. ..,„. 

moral «-ifnce rffeivcl the name of ethics from the word 

tlh-n {lOoo, • habit, ■ - - ' 

or iri tA» ^MvX ainM it i> from habitnal esperienoe, ani 
the routina of ouatamary conduct that moral dispobitii<i;A 
and priDciplea are gradually formed and changed. Cicvr.i. 
in hii work on moral ends (/)« Ptmbut, 1. I and 6) bnetli 
deflnsa ethica,<H' morality, aa the ' an vivendi,' or 'doctrmi 
bene vivendi,' that i*, the art of living wisely. The w- h<>- 
lasiie tieatiaea on ethic* divide the practical part of il,c 
science into three departments itMke (i!0tr4), which sho«> 
by appropriate precepts what is the duty of a good maii 
aetmom/u (otcvra^iuit), which shova what is the duty »i . 
good &ther of a fkmily; and politilu (raXtn^k wli;'i. 
exhiliits the dntr of a good eitiien, and of a good maj:.- 
trale. rHoKALa.] 

ETBlCUS, or /ETHICUS, is conjectured to have In, J 
about the fourth century of our teia, and is the reput. 1 
author of a CoEmogiaphy or short description of the sm: . 
being an enumeration of the sees, islands, provinees, moL.. 
tains, rivers, and towns of the then known world, miii - 
short account of the sources and course of the priiK] 
rivers. In speaking of the Tiber's course through Komt, . - 
mentions the gate of St. Peter, that of St. Paul, and the V . 
Porluensis, or of 'the martyr St. Felix.' Ha also S|n..>. 
of Rome as the mistress of the world, of the games 1.. 
by the Romans, of the prsfectus urbis, &c. These i :. 
cumstances may serve to ffx the lime of the compi]aii,.i: ; 
the work towards Ihe end of the fourth century, vl.. 
Rome had beoome completely Chrialian, but yet 1h;.. 
Alaric's invasion, jlilhicus end his Cosmography are ii^- ;; 
tioncd by several WTiIefa of the following a^f», and mi, : j 
otlicrs by IsitbruB of Seville, who lived in the early p:,ii ; 
the Bcventh century. Rabanus Maurus (de Itiret,i, ■■.■■■ 
Unguarum}, a writer of Ihe ninth century, cnlU vliib.- ... 
'a Scythian;' and Flodoardus, a writer of the foltuv.^. 
century, calls him ' iBlei" from ' Istrii.' (Vo«8iu^ dr It}'- 
rids Latinia, b. iii.) At the beginning of his Cosmogn :,i 
jfithicus I'lates that Julius Ceesar, during his con&uKi 
with M. Antony, by virtue of a senatus consultum, oil- 1. ! 
asurvey of the Roman world to be taken, and thai i... 
work was enlrualed to three geometers, Zenodoxus l'.,r -.i 
eastern part, Polycleilus for the south, and Tlieoduluj f r 
the north, who compleled their work under Augur'.- 
Tbia survey was probably Ihe source than which ihe Am - 
nine Itinerary was derive^, which Ilineraty in its prt-.' ■ 
shape has also been attributed by some to iSlhicus. [.\\- 
roNiNus, Itinrrarv or.] The Cosmography in most p.i; . 
cations is followed by another and somewhat fuller dc^«erint 
if the various parts and provinces of the world, apparv,.-.- 

the same period, entitled 'Alia totius Orbii Descrii>'. 

i generally attributed to ./Elhicus also, thouch il> - 

doubts concerning his authorship. This second wuri - 
also foimd almost literally in Orosius, forming' the siv :, 
chapter of hiihisUn'. It has been suggested that Or,,-; ■ 
may have copied it from jfithicus, end ihe text of Oro< . 
has certainly the appearance of a copy, as he has ehorti- 
the beginning or introductory part, and also left out f . 
concludiu)^ sentence, in which the author of the descnn:. 
as we have it separately, promises to give a contiutiaii .i : 
his work, or an ampler description of the towns, 8tc , .v 
ginning fhim Rome, which he styles 'Caput Jklui. 1. . 
Domina Senatus. (Simler's edition of ^ihicus, P... 
16TS.) This last sentence promising a fiiUer acc.i..,. 
which the author did not fulfil orwhich has been lost, « 
not have Sited Orosiua'g historical narrative, and ihf n : 
he left it out But it is also worthy of remark that iii :■ 
MSS. of Orosius in the national library at Paris, Noc. J-- i 
and 4882, the second chapter ends with these words, w 1, . 
are not found in the other MSS, and printed odiii.n,' ■ 
Orosius: 'Percensui breviter ul potui provinciaa et m.i. 
Orbia Universi, qua* Solima ita detaiptil.' This u | 

•^-em to attribute Ihe work lo Solinus. j 

To the two Gismogrophies attributed to i4iihici:- 
Ided, in some editions, another extract, whitth is sn ' 
' Julii Honorii Oratorls Exccrpta qun ad Cosraoirrarii 
pertinent.' It is in its plan similar lo the flrii fo-i 
sraphy of jfithicus. only perhaps sliU dryer and mi>ri 
ci.nect. The three have been published, together s 
PomtHinius Mela, by Gronovius, I.eyden. 1635. 

EtHIO'PIA <AO«T.o) was the name given by 
anlient geographers to the countries south of Ei^y pt. 
more general and vague sense they called Elhinpioit 
Ihe inhabitants of Ihe south part of AfVica, from thi- 
Sea to the Atlantic Heroiiotus (iv. IDD speaks of the E; 
I, (fAi^v, drA roD Iflowf, | pians as inhabiting the whole of South Libya (Lib^ a i» 

E T 11 


E T H 

hakah, mentioned in the Scripturea as having fought aeainst 
Sennacherib. The commentators on the book of Kings 
(ii. 19) hnve considered Ttrhakah to be an Arab chieftain ; 
an error disproved, as it is considered, by the existence of 
his name on one of the buildings of Thebes. This period 
of renewed intercourse between Egypt and Ethiopia, under 
circumstances highly favourable to the latter, was probably 
the time when the improved arts of Egypt were introduced 
into Ethiopia, and it was probably then that the splendid 
structures of Mount Barkal were executed ; a supposition 
whirh would be confirmed, if it be true that the name of 
Tirhakah is found in the hieroglyphical cartouches in the 
Typhonium of Barkal, according to Champollion's system. 
Again, under the Ptolemies there is evidence to show that 
Greeco-Egyptian colonies found their way into the regions of 
the Upper Nile, and along the shores of the Red Sea, and 
even as ftir as Axum and Adule in Abyssinia [Adulb; 
Axum] : these colonies or adventurers probably spread the 
Egyptian arts as improved by the Greeks into Ethiopia. 
All these vicissitudes may account for the various styles of 
building and sculpture found along the banks of the Upper 
Nile. The monuments of Assour and el Me^aourah are 
probably older than those of Naga, and these much older 
than those of Barkal, which are probably anterior to the 
temple of Soleb. We know from a passage of Diodorus 
that after the Ptolemies came to reign in "Egypt a great 
change took place in Ethiopian politics. In the time of the 
second Ptolemy the Ethiopians had a king Ergamenes who 
had a knowledge of Greek manners and philosophy. Being 
weary of the yoke of the hierarchy, he went with a band of 
soldiers to the inaccessible place (Barkal ?) which contained 
the golden temple of the Ethiopians, and massacred all the 
priests. (Heeren*8 work on Egypt, and the Egyptian An- 
tiquities in the British Museum in the Library of Enter- 
taining Knowledge.) 

Of the manners of the Ethiopians we know little, except 
what we may infer from their monuments and the scanty 
records we have of their religion and institutions, as 
aliove stated. Tlieir sacred language appears to have been 
the same as that of the Egyptian priests. From some 
sculptures at Barkal, it would seem that human sacrifices 
were occasionally in practice. [Barkal.] A peculiarity in 
the Ethiopian institutions is, that their women sometimes 
went to battle, and were not excluded from the throne. 
Strabo (Casaub., p. 820) speaks of the Ethiopian warrior 
queen named Candace. (See also Acts of the Apostles^ 
viii. 27.) On the propyla of one of the temples of 
Naga, besides the hero or king, is a female figure like- 
wise of regal dignity, with a large knife in each hand, 
going to cut off the heads of a number of captives ; the 
vulture is hovering over her head. The figures of both 
king and queen are remarkable for the magnificence of 
their dress, and though they have many characteristics of 
Egyptian style, they are much thicker than the Egyptian 
form, especially the female, which is remarkably large from 
the vert downwards. (Sec Cailliaud's Plates, 14. 16.) 

After the Romans became po8^e5vscd of Egypt, we read of 
several expeditions into Ethiopia, but of no ix^rmanent im- 
pression made by them upon that region. Caius Petronius, 
prefect of Egypt under Augustus, is said to have advanced 
as far as Napata, called Tenape by Dion, the first town of 
Ethiopia after Meroe. He aefeated Queen Candace, who 
was obliged to sue for peace. But the Romans ultimately 
kept none of their conquests in that quarter. In subse- 
quent times it appears that they conquered again, and re- 
tained a strip of territory along the banks of the Nile of 
seven days' mareh above the first cataract, but this was 
given up' by Diocletian to the NubflD or Nabats, on con- 
dition tnat they should prevent the Ethiopians and the 
Blemmyes firom attacking Egypt. Of the vicissitudes and 
ultimate dismemberment of the antient kingdom of Meroe 
w« have no information. 

The early Christian historians seem to restrict the name 
of Ethiopians to a people occupying part of the country now 
called Abyssinia. Procopius and Cedrenus call the Axum- 
itcs Ethiopians. [See the articles Adulb and Axum.] 
From those timet the name of Ethiopia has been given 
more particularly to Abyssinia, and the Geez or sacrccl lan- 
iruajre of that countr>' has been called Ethiopian. [Abys- 


The oripn of the name • Ethiopia* is uncertain. Salt 
says that Itiopjawnn is the favourite term by which the 
AbvsAinians designate themselves; hut this name was pro- | 

bably introduced among the Abyssinians hy the half Greeks 
of the kingdom of Axum. The word in Greek has the ap- 
pearance of being significant, and is sometimes interpreted 
'dark-coloured;* but like many other Greek names of 
nations, it is probably a native Asiatic or African term 
corrupted into the semblance of a genuine Greek word. 

ETHIOPIAN LANGUAGES. Under the general 
designation of the Ethiopian languages, three different 
dialects are usually comprised, viz., the antient Ethiopian, 
or Geez, the Tigr6, and the Amharic. The antient lanscuage 
properly called the Ethiopian is now extinct, or at least sur- 
vives only as the language of books and of learned men 
(whence it is also called lesana mas*haf, or book-language) ; 
and its place is now supplied by the two other dialect^ of 
which the Tigr6 approaches nearest to the Elhiopic, whilst 
the Amharic has more widely departed from it. [^^^'^^i^ 

The Ethiopian belongs to the fomily of languages usually 
called the Semitic, and among them it shows the closc*«t 
affinity to the Arabic. It is written from the left to the 
right, in a peculiar alphabet, which however appears to he 
of Semitic origin. (Compare the Ethiopian letters kri/, 
nahar, ain, and gemlt with the correspondmg Ph<snicuiii 
and Punic characters in PI. v. and vi. of Gesenius' Pa/tr .- 
graphische Studien^ Leipzig, 1835, 4to., and PI. i. of tbtr 
same author's Scripturce Lingtueque Ph(xnici€e iLmu- 
menta, Leipzig, 1837, 4to.) The alphabet consists uf 
twenty-six consonants and seven vowel sounds; but the 
latter are not expressed by distinct characters, nor I) 
points or accents, but by slight changes in the shape of \\.v 
consonants, so that each character represents an entiiv 
syllable. It is well known that the antient Devanagan 
alphabet of the Hindus, and the system of orthograph) ( t 
many of the modem languages of India, are modelled <>n i 
similar principle. Several of the Ethiopian letters are n^u 
no longer distinguished in pronunciation ; there are, tli 
instance, three h\ two «*s, two /'s, and aUpK and o'fn 
which are sounded alike, though still kept distinct m 

Gesenius calculates that about one-third of the roots aid 
primitive words of the Ethiopian language exists al^o .n 
Arabic; and a considerable portion of tne remainder .» 
found in Hebrew, or in the Chaldee and Syriac dialects. Ii. 
the inflection of the Ethiopian verb ten conjugations a^c 
distinguished, consisting, like those of the flebrew, Syn:-, 
or Arabic verb, of certain modifications of the oriVi'.i*. 
import of the simple root, expressed according to Mr:" 
analogy by modifications of the form of that root. We sub- 
join a paradigm showing the third person of the preterite . : 
each of the ten conjugations with the corresponding intlt-^^ 
tions of an Arabic root. The Ethiopic verb gabera is usr. . 
in those conjugations only to which we have added a Ln:... 


Conj. i. gahera, fecit 

ii. gabbdrOt fieri curavit 
iii. gUbara 
iv. agbara, coegit 
V. agabura 
vi. tagabera^ fiu^tus est 

vii. tagabbara, opus fecit v. takabbala 

viii. tagiibara vi. takabafa 

ix. angabara vii. inkabalu 

X. astagbaraj exegit (pecuniam) x. istakUiia 

From any of these conjugations a passive voice mav lo 
derived by prefixing /a-. Each conjugation has, na in the 
other Semitic dialects, a preterite and a fiiture tense, vrxxh . 
distinct subjunctive or optative form, similar to the ap.> 
copato future (aoriste conditionnel of De Sacy) in Arabic: 
an imperative and infinitive, but no participle. Tliere is u • 
separate inflection for the dual number either in the \€rl 
or noun. In the declension of nouns, cases are aometimt^ 
characterized by terminations analogous to those of tl c 
Arabic language. From masculine adjectives femm.n-^ 
are derived, neariy as in Arabic, by subjoining -/. 1 : . 
gender of substantives is twofold, masculine and femin.m^ 
yet the distinction of the two is but little atteiKlefl to j.^ 
Ethiopian writings. The plural is expressetl as in Arab... 
either by terminations {-an in masculines, -at in femincu - . 
or by certain modifications of the vowels within the lim»:* 
of the word. 

The literature extant m the Ethiopian language is aliu^ 

A rat lie. 

1. Kahaia 
ii. Kabtni/xt 
iii. Kdba/a 
iv. akbaia 

E T H 

exdusiTelf biblicsl and ecelestutical. Tlie Ethiopiuii 
pQ^iseiS a complete translation of the Old and New Testa- 
ment, made by an unknown author from the Alexandrian 
text of the Greek version, probnhW not anterior to the 
fotirib century ; besides an apocnphal writing:, peculiar to 
Iheinselves, uilled the book of Henoch, which is supposed 
by Do Sacy to have been written durinc; tlie reign of Ilcrod 
lite Ureal, and to be the book quoted in the EpUlle of St. 
Jii'le (y. 14). (See TTm Booh of Enoch tlie Prophet, &c., 
tmnslatod by Richard I^wrenee, Oxford, 2nd edit. 1833.) 
There exists moreover a translation of the Didescalia, to- 
(rotlierwith SG canone»KoA 81 cOTUlilulioner or rules of the 
early Cliristian church, considered by the Ethiopians as apos- 
tnlical ; besides a collection of the decrees of the councils, 
extracts from the writingB of the early fathers, liturgies, 
martyrologies, and histories of saints. Hymns are not un- 
frequent: they are not written in any re^Iar metre, but 
sometimes show a rude sort of rhythm, and often every 
three or five lines end in the same consonant, which con- 
E^lituies a kind of rhyme. The profane literature of the 
Ethiopians comprises sevemi chroQicle^, which appear to \ 
of considerable mtereit, but have not yet been made gem 
rally accessible. Among these the Chronicle of Axum 
deserves to be particularly noticeil, o copy of whirh » 
brought to Europe by Bruce, and is now preserved 
Chelsea College, in the possession of iho family of that 
traveller, along with numerous other oriental manuscripts 
left by him. 

The Ethiopians have no grammars nor a dictionary, pro- 
perly so called, of their anlient language, and only possess 
vocabularies, in which words aro classed according to the 
subjects to which they refer. In Europe the Ethiopian 
language was almiat unknown tilt JobLudolf (or Leutholf), 
assisted by a native of the country, made himself master of 
il. His first attempt at an Ethiopic dictionary and grammar 
was published at London, in 1661, in4to; a much improved 
and enlarged edition of both works appeared at Frankfort 
in 1 7U3. Since the publicalion of these works, little pro- 
firess has been made in our knowlodge of the Ethiopian 
language; to them thecefbre ne refer such of our readers 

it has only Sve : tho two first rings are directed hackwardf 

and on the same plane willi the rarnpacc. 

Example, Etfuua Mascarone (Roux), Cancer MuKarone, 

the old chemists to denote various dark-coloured metallic 
preparations ; as Ethiopa Martialir, which i« black oxide , 
of iron ; Ethiop* Mineralis, which is a black mixture of 
mcrcurv and sulphui, &c. 


ETHU'SA, a genua of bmchyurous crustaceans (Tribe 
Dorippians), established by H. Roux at Ilie expense of the 
genus Dimppe of Fabricius and other naturalists. 

M. Milne Edwards observes that this genus is easily dis- 
tinguished from Dorippe by the conformation of the aper- 
tures leading to the respiratory cavity, which here present 
the normal disposition. 

Carapace, nearly quadrilateral, but rather longer than it 
is wide, and very much flattened; /ron( large, orbiU di- 
rected forwards, very incomplete; eye» carried on a rither 
long an<I very projecting peduncle ; they poss beyond the 
external angle of tlie carapace, and are not retractile. The 
inlemat antenna are bent back (sa reploicnt; forwards, in 
fogsettes placed under the front ; the external antenn/p are 
rather long ; thtir first joint is cylindrical, and separates the 
anlcnnary fjssetle fVum the orbit ; the third is louger than 
the second. The buccal frame (cadre bttccal) is triangular, 
and reaches to the border of the aniennary rossclles; the 
JiiT-/eet are much shorter, and leave naked the anlerior 
pirl'iuii of the jaw-tbet of the first pair, which complete for- 
wards the canal of the respiratory cavity ; the third joint of 
the external jaw feet is shorter than the seoond, nearly 
ciml, sharply truncated forwards, and articulated with the 
fullowing joint by tho middle of lis anterior border. The 
Plertfgottomian region* are nearly quadrilateral, and are 
not prolonged between the base of the externa! ^w-foot and 
of the first thoracic foot, as in Ihe Dorippes. The Sternal 
Plattron is oval. The anterior feet are short and slender 
in both texts ; in bending they form a double elbow, as in 
IJnmola. The succeeding feel are long, especially tiiose of 
the third pair; those of the fourth pau- are, on thecontraij-, 
e^lremely short, and inserted below the preceding; finally, 
Iho posterior feet, louger than the fourth pair, are inserted 
above and in front of them, and, like liiem, are terminated 
by a very short, hooked, and subcheliform tarsus. The 
aitaomen in the mate has seven distinct joints ; ia the female 

ETIENNE. [Stbphbns.] 

ETIENNE. ST., a town in France, in the" depart men I of 
Loire. Il is on the left or sonth-west bank of the FuranJ, 
a trihuta^ of the Loire, 255 miles south- south -cast of Pans 
in a straight line, or 3 1 7 miles by the road through Fon- 
tainebleau, Nemours, Montargis, Briare, Nevers, Moulins. 
Roonne, and Montbrison ; or 318 miles by Ihe road ihrough 
Melun. Sens, Joigny, Auxerre, Avallon, Autun, ChSluns 
sur SaQnc, Maoon, and Ljon ; from which last town il is 
distant 33 miles. It is m 45° 26' N. lat., and 4° 23' E. long. 

St. Etienne ia of comparatively modern origin. In the 
troubled reign of (Jharles VII, the townspeople obtained 
permission to inclose their town with walls : this was granted 
A.D. 1 444, but the space inclosed is said to be only a tenth 
of Ihat which St. Elienne now covers. The town was then 
called Fursnia : il takes its modern name from St Etienne, 
a bishop of Ljon, at tho beginning of the sixteenth century. 
The particulars which follow are chiefly from the 'Itiuf- 
raire De^riplif of Vaysse de Vilhera, Paris, a.d, 1 816, cor- 
rected by some later though less ample authorities. 

The site of the town may be distinguished at a distance 
by a dense cloud of coal-smoke. It is situated in the 
midst of a coal-field, and coal is Ihe only fuel employed 
in the various manufactories and workshops. The town 
is, especially the outskirts, very dirty ; in summer the 
streets are dusty, in winter muddy, and when it rains 
tho black dust, washed by tho rain from the roofs, converts 
the streams that fsll from the gutters into little better than 
ink. The houses, both in Ihe centre and outskirts of the 
town, are built of a coarse-grained grey sandstono (un greit 

Eis A gros grains), sometimes squared, at oilier times un- 
wn, the colour of which adds to the sombre character 
of the place, and deprives Ihe town of that handsome ap- 
pearance which its wide and tolerably straight streets and 
well-built houses would otherwise give to it The centre of 
the town is occupied by a laige and handsome though ir- 
regnlarly-ahaped open space or ' place,' in the middle of 
which is a fountain adorned with a small obelisk. From 
this ' place' opens a new street running above half a inilo 
straight line in the direction of Roanne, and tcrmi- 
ig in the only promenade which the town possesses: 
the iwid continues in the same line for two or three miles 
to the village of St. Priest, where the ruins of a Gothic 
rasllo on a hill Icrminate the view. There are bailis, a 
Ilieatre, and a town-hall ; ihe last building ia handsome. 
The population of St. Elienne. in 1832, was 33,U64; in- 
udliii; the neighbourhood it may be calculated at more 
than Sli.UOU. lis increase of late years has been very great 
The town owes its prosperity lo its situation in the coal 
district, which not only furnishes the inhabitants of the 
lighbourhood with a considerable article of export (for 
uch coal is wnC to Paris), but enables the townspeople (o 
carry on their various manufoctures. The coal is abundant 
and of good quality ; the colliers belong ratlier to the 
ncighbouihood tlian 1u tho town itself. The inhabitants of 
the town arc employed either in Ihe manubcture of fire- 
us (which aro made here lo a fiir greater extent thai) in 
y town of France), knives, locks, and ».lii:f liai-duaics, or 
the weaWng of ribands, in which it is also pre-eminent 
Whole families devote themselves to each kind of manu- 
facture: tho women work in Ihe same factory with the men, 
and sometimes share with them llie most laborious pari« of 
their task. There were, a very few years since, a royal 

E T I 



manufiustory of fire-arms, forty manufactoties of arma of all 
kinds, ten of cutlery, forty-five of hardwares, and one 
hundred and fifty of hlmnds and velvet. The waters of the 
Furand, which is hut a small brook, are well calculated for 
tempering iron and steol, and also for dveing. A railroad, 
more than 34 miles long, connects St Eiienne with Lyon : 
this work has been carried on in spite of great difficulties; 
hard rocks have been eut through and hollows filled up : 
there is a tunnel through a mountain near St. Etienne. 
As many as 1800 carriages are said to pass daily between 
the towns : stone is qoarned near St. Etienne. 

St. Etienne has a high school, a school for miners, a 
deaf and dumb school, a course of instruction in geometry 
and mechanics, applied to the arts, a soeiety of agriculture 
and trade, and a public library. 

It is the capital of an arrondissemcnt, containing in 1832 
a population of 149,189: the arrondissement is small, but 
there are in it several towns which are engaged in various 
branches of trade, similar to those carri^ on at St. 
Etienne ; Chambon and Firmini, where nails and ribands 
are made ; St. Chamond, where ribands are manufactured ; 
and Rive de Gier, where coal is dug and iron east A late 
return assigned to the arrondissement 47,750 workmen of 
all kinds ; of whom 3000 were ooUiers, 2400 engaged in 
iron and steel works, 3800 in manufacturing cutlery and 
hardwares, 2800 in making fire-arms or weapons for war or 
the sports of the field, 3000 in making naih, 1800 in glass 
works, 2900 in preparing silk, and 27,500 in the manufkc- 
ture of ribands. The value of the raw materials on which 
these workmen were employed was estimated at 36,885,000 
firanos, or about 1,500,000/.; and it was considered that this 
value was doubled by the various processes otjr- ^•/*ture. 

Before the Revolution, St Etienne had se\c«u« «wi.giou8 

ETI'SUS, a genus of braehyurous crustaceans (Cance- 
rians of M. Milne Edwards). 

Carapace less oval and wide than in most of the Arched 
Cancenans (Cancdri^ns arqu6s). The front is large, lamel- 
lar, and divided on the mesial line by a fissure, as in the 
Xanthi; but the two large and truncated lobes which form 
the principal part are separated by a deep notch of the an- 
terior and su^ior angle of the orbit, which is rounded and 
projecting ; the latero-anterior borders of the carapace are 
strongly toothed. The Intermd Antenna are bent back 
nearly longitudinally, and the basilary joint of the External 
Antenme, which is very large, unites with the front, and 

S resents on the external side a prolongation which fills the 
iatus of the internal orbital angle ; finally, the moveable 
stem of these antenno, which is very short, is inserted com- 
pletely out of this hiatus, below the firont and nearer to the 
antcnnary fossette than to the orbit. The extemdl jauh/eet 
present nothing remarkable; the feet of the first pairare 
rather large, and the cheltt, which are much enlarged and 
rounded at the end, are deeply hollowed into a spoon- 

M. Milne Edwards, who gives the above description, 
divides this small group, which he considers as forming the 
passage between the Xanthi and Ftatycareini, into the two 
following sections. 


Carapace ecarcely knobbed above. 

Example, Etieus dentatue. Length three or four inches ; 
colour reddish. Locality, the Indian Archipelago. 

EOtiM dMtotiu. 

Carapace covered with knobtp eeparated by deepfurro^i^ 
Example, \Etieus anaglyptue ; length about an inch and 
a half; colour whitish ? Locality, Australasia. 
ETNA. MBtna.] 


ETRU'RIA was the name given by the antienl Roman* 
to a region of Italy extending in their time from the ri\i-r 
Macra to the Tiber, and from the Apennines to the Tyrrhe 
nian Sea, the inhabitants of which they called Tusci, and 
at a later time Etrusci. The natives of Etruria howe\ff 
called themselves Rasena. The Greeks called themTvr- 
rheni, confounding them, according to the opinion of aofu<- 
critics, with the Tyrrhenian Pelasgi, who had occupied iho 
western coast of Italy at a more remote date, and who bcin^. 
driven away by the Umbri, the Etruscans, and other Italian 
nations, wandered back to the Grecian islands and coa:»t<». 
where they became known as pirates. But the traditiou* 
of these early migrations into and from the Italian penui 
snla are so extremely obscure, the statements of antient 
writers concerning them are so conflicting and nerplexin};. 
that the investigation is become a real labyrintn, and mo 
can only refer inquisitive readers to Niebuhr*s Hietory *4 
Rome, i., p. 1 — 145, and to the difl'erent systems maintain^'.; 
by several Italian writers, and especially by Micali in the U< 
and much improved edition of his work, Storia degli Aftttch. 
Popoliltaliani, 3 vols., with an Atlas, 1832, in wmch he c\ 
amines and combats several of Niebuhr's positions. Leavini; 
aside the question of the origin of the Tusci or Etrusci, «• 
find this people several centuries before the timeassigned i 
the building of Rome settled in Italy, both north and yoxw 
of the Apennines, in the plains of the Po, imd on the ba(i'». 
of the Amo. They had conquered a great part of this \^>. 
tract of country from the Umbri, one of tM oldest Ilalu- 
people of which history has preserved the name. Tl' 
Etruscans are said by Pliny the Elder (iiL 14) to have ixtu 
quered 300 towns or villages belonging to the Umbri, ^K >. 
after their subjugation, appear to have become in a gre«' 
measure incorporated with the conquerors, who thus ex- 
tended their dominions across the centre of the PeninsuU 
from the Adriatic to the Mediterranean. Cupra mariiiiLj. 
now Grottamare, in the territory of Fermo, on the Adrisi: 
coast, and Cupra montana, which stood near the banksv « : 
Asis, not fhr from the present village of Masaccio, in tl- 
province of Anoona, were Etruscan colonies. Of the gn-. ' 
plain of the Po, the Etrusci occupied the central part, fio . 
the left bank of the Ticinus and the right bank of the Tn* 
bia, which separated them fh>m the Ligurians on that <>■: 
to the Athesis or Adige, which divided them fVom the \ c- 
neti, who remained in possession of the coast of the AUtkil 
as fhr as the mouths of the Po. (livy, v. 33.) South of th 
Po the Ligurians retained possession of the highlands of tiw* 
Apennines as far eastward as the sources of the Arno, whu :. 
river formed at first the boundary between them and tik- 
Etruscans, who afterwards extended to the Maora, vbli<*'- 
they built Luna. The Etruscan towns in the plain of * . 
Po are said to have been twelve, hke those of Mniti.' 
Etruria, south of the Apennines ; but Mantua and FeUiiu 
(Bologna) were the only two remaining in the time of Ptin^ 
The others had been destroyed by the Gauls long befco 
The Etruscan origin of Adria has been dispuled. For \\i 
names of the other Etruscan towns north of the ApenniLi^^ 
see Mazzocchi Catalogo al/abetico de^Luoghi compresi mi. 
Etruria eircwnpadana. 

Towards the south, Etruria is known to have exteii<l> v. 
as far as the Tiber previous to the existence of Rome. ISi.i 
the Etruscans at one period went also fiir beyond that rnt : 
There was a tradition of their having conquered tlio VoK . 
who afterwards recovered their independence. (Senilis .- 
ASnnd. xi. 567.) Their regular settlement in Campan: 
where they are said to have also built twelve towns, was hov 
ever of a later date, probably in the second or third ccnti r. 
of Rome, when the Etruscan power, south of the Ap. :. 
nines, was at its height, and after they had lost b\ t < 
Gallic irruption all that they possessed in the plain>» 
the Po. The Etruscan colony founded at Capua vrould U 
according toCato*s statement, about the year 283 of Roiii 
The war of the Etruscans against Cume, in which xh^-y 
were defeated by the Syracusans in a naval fight had lay 
pened some time before. According to this caieulation t 
Tuscan dominion in Campania did not continue lani?. • 
the country was conquered by the Samnites about the %c-: 
330 of Rome. The extent of the Etruscan nonesiiottt lU 

E T R 


E T R 

of the mountain of Santa Flora, and on the borders of the 
Papal States, shows some fragments of its walls built of poly- 
gonal stones. 5. Tarquinii, the site of which is on the left 
bank of the Marta, near Conieto, exhibits no remains 
above ground, but the great number of h^poget, form- 
ing a vast necropolis in the neighbourhood, pve an idea of 
its former importance. They are excavated in the rock, 
which is of volcanic formation ; some of the chambers are 
square, fifty feet on each side, and about six feet high ; the 
ceiling is carved into square compartments, and is supported 
by square pillars of the rock itself; the sides are adorned 
with stuccoes and paintings, some of them allegorical of the 
btate of the soul after death, others representing funeral 
processions, games, banquets, &c. A number of urns, 
vases, mosaics, arms, and some skeletons, have been found 
within these sepulchres, which may be said almost to rival, 
for the interest they excite, those discovered in Egypt by 
Belzoni. The first Tarquinian hypogei were discovered 
about 1780, by Cardinal Garampi, and representations of 
them are given in D'Agincourt's work, vol. iv., plates 10 and 
11. But the greatest discoveries have been made of late 
years, engravings of which are given in Inghirami's and 
Micali*s works. 

Farther inland, about ten miles north of Tarquinii, near 
the village of Canino, Lucien Bonaparte has discovered a 
vast quantity of similar remains of Etruscan art, of which he 
has formed a valuable museum at Cauino, and of which he 
has published a description. {Miiseimi Etrusque de Lucien 
Bonaparte, Prince de Canino, in parts, 1829.) These dis- 
coveries have revived the question between the partizans 
of an original Etruscan civilization, and those who derive it 
from the Greeks. Probably the question might be solved 
by admitting various epochs of Etruscan art, one anterior 
and the other ]}osterior to the intercourse which existed be- 
tween the Etruscans and the Greeks about the second or 
thiid century of Rome. Even in the monuments of Tar- 
quinii and Canino two styles arc discernible. Other pro- 
prietors in the same district have made further discoveries. 
On the right bank of the river Fiora, in the district of Mont- 
alto, extensive remains seem to mark the site of the 
Etruscan Vulcia, which was conquered by the Romans at 
the same time as Vulsinii, about the year 473 of Rome. 
Here also a vast necropolis has been found, with a quantity 
of vases, paintings, and other antiquities. At a place called 
la Cucumella, a group of buildings of large rcctangiUar 
stones, consisting of cells and two towers, one square and 
the other circular, above thirty feet high, have been found 
buried in an artificial mound or barrow. At the top of the 
towers were winged sphinxes in stone, and below some lions 
and grifiins. Micali, plate 62, gives the plan and views of 
these monuments, which are one of the most curious 
Etruscan discoveries hitherto made. In 1832 only one- 
third part of the mound had been dug up, so that further 
structures may still be found. 

, Tlie site of Caere or Agylla lay near the village of Cer- 
vetere or Cervetri, between Rome and Ciutavecchia. Its 
port, Pyrgos, was near where the coast-tower of Santa Se- 
ver a is now. No remains of either have been discovered. 
The antient Vulsinii has been likewise completely destroyed 
[Bolskna]. The site of Veii has been long a subject of 
dispute, but it seems now ascertained to be on a steep hill, 
at the foot of which two streams unite, and form the Cre- 
mora which falls into the Tiber. This hill is about a mile 
and a half east of the hamlet of La Storta, the last stage on 
the northern road to Rome. The fiirm called Isola Famese 
occupies part of the site of antient Veii. The remains 
which have been discovered on the spot since 1810 belong 
tu the Roman colony sent there by Livia. The walls of 
Falerii, which still exist in a desert spot near Civita Castel- 
lana. are not always numbered among the Etruscan remains, 
as that town is said to have been built before the Etruscan 
conquest. The amphitheatre cut in the rock at Sutri is at- 
tributed to the Etruscans. 

HiJttory and Social 5/o/f.— Varro mentions the Etruscan 
annals existing in his time as having been written in the 
eighth age of Etruria, which is supposed to correspond to 
the fourth century of Rome. Two Latin writers, Valerius 
Flaccus and Caecina. the latter a native of Volaterr©, wrote 
histories of Etruria, and the emperor Claudius wrote in 
Greek his Tyrrhenicon or History of Etruria, in twenty 
books ; but all these are lost, as well as the books of Diony- 
Mus, in which he treated more particularly of the Etruscans. 
The little we know therefore of the national history of 

Etruria previous to their wars with Rome, is gsthered from 
fragments and incidental notices in Greek and Roman 
writers. The Etruscan power appears to have been at its 
height in the third century of Rome, about the beginning 
of the fifth century before Christ. Their dominion extended 
over the country of the Umbrians to the Adriatic on one 
side, and to the Gulf of Luni on the other. After P^r- 
senna had dictated a humiliating peace to Rome, the 
Tuscans overran Latium, and conquered Campania. By 
sea they rivalled the Carthaginians, with whom they at iir»t 
allied themselves against the Phoceans, who had settled at 
Aleria in Corsica, but afterwards the allies quarrelled together 
for the possession of the same island. They fought aguis^^i 
the Cumans and Syracusans united about the year 27'^ •-/ 
Rome, and were defeated. Half a century later they l«>-i 
Campania to the Samnites, after which the Romans hc*:^^ 
to encroach on that part of Etruria which lay betwvir. 
Mount Ciminus and the Tiber. Veii was the first Etru^car. 
city that fell by the Roman arms; Falerii and Fesctt...:! 
next ; Sutrium submitted ; Ocre and Tarquinii became ti.e 
allies of Rome ; and the Ciminus ridge with its hauntt I 
forests formed the boundary between Rome and Etrun;i. 
The Roman aims halted nearly a centiury longer belun 
they passed that boundary. The total defeat of the cuulV 
derated Etruscan forces at the lake Vadimonis, in the }c..: 
444 of Rome, opened to the Romans the access into Xm 
Etruria Transcimina. Vulsinii and Vulcia fell before tb 
slow but sure progress of their arms ; the other cities, sucii 
as Arretium, Perusia, Volaterrse, Populonium, disguL^cd 
their submission under the name of allies, but Etruscan \n 
dependence was gone. This appears to have been a pen I 
of general corruption of manners, when all national :»ft..: 
and independence became extinct, but wealth, luxur}', ar. I 
internal peace remained, and sensual pleasures were n,-^ 
chief occupation of the people; and this was also the ui\: 
when tlie earlier Roman writers who speak of the Etrur c-ai.^ 
such as Plautus, Cato, and Varro, became acquainted v. t L 
that people, llie wars and proscriptions of Sulla sr. v 
a final blow to the existence of the Etruscans as a naiiLC. 
their towns were destroyed, and their lands were gi%... 
to military colonists. The proscriptions of Octa\iai;..' 
aAer the battle of Perusia, completed the desolatiun < : 
Etruria. The language itself gradually became oblitemu i 
among the people, and was only known to the priests, w. j 
whom it became finally extinct, probably by the sprcati.. : 
of Christianity in the fourth century of our ajra. It ia i: . 
acknowledged by Micali, Orioli, Inghirami, as well aa I 
Niebuhr, that the Etruscan language is lost, and thai r 
pretended affinity to Greek, as maintained by Laitzi mJ 
others, has no foundation. 

With regard to the political and social institutions of :•. 
Etruscans, we cannot do better than refer to Micalf » v 
(vol. ii., chapters 21 to 24), in which he gives a fair j 
tolerably well authenticated sketch of their govcrnu.cj. . 
their religion and morality, and their domestic inauii.. 
We ought to bear in mind that all the accounts we hiv. 
the Etruscans were written after their subjugation to R . . 
and that a nation which had a political existence of cu.. 
or ten centuries must have undergone considerable cha: . . 
in its manners and institutions. Each of the twehei'- 
cipal cities of Etruria ruled over the population of its re-j-. - 
tive district, which was perhaps originally a conquered r.i x. 
In the city itself were two orders, the hereditary fa mill i- .. 
patricians or senators, and the commonalty. Political a . . 
religious power were in the hands of the former, who ekM^ 
from their own body the annual magistrate called Lucci;.. 
We know that the lucumo at times contrived, especiath • 
times of war, to protract his term of office, and sonic t.L > 
to retain it for life ; but all attempts to make it hercdit:. . 
appear to have failed. The patrician and hierarchal ori/r 
appears to have maintained to the last its sway anciong ibi 
Etruscans, the arts of divination, of which it was in ex. :.- 
sive possession, being a powerful instrument in its baiid* 
among a people so much fashioned to religious obser>aiKt> 
and rites, for repressing all attempts of the comxuona -- 
Accordingly we hear of no struggles of the kind in Etri r . 
as at Rome; but we hear of revolts of slaves against iL . 
masters, as in the case of Vulsinii, for the Etrus<\.; ^ 
had numerous slaves. Their sway over the people m I. . 
they conquered, such as the Umbri, appears tu ba\e *•« 
mild: they did not destroy their towns, but surrt ui.-' . 
them with walls, or built new ones; they taught tl 
agriculture and other arts, they instructed them iii rclic» ., 

E T R 


E U 

and they nfe acknowledged to nave been tne civihzcrs of a 
great part of Italv. Rome derived its earlier civilization 
Rom Etruria. The art of fortifying towns with walls and 
towers is attributed to them. They wrought the iron which 
they drew from the island of Elba, they cast bronze, and 
they made silver vases and gold ornaments : they engraved 
on stone, and sculptures of primitive art are found on their 
oldest monuments. Tliey are supposed by many to have 
been the inventors of the arch at a very remote period ; 
Tuscan masons employed it in constructing the Cloaca 
Maxima of Rome. They understood hydraulics, especially 
the art of filling up marshes by diverting into thera the 
course of muddy streams, which is still practised with great 
success in Tuscany under the name of ' colmate.* The in* 
vention of the termini, or stones fixing the limits of property, 
in attributed to them. The rights of property, those of 
paternal authority, of testamentary will, of connubia or 
marriages, were all fixed by law and consecrated by religious 
rites. Their laws concerning debtors appear to have been 
more humane than those of Home, if we are to trust to a 
passage of Heraclides in which he speaks of, the Tyr- 

The Etruscans wete fond of good living and of sump- 
tuous banquets, and they are called gluttons, tat, and 
corpulent, by the Roman satirists. Virgil (xi. 735) accuses 
them of being given to all kinds of sensual pleasures. 
Their women seem to have had no great reputation for 
cliastity (Plautus, CisielL 2. 3. 20, and Horace, iii. Ode x. 
II); yet we find the female sex in higher honour among 
them than among most nations of antiquity. The women 
reclined at table on the same triclinia with the men, as ap- 
pears by their monuments. Their funerals were pompous, 
and accompanied by athletic games, but the combats of 
, gladiators appear to have been of a late introduction, and 
It is believed that they originated in Campania, and from 
thence spread over the rest of Italy about the fifth century 
of Rome. From some sculptures fbund on their monu- 
ments it would appear as if human sacrifices were at one 
time in practice among them unless these representations 
be symbolical, as some suppose The mythology of the £ trus- 
cans was partly of native, partly of oriental invention. They 
believed in two principles, a good and an evil one, each 
having its respective agciits or genii, and their paintings 
and sculptures are often representative of the perpetual 
struggle between the two. Twelve gods, six male and six 
female, at the head of which was Jupiter, formed the upper 
hierarchy ; other inferior divinities presided over the various 
elements and phenomena of this earth, as well as over the 
occupations and domestic comforts of man. Cicero speaks 
very favourably of Etruscan thoosophy, saying that they 
referred every thin? to Grod, and that all their religious in- 
stitutions were studiously calculated for the prosperity and 
security of the state. For further particulars on these 
subjects, see Micali, ch. 22 and 23, Bossi, Storia d* Italia, 
lib. L, chap. 6, and Miiller, die Etrusker; Dempster. De 
Etruria Eegali, with the continuation by Passeri, is also a 
work of much information, apart from the system and 
favourite hypothesis of the writers. These, with the other 
works alreaay mentioned, form the best Etruscan library 
that can be collected. 

mains of Etruscan temples or other buildings, but we can 
form some idea of their style from their h>'pogei or sepul- 
chral monuments, and also from some of their cinerary 
urns which represent a tcm'ple. (Micali, plate 72.) But the 
monuments which ser\*e perhaps to throw most light on 
this subject are tliose discovered at Castel d*Asso, the Axia 
of Cicero (Pro Ctpcina, 7), five miles south-west of Viterbo, 
where the rook forming one side of the valley facing the 
old castle is sculptured all along for more than a mue in 
thti shape of so many fronts or fu9ades.of sepulchral monu- 
mentsy the vaults themselves being excavated underneath. 
SimDar sculptures on the rock are found at Norcliia, about 
15 miles south-west of Viterbo. (See Inghirami*s plates.) 
These monuments, which represent a primitive style of 
Etruscan building, strike by their rcsembUuice to the 
Egyptian style in its ruder and simpler form. Plate 62 of 
Micali represents a monument between Monte Romano and 
Cornet o, with projecting architrave and lateral pillars. 
Vitruvius, although he lived in an age when Etruscan art 
bad undergone considerable alteration, characterizes their 
buildings as ' baricephalse, humiles, latas,' low, wide, with 
heavy top ornaments. And this seems to be in keeping 
P. C, No. 692. 

with the character of the people, grave, and more fund ol 
internal comfort than of external show. What is now 
called the Tuscan or Tuscanic order appears to have been 
a sort of rude Doric, which they probably adopted from tho 
Greeks. [Civil Architbcture.] Vitruvius (iv. 7) gives a 
description of their temples with three celle, but they ap- 
pear to have been neitlier large nor splendid: the orna- 
ments, bronzes, and plastic figures appear to have been 
more elaborate than the structures themselves. In the 
time of Vitruvius the houses of the wealthy Etruscans had 
external porticoes or vestibula, in which the crowd of ser- 
vants and clients remained in waiting. The Atrium is also 
supposed by some to be of Etruscan invention. [Atrium.] 
If not the inventors of the arch, the Etruscans were cer- 
tainly acc]uainted with it at a very early period: it Is found 
in their sepulchral monumsnts, in their gates, and they 
used it in construct ing'the Roman cloacae. Another cloaca 
of similar construction has been discovered near Tarquinii. 
Their skill in fortifying towns with walls and towers and 
ditches, and leaving an open space around called Poince- 
rium, is attested by the Roman writers, and by the inspec- 
tion of the remains of their walls. Tho use of large poly- 
gonal stones in the construction of walls was common to 
other Italian people as well as the Etruscans and primitive 
Greeks ; and the name of Pelasgic, which has been given to 
these walls, appears to bo incorrect, as it does not drstinguish 
any particular class of these walls or the walls of any par- 
ticular locality from other walls of the same kind. If by 
this term Pelasgic it is meant to assert that all such walls 
are really of Pelasgic origin, this is more than can be proved 
or presumed. In most instances, however, the Etruscans 
appear to have used rectangular stones, ranged in hori- 
zontal layers, and uniformly without any cement. • For 
more complete information of what is known of Etruscan 
architecture, we must refer to Micali, ch. xxv., lughirami's 
text and plates, SerieslY., and Orioli, Dei Sepolcrali Ediflzi 
deir Etruria Media, also quote<l by Inghirami. 

ETRUSCANS. [Etburia.] 

ETSCH. [Adige.1 

ETYMOLOGY. [Languagb.] 

ET\^MOLO'GICUM MAGNUM (rb fdya krvfxo\oyiK6v\ 
an important vocabulary of the Greek language, of which 
the author is unknown. Some suppose it was written 
by a grammarian of the name of Magnus. The idea that 
it was compiled by Marcus Musurus, the first editor, 
or the Calliergi, is disproved by the fact that this dic- 
tionary is referred to by Eustathius. Sylbur^ considers 
it as old as the tenth century: much older it certainly 
was not ; for Theognotus, a, writer of the ninth century, is 
quoted in it. The derivations in this work, like most of 
those attempted by the Greeks themselves, are based upon 
no principle, and though in some instances accidentally 
right, they are generally full of the wildest absurdities, as 
one might expect from the author being confined to mere 
guess-work. It is valuable however for containing a great 
many traditions with regard to the meanings of old or un- 
common word.';, and it often enables the scholar to correct 
the eri'ors of the corrupt but inestimable lexicon of Hesy- 
chius. The edition of Sylburg (1594) is very .useful, and 
has an admirable index : the edition of the Etymologicum 
Magnum, by Schiifer, Lips., 1816, is a reprint of Sylbmg's 
edition. The edition by Sturz, Lips., 1818, 4to., intitled 
Etymologicum GrrocsB Linguro Gudianum, &c., is founded 
on the (3odex Gudianus, which is more complete than that 
on which the edition of Musurus and the others already 
enumerated are based. 

EU, a town in France, in the department of Seine InflS- 
rieure, on the south-west bank of the little river Bresic, 
near its mouth. Eu is 91 miles in a direct Ifuc N.N.W. of 

In the middle ages Eu becamo a strong and flourishing 
place : but on the threat of a descent by the English it was 
burnt, in 1475, by order of Louis XL, and has never re- 
covered the blow : Dieppe and other neighbouring places 
profited by its downfal. Only the churches and a few 
nouses that were overlooked escaped the general destruc- 
tion. The massive ruins of the walls and towers yet remain. 

Eu has several churches: the finest, that of Notre Dame, 
bi large and of beautiful Gothic architecture. A crypt con- 
tains the monument:} of tlie counts of Eu : these monuments 
were much damaged in the Revolution. A small church 
adjoining the High School, formerly the Jesuits' College, 
contains the monument of the duke of Guise, murdered ut 

Vol. X.— I 

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Blois in 1 588. There aro two cbftteaux. Of one of tbese, 
built by a daughter of the duke of Penthidvre, afterwards 
duchess of Orleans, only half remains, the rest having been 
destroyed in the Revolution. The situation of the chateau 
is charming: the park has an avenue of fine beech trees. 
There is an hospital attended by the Soeurs do la Charil^. 
The market-place is good. La Chauss^e d*Eu is a suburb 
of En, on the opposite bank of the Bresle. Tr^port, at the 
mouth of the river, is the port of Eu: it has a church 
singularly situated on the extreme verge of a lofty and 
almost perpendicular cliff, and a projecting doorway of 
beautiful Gothic architecture. 

The population of Eu in 1832 was 3356, that of Tr6- 
port 2061, together 5417 : the population of the respective 
communes was 3543 and 2267, together 5810. The popu- 
lation of La Chauss6e d'Eu is not given in our authorities. 
The manufactures of Eu arc linseed oil, soap, locks and 
other ironmongery, leather, cotton yarn, glass, sail-cloth, 
linen and lace. Eu serves as a mart for the corn of the 
department of Somme, which is imported into that of Seine 
Inferieure. There is a school of mutual instruction, which 
■was established by the King of the French when duke of 
Orleans. There is a tribunal de commerce or court for the 
decision of mercantile disputes. 

EUBCEA (£v/3oia), now called Ncgropont, is an island 
of the Mediterranean, lying along the coasts of Attica and 
Bosotia, from which it is separated by the Euripus, a very 
narrow channel, over which a bridge has been thrown, con- 
necting the island with the main-land. It is 90 miles in 
length in a north-west direction, and 30 miles in extreme 
breadth ; but in one part, between Aliveri Bay and Port 
Petries, it is scarcely 4 miles across from shore to shore. 
The only towns are Egripos and Karystos ; the former situ- 
ated where the island approaches nearest to the main, and 
the latter at the southern extremity of the island, at the 
bottom of a bay bearing the same name. 

The island generallv is elevated, and contains among Its 
mountains some of the highest in this part of Europe. 
Mount Delphi rises on the eastern shore to the height of 
7266 feet above the sea, and its summit is scarcely ever free 
ttom snow ; Elias of Karystos, at the southern extremity, 
is 4748 feet high ; Mount Khandhili, 4200 feet, and Tele- 
thrius, 3100 feet, are both on the western shore north of 
Egripos. The general formation of these mountains is 
grey limestone, with much cluy slate. 

It appears from the map constructed flrom Captain Cope- 
land's recent survey, that the small peninsula to the north- 
west, which terminates in Cape Lithada, is mountainous, and 
contains one elevation, Mount Lithada, which rises to the 
height of 2837 feet above the sea. A little south of the 
point where this peninsula joins the mass of the island, 
and on the west coast opposite to Boeotia, is Mount Tele- 
thrius, with some hot springs near its base. From Te- 
lethrius the mountains spread out north-east to Cape 
Amoni, the most north-eastern point of the island, and 
eastward to the coast, filling the northern part of the island, 
and containing several elevations above 2000 feet. Along 
the northern coast of the island, opposite to Thessaly, and 
stretching at the base of this mountain eroup, is the fertile 
and extensive plain of Oreos. the antient Hestiaootis. South 
of Telethrius there is high land, with some interruptions, 
along the west coast as far as Cape Politika: within these 
limits is Mount Khandhili, near the const, and another 
mountain 2694 feet high. Between Cape Politika and Egri- 
pos, and extending several miles inland, is the fertile plain of 
Egripos, bounded on the north and north-east by the high 
mountains which extend to the eastern coast. Tlie centre 
of this mountain mass is Delphi, already mentioned, and it 
contains several other elovalions which are between 4000 
and 5000 feet. Between the mountains which we have 
described as occupvinp the north part of the island and the 
mass of which Delphi is the centre is the small plain of 
Mandhoudi on the east coast of the island. South of the 
narrow channel on which Egripos is situated there is a tract 
of low land along the Bay of Vathia, backed by the range 
of Mount Vathia (3821 feet), which appears to be separated 
bv a depression from the group of Delphi, and forms part 
or tho south-oast boundary of Ihe plain of Egripos. Far- 
ther aouth and near the west coast there is also the plain 
of AUvorL The rest of the island south of Aliveri, along 
Um wwt coMt» and tho whole of the eastern coast from the 
plain of Mandhoudi, appoan to be mountainous. The 
•oathern •xtremity of the island is filled by the maM of 

Mount Elias (4748 feet), which presents to the AfebipeW^i 

an iron-boimd and dangerous coast. 

To the southward the plains are generally eultivav.i 
with corn and olives, but those to the northward, called r.i/ 
Plains of Oreos, are more particulaily devoted to the \, 
from which a light red wine is made, which is the comin' !j 
beverage of the Greeks, and fyrms a staple article of tra j« . 
The wine is kept in pig-skins, well coated with ream, 'wh.* t. 
communicates its unpleasant flavour to the contents* v h: !. 
otherwise would not be unpalatable. A ddeterioua sirde:.: 
spirit is distilled from the husks of the grapes. Cottoii a 
also planted more to the northward. 

On the shores of the Bay of Oreos are some ruins on an 
eminence, apparently only a militar>' post ; a few huts n<>w 
surround its base, but about two miles in the interior u a 
large village called Xero Chori, or dry village. 

The island is not populous: it is conjectured to com a 'i 
between 60,000 and 70,000 inhabitants, nearly all Grvt'^v 
The villages are few, and, as is the case every where in t^ « 
Archipelago, built at some distance from the beach, ^c :.«- 
rally on an elevation difficult of access. This precaut: -: 
has been taken on account of the numerous depreda'i.ri- 
of the pirates, who were accustomed to land, sack a viil:i^^''. 
and embark before moniing, so that unless the place Titr.> 
tolerably large and populous, there was no safety for litV r 

The passage between Thessalv and Eubcea, called tj 
Trikiri Channel, from the town ot that name at the eas'.o.T- 
entrance to the Gulf of Volo, is about 4 miles in a\or .• 
width ; the narrowest part, which is towards the wcm' . • 
extreme, is not ouite 1^ mile ; the depth of water is regu.Lr. 
steep from both shores, and decreasing gradually ir r: 
about 50 fathoms at the entrance to 30 towards the vie»'ir. 
end of the Kegropont, off which lie some small f\.. »;• 
islands called Lithtuia Islands. Passing these islands, v . 
turning to the southward, is the Gulf of Talanda, so i\t^ -. 
frt>m the town of that name on the Boeotian shore. A • 
markable feature in this part of the channel is the emr/ : 
depth of water under Mount Telethrius, where, for abnii: . 
or 1 5 miles, there is no bottom with 220 fathoms within I . .. 
a mile of the shore ; but from this point the water shf : • 
gradually towards Egripos. Towards the north-we^t e\:'- 
mity of this shore there is a very safe and excellent hai ) ' ■ 
now called Port Ghialtra (formerly Port Kalos). Then ■-. 
two villages on its shores, Ghialtra to the westward. . 
Elypsos to the eastward ' near the latter are some an' 
remains and beautifully sculptured fragments of v 

At Cape Therma, the eastern point of the bay. then* ' 
hot springs (already mentioned) of the same kind a>, . 
more abundant than, those of Thermopylae. The ^. 
rushes down in a copious stream into the aca, the y n: 
from which is visible for a considerable distance. Bt* » - ' 
this point and Egripos there are only three villages. Or. » 
Glim, and Politika, all small; but at each of "them i: 
are Venetian remains. 

In the southern part of the channel there are mir. 
lands alonp: the Euboean shore, which offer good ancl.:r . 
more especially among the Petalion Islands, which .i* « 
in rabbits, but possess only one spring of fresh water. 1 • 
Egripos to Karystos there are only two villages, A. 
and Stura, in the bays called respectively from thvir p .:. • 
The bed of this part of the channel is level, but ct^ii - 
with the northern part it is shallow ; the general du . 
from 35 to 40 fathoms. 

The eastern side of EulxBa is a continuation of r • 
c6ast, the high land descending precipitously to the « - 
with few interruptions of level ground, and this or.i^ . - 
already mentionea, towards the northern part of the i*: • ' 
In the bight between Capes Doro and Octonia, it is au - 
broken line of precipitous shore, in which it is scarcely \ 
sible to find a ravine sufficiently wide to haul a boat 
Fragments of wreck are found at the height of eight) ' 
perpendicular, washed up by the heaxy sea whic^ a r .- 
east wind throws into this bay. These winds, which a]v- • 
blow very strong, are called by the Greeks 'zneliem/ y • 
bably a corruption of ' mal tiempo.' In addition to xhn. ' - 
Daraanelles current, preserving the course commuQirs- •. 
to it by the directk>n of that strait, sets strong to the s«.i: 
west into this bay, and renders it a most dangerous ccc> 
no vessel once embayed here can escape destruction. 1 ■ 
current beinr deflected to the southward sweeps re i 
Cape Doro, inquently at the ntts of Ihne aiilat «a bo^- 

£ U B 


£ U B 

Port Petriea u the only refUge whieh this coast ofieni» and 
so little has hitherto heen known of this shore that even this 
snelter has only recently heen discovered. The village of 
Koumi, in the bay of that name, is populous, and beini^ cele- 
brated for its wine, has considerable trade in that article by 
the small caiques, which however are alwavs obliged to be 
hauled up on the beach /or safety. Along the whole extent 
•f this coast, which is upwards oi 100 miles, there are only 
five or six villages near the shore. 

The small number of Turks resident in Euboea left the 
island on its being surrendered for the purpose of forming an 
integral part of the Greek kingdom, of which it will not be 
the least valuable portion. The mountains are said to contain 
copper, and the marble quarries near Karystos have long been 
famous. (Strabo, p. 446.) The soil, favoured by the diversi- 
ties of climate which such a variety of elevation affords, is 
capable of yielding the productions of tropical as well as 
of more northern regions, and of supporting an infinitely 
larger population than now occupies Uie land. The island 
abounds in sheep of an excellent breed ; but bullocks are 
scarce, and bred principally for agricultural purposes. In 
the mountains are abundance of wild boar and deer, and 
the plains are overrun with hares and rabbits. Among the 
trees are the olive, oak« fir, chestnut, walnut, mulberry, and 
oriental plane. In the whole island there is not a stream 
deserving the name of a river into which the smallest boat 
could enter, and the inhabitants generally supply them- 
selves with water from wells. 

On the summit of Mount Elias (the Oche of Strabo) are 
the remains of an antient temple, consisting of rude unor- 
namented blocks of limestone, and columns of the same 

The town of Egripos, the antient Chalcis, the chief 
town in the island, is in 38*" 26' N. lat, apd 23"* 37' 
£. long., at that part of the island where it is separated 
from the coast of Bosotia by a narrow channel of only forty 
yards. It is ^ walled town, and further defended, where 
the walls are not washed by the Euripus, by a deep and 
wide dry ditoh. The walls are turreted, slight, and built 
without regularity, and the numerous winged lions of St. 
Mark leave no doubt of their Venetian origin. Hie area 
enclosed is about 800 yards in length by about 500 in 
width, which was formerly inhabited exclusively by the 
Turks ; ther streets are very narrow, but the houses capa- 
cious. The town has several gates constructed with great 
intricacy ; that leading over the Euripus is particularly tor- 
tuous, and well defended ; the drawbridges have been re- 
placed by frail fixed bridges of logs, to the great peril of 

Another defence is the fort Karababa, on the main, which 
stands on an eminence about 130 feet high, commencing 
its rise immediately from the bridge ; this may be deemed 
the citadel of the place, as it ovenooks and commands the 
town. It is a very misshapen structure, of an oblong form, 
about 400 yards long, and 150 broad. The walls are in 
some places so low, that an active man might vault on 
them ; they are similar to and coeval with the walls of the 

Outside the town to the north is a suburb appropriated 
to trade, and inhabited (when the writer of this article vi- 
sited the place) by the Greeks and Jews. It consists of one 
main street about 300 yards in length, firom which minor 
streets branch off. The houses are very small, and the 
shops are chiefly coffse-houses, or contain general stores 
and articles of dress : the whole is enclosed m a stockade. 
Thej*e is no commerce except in supplies of fruit and ve- 
getables, principally fiom Yolo, distant about ninety miles 
to the north, which is all carried on in small boats. The 
surrounding oountry is flat and rich, but poorly cultivated. 
A subsoil of stiff clay offers materials for brick-making and 
potteries, whidi are already commenced on a small scale. 
The market is well supplied, especially with fish ; beef is 
difficalt to be proeured, but mutton veiy plentiful ; water is 
scarce, and proeured chiefly from wells. 

There are frcilities ibr building vessels of large size, as 
the shore goes off suddenly into deep water ; but the in- 
habitants nave advmced no ihrther yet than the repairs, 
clumsily executed, of their smaU boats, which are built 
generallv at some of the Greek islands. The forests on 
Mount Delphi of fir and oak (the latter of an inferior qudity) 
would supply wood, which might with fkcility be brought 
to the town. 
, Immedialdy opposite Bgripos the land rises suddenly to 

hills of considerable height, beyond which lie the plains 
of Thebes, which town is distant about 4 hours, or 12 

The breadth of the Euripus is diminished by a rock in 
mid-chaunel, on which a fort is built, dividing it into two 
channels : that towards the main, though rather the broader, 
is only practicable for small boats, as there is not more than 
three feet water at any time. Between the rock and the 
walls of Egripos is a distance of 33 feet, and the least depth 
at the highest water is 7 feet. It is here that the extraor- 
dinary tides take place for which the Euripus was formerly 
so noted : at times the water runs as much as eight miles 
an hour, with a fall under the bridge of about l| feet: but 
what is most singular, is the fact that vessels lying ! 50 yards 
from the bridge are not in the least affected by this rapid. It 
remains but a short time in a quiescent state, changing its di- 
rection in a few minutes, and almost immediately resuming 
its velocity, which is generally from four to five, miles 
an hour either way, its greatest rapidity being however 
always to the southward. The results of three months' ob- 
servation, in which the above phcenoroena were noted* 
afforded no sufficient data for jreducing them to any regu- 

The port to the northward of the bridge, though not capa- 
cious, is secure : four or five frigates might moor in it, and 
it would contain many sail of roerchanimen. It is about 
three-fourths of a mile in depth, decreasing in width from 
half a mile to the bridge, towards which the water shoals 

fradually firom eleven and twelve fathoms, with a muddy 
ottom : outside is a good roadstead, with excellent holding- 
ground. The entrance is clear and free fiom danger, and 
although open to the Gulf of Talanda, there is never any 
sea of conseouence ; but the gusts which come down off 
Mount Khanohili are very heavy. 

To the southward of the bridge there are two ports ; the 
inner is supposed to be the Port Aulis, where the Grecian fleet 
assembled previous to the Trojan war. It is about a mile 
across each way, with six fiithoms generally all over it, but a 
bank of 14 foct in the strait which communicates with the 
outer port confines its access to vessels of that draught of 
water. The outer poi:t, which is two and a half miles long and 
one broad, is joined to Port Aulis by a channel nearly hidf a 
mile in length and 400 yards broad, but its outlet to the 
southward is narrow and intricate. Opposite Egripo Island 
water maybe procured for shipping, though it is not always 
good or plentiful : the quantity of vegetable substance in 
Uie pools which are formed previous to its flowing into the 
sea rendere it frequently unwholesome. A round tower on 
the eastern point, called the Bourg, is a good mark for the 
entrance of this port firom the southward. 

In and about Egripos fragments of antiquity may be seen 
forming parts of the walls of houses, in common with the 
grosser materials, like diamonds set in lead. They are 
generally of white marble, beautifully chiselled ; but in no 
place can any buUding be traced, or vestiges of walls. The 
pieces of columns are generally of the Corinthian order, 
fluted. On Egripo Island there is the appearance of a rude 
wall traversing the island; and on the mainland, at the 
southern shore of the channel, between the two ports, where 
the land rises to about 400 feet, are the remains of Cyclo- 
pean walls of very high antiquity. The blocks of stone, 
which are very massive, rude, and irregular, but fitting 
closely, are of limestone, and in construction the walls re- 
semble4ho6e of Mycenae. This is most probably the antient 
Aulis ; though there may have been houses at a less eleva- 
tion and nearer the shore more convenient for commerce, 
the ascent to these ruins being steep and difficult, llie site 
of Eretris in Euboea has not been exactly discovered, but 
it must have been near the west coast and south oi Chalcis. 

Britiih MuMum. 

Coin of BrotrU, 
Actual sise. Silver. 


The country around Egripos is flat for many miles, and 
very prettily studded with kiosks and small villages. An 
aqueduct which, commencing at the foot of Mount Delphi, 


E U B 


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trmds its way to within half a mile of the town, forms a ven* 
picturesque ohject. Though it no longer conveys water, 
it is hy no xneans in a ruinous condition. It appears to 
he of Venetian construction, and there are several ruins of 
that ajie in the neighhourhood ; ope especially, called Kastro, 
sit'inted on the apex of an insulated rise, and presenting to- 
wards the sea a steep cliff, rcsemhles the baronial castles 
on the hanks of the Rhine. 

Egrijws is capable of vast improvements, and of becoming 
of great commercial importance. Little expense would 
render the passage of the bridge practicable for vessels of 
300 and 400 tons, should it be required, thereby avoidin[( 
the passage along the outer coast of the Negropont, which 
is the woi-st in the Archipelago, as the Dardanelles current 
sets on its iron-bound coast, which offers no port whatever, 
and is a lee-shore in the strong and prevailing north-east 

From Egripos there is a carriage road to Karystos, at the 
southern extremity of the island. 

History of Eubmi. — The first inhabitants of this island 
were probably a Pclasgic race, which is said to have occu- 
pieil, before the historical times, most of the islands of the 
i^gcan Sea. Tlie Dryopes from Mount CEta were said to 
have founded Carystus and Slyra (Herodolu«. viii. 40 ; 
Tlnicyd. vii. 57) ; and the Athenians founded Chalcis and 
Eretria, before the siepje of Troy. Homer (Iliad, ii. 536) calls 
the inhabitants of Euboea by the name Abantes, and men- 
tions them as having taken a distinguishe<l part in the expe- 
dition against Troy. The Hestiacots were said to be a colony 
of the Perrhcpbi, a Pelasgic tribe : but the Athenians appear 
to have been from a very remote epoch the principal co- 
lonizers of Euboea. At the dawn of the historical times we 
find Chalcis and Eretria, two independent but allied towns, 
which had advanced to a high state of prosperity, holding 
dominion over the islands of Andros, Tenos, and Ceos, and 
sending colonies to the coasts of Macedonia and Thrace, as 
well as to the shores of Italy and Sicily. Naxus, the first 
Greek settlement in Sicily, and Cuma, one of the oldest in 
Italy, were colonies of Chalcis. Eretria and Chalcis how- 
ever quarrelled, and Thucydides (i. 15) mentions the war 
between the two states as one of the oldest wars on record 
among the Greeks. This war however was not one of ex- 
termination ; and we find in the sixth century B.C. the two 
communities still flourishing, under the government of 
their Hippobotse, or wealthier citizens. Unfortunately for 
them, they co-operated with Cleomenes in his invasion of 
Attica, which followed ^lie expulsion of the Pisistratidoe, in 
consequence of which, after the Athenians had repulsed 
Cleomenes, thoy invaded Euboea, about 506 B.C., defeated 
the Bceolians, who had come to the assistance of Chalcis ; 
and having taken the latter city, they punished it severely, 
put many of the citizens in fetters, until they ransomed 
themselves, confiscated all the property of the Hippobotoo, 
and gave their lands to Athenian colonists, whom they 
sent over to the island to the number of 4000 (Herodotus, 
V. 77). EubcBa now became in great measure a dependency 
of Athens. Afterwards, the ^uboeans, together with the 
Athenians, sent assistance to the lonians of Asia in their 
war against Darius Hystaspes ; and their troops were 
among those which burnt Sardes (499 B.C.). The first in- 
vasion of Greece was the consequence of that expedition. 
Tlie Satraps Dalis and Artaphernes, landed in Euboea with 
an immense force, completely destroyed Eretria, and sent 
its inhabitants as slaves into Asia. The Persians then 
crossed over into Attica, where they wore defeated at the 
battle of Marathon. In the subsequent expedition of Xerxes, 
Chalcis and other towns of Eubcea manned ships, which, 
uniting with the rest of the Greek fleet, fought with the 
Persians at Artemis iuin. The Hcstioeots alone favoured 
the Persians. Af^er the end of the Persian war we find 
the Athenians under Cimon, the son of Miltiades, making 
%>ar in Eabffia against the Carystians, who had revolted, 
and reducing thetn to subjection. A general revolt of 
Euboea against Athens broke out in 445 n.c, but Pericles, 
with 5('00 regular troops, marched into the island, and re- 
covered possession of it: the towns of Eubojawerc reduced 
to the condition of tributaries to Athens, and an Athenian 
colony was settled atOreus in the territory of the Hestiseots, 
which was the fertile plain on the north co?st of the island. 
This island was of great importance to the Athenians ; it fur- 
nished them with corn, supplied them with horses, and was 
considered of more value to them than all their other co- 
I'liies jiut to^^ethcr. During the Peloponnesian war, after 

the defeat of the Athenians in Sicily, another general revolt 
of Eub<Ba took place, and the island placed itself under il«r 
protection of Lacedaemon, but afterwards returned 1o the 
Athenian allegiance, when Athens had recovered its inde- 
pendence: and from that time its four principal town\. 
Chalcis, Eretria (which had been rebuilt near the fi'v ••( 
the old town destroyed hy the Persians), Car)-.stus, ar.'^ 
Oreus, possessed a kind of municipal independence undi»r 
the supremacy of Athens, which supremacy was nt tiin«»^ 
disputed by the Thcbans, who were at last obliged to UM^ ♦• 
the island. The Euboeans however joined the Tlicbaji 
league against the Spartans, and foupht under Epam]- 
nondas. In the general prostration into which the 
states of Greece fell after the death of Epnminondns 
Kubcua seems to have been left in great measure to itst-J^ 
Its principal towns came under the nde of chief*, or tyrant*, 
as thoy were called, without any interference -on the part 
of the' Athenians. About 350 bc. Callias and Tautf- 
sthenes, sons of the late tyrant Mnesarchus, who were ruhn:; 
in Chalcis, made overtures to Philip of Macedon, in ordrr 
to have his assistance in subduing the rest of the islanrl. 
an opportunity which was eagerly seized by Philip. Plu- 
tarch, who was at the same time tvrant of Eretria, appliH 
to the Athenians to check Philip's interference. The Athe- 
nians sent an expedition under Phocian, who defeased V. r 
Chalcidians after hard fighting ; but this led to no favm.'-- 
able result, as Callias remained in possession of Chairs, 
and the Macedonian influence was established over ili>- 
island. While Alexander was absent in his Persian war-. 
the Chalcidians increased and improved their fortifiratifinv 
which extended to the main-land over the bridge they \\M 
built across the Euripus. When the Romans be^n to ex- 
tend their infiuence to Greece, Chalcis and the otner towt»> 
of Euboea contracted alliance with Rome, and they remain'. : 
steadfast to that alliance during the .£to1ian war. (Li\y. 
xxxv. 37. 39.) Chalcis afterwards submitted to Antioclius 
(Livy, xxxv. 50, 51.) In the Achiean war, after the deA: f 
at C5orinth, Chalcis was taken and destroyed by the Ro- 
mans, and the whole island fell under the dominion of 
Rome. It then gradually declined in population and i:.!- 
portance; and Pausanias and Dion speak of its fallen st;t?o 
under the emperors. 

In the dismemberment of the eastern empire by t**^ 
Latins or Franks the Venetians obtained possession •{ 
Euboea, which they called Negropont, a barbarous naint , 
probably derived from the town of Egripos, a corruption f 
Euripus, built on the ruins of Chalcis, and from the vfn- \ 
* ponte,' meaning the bridge which united it to the m.r . 
land. The Venetians lost the island in 1470, when ll»<- 
Turks took the capital, Negropont, and massacred all '' - 
inhabitants. The Venetian doge and general Mofomm: 
blockaded it in 1688, but after a murderous siege he tr:)> 
obliged to re-embark with great loss. The people of Eub<ia 
took part in the last revolt of the Greeks against the Tnrk^ 
and the island now forms part of the new kingdom ••; 

Coin of Euboea. 
UrilUh Muw^um. Actual tiase. Silver. Weight 61^ grmias. 

EUCALY'FrUS, a genus of New Holland pUnts, corv 
sisting of lofty trees, with a volatile aromatic oily secreti \ 
in their leaves and a large quantity of astringent rcsino..^ 
matter in their bark. They belong to the altemate-leaxo i 
division of Myrtacea, and arc generically known amot.: 
those plants by their corolla being absent, and the limb : 
their calyx consolidated into a hemispherical or conk-Al c«j\ 
which is thrown off when the stamens expand. 

This genus occurs in the Malayan Arohipelago, but i^ 
chiefly Australian, and, together with the leafless Acari t^ 
gives a most remarkable character to the scenery. T}r 
species exist in great profusion, and form the largio^; 
trees in the forests of that part of the world. A ni.»- 
dcrn writer upon the plants of Van Dieinen*s Land sai - 
that Eucalyptus seems as if it had taken undistnrhi ' 
possession of those Australian regions, clothing as it dt-^ 
with a stupendous mantle the surface both of Vsq Diemcu » 




investigation of bodios, not meroly such as are naturally 
gaaeousi but which become so by the changes to which they 
are subjected during chemical research. 

The principle upon which the use of the eudiometer 
depends, so far as atmospheric air and oxygen gas are con- 
cerned, is that of exposing them to the action of some sub- 
stance, whether aohd, tluid, or gaseous, which, on account 
of its affinity for oxygen, combines with it and leaves the 
gases with which it is mixed unacted upon. 

The eudiometer invented by Dr. Priestley arose from 
and was connected with his great discovery of oxygen gas 
and the fact which he ascertained of its absorption by an- 
other gas, which he called nitrous air, since called by various 
other names, as nitrous gas, deutoxide of asote, binoxide of 
nitrogen, and nitric oxide gas. 

This gas may be considered as nitric acid deprived of a 
large portion of its oxygen, which is effected by dissolving a 
metal in it, as, for example, copper, silver, or mercury, &c. ; 
and of these the last mentioned is said to yield the gas in 
the greatest purity. The nitric oxide thus obtained being 
disposed to regain the oxygen which the metal has taken 
firom it, absorbs it with great facility from all such gaseous 
mixtures as contain it ; the evidences of its action are the 
formation of a red vapour, condensation of volume, and the 
reproduction of nitric acid ; and the quantity of oxygen ab- 
sorbed is determined by the degree of condensation which 
is produced by its action. 

Dr. Priestley's method was extremely simple : he took a 
phial capable of holding about an ounce of water, filled it 
with water, and displaced it with atmospheric air, or with 
the gaseous mixture to be examined ; the volume of this 
being noted, it was transferred, over water, into an air-jar 
about an inch and a half in diameter. An equal volume of 
nitric oxide was added to it, and they remained toge*ther 
for about two minutes : if the diminution was very consider- 
able, another volume of nitric oxide was added. When this 
part of the process was over, the gas was transferred to a 
glacis tube about two feet long, one-third of an inch in 
diameter, and graduated into lOths and lOOths. After noting 
the volume of the gas, the result was expressed in measures 
and decimal parts ; thus, when equal volumes of common 
air and nitric oxide were mixed, and tliey afterwards occu- 
pied the space of one volume and two-tenths. Dr. Priestley, 
in speaking of the air so tried, said the measures of the test 
were 1 * 2, or the standard of the air was 1 ' 2. 

Although Dr. Priestley determined the volumes of oxygen 
and nitric oxide required for mutual saturation, he appears 
mostly, if not entirely, to have confined his eudiometrical 
operations to comparing the results of them with those on 
atmospheric air ; consequently, although what he calls the 
standard was learnt by his process, the exact quantity of oxy- 
gen which the mixture contained was not determined by it 

Numerous attempts have been made by chemical philo- 
sophers of the greatest eminence to render the eudiome- 
trical application exact and certain, and if this could be 
effected, it would be rendered an extremely valuable me- 
thod on account of the rapidity of its action. Omitting 
however all notice of the modifications which have been 
proposed by Cavendish, Fontana, Inji^enhouz, Sardinani, 
&c., we may observe, that while both Dalton and Gay- 
Lussac imagined that they had removed the uncertainty of 
the process, the late Dr. Henry admits that he placed but 
little reliance upon it, and Dr. Thomson states that he has 
abandoned it altogether, excepting as far as it serves to in- 
dicate the presence or absence of oxygen gas in a gaseous 
rcnidue unaer examination. 

A very dilTcrent and certainly an improved method, 
though rather an operose one, of employing nitric oxide was 
adopted by \>JL\y. Dr. Priestley discovered that a solution 
of sul))hate of iron is capable of dissolving nitric oxide gas, 
and that in this state it retains its power of combining with 
aTid condensing oxy«;en gas. It is prepared by passing the 
nitric oxide through the solution of sulphate; as the gas 
is absorbed the solution becomes of a deep olive brown, and 
w hen the impregnation is completed it appears opaque and 
almost black. 

Tlie instruments necessary for ascertaining the composi- 
tion of the atmosphere by means of this solution consist 
iiiroply of a small graduated tube divided into 100 parts, 
and greatest at the open end, and of a vessel for oontaininir 
the fluid. 

The tube, after being filled with the gaseous mixture to 
be examined, ia introduced into the solution, and that the I 
action may be more rapid* gently moved itom a perpen* ' 

dicttlar towards a horixontal poaition. Under time eircum- 
stances the gas is rapidly diminished ; and in comMtqueui-e; 
of the dark colour of the fluid, it is very easy to obsar^e xLo 
degree of absorption ; in a few seconds the experiment «• 
completed, and the whole of the oxygen is condensed. 

Tne period of the greatest diminution is to be accurate :> 
noted ; for shortly after this it begins gradually to increa^ 
Davy states that the impregnated muriate of iron (chlon Ic , 
acts more rapidly than the sulphate. 

It is to be observed that tuis process is not applicau.c 
merely to the analysis of the air. It was employed by AHm 
and Pepys in their laborious and accurate experiments • <i 
respiration ; and they added a simple solution of sulpbatt: A 
iron to the residual Kas, evidently for the purpose i>f.fe<n>i- 
rating any nitric oxide gas which might have escaped fi • n 
the solution after arriving at the point of greatest condcii- 
sat ion. 

The eudiometer next to be mentioned is tliat inven>>i 
by Scheele, which was probably the first proposed after Dr. 
Priestley's. This was a graduated glass tube containing a 
certain volume of air, which was exposed to a in&xturu ct 
sulphur and iron-filings made into a paste with water. .V^- 
though the oxygen was absorbed ana the aaote lefi b> th ^ 
operation, yet the process was not to be relied upon. for. ^\ 
the formation of sulphuric acid, which occurred b\ ur 
oxidizement of the sulphur, the iron was acted upuu« h 
water being decomposed, its hydrogen was evolved, and in- 
terfered with the results of the operation. 

This plan, however imperfect, had the merit of Mmplicti 
for the quantitv of oxygen absorbed was determined at oiv^-k 
by deducting the volume of the residual gas from that ••: 
the whole quantity submitted to experiment. 

De Mart^ instead of using sulphur and iron, emplo\v«i a 
solution of sulphuret of potassium prepared by dissoh.: ^ 
sulphur in a solution of potash. It is stated that this k<.u 
tion when newly preparea absorbs a small portion of azut < 
gas ; but the fallacy arising from this source is readily • . 
viated by agitating the solution for a short time with a Ittilr 
atmospheric air previously to using it, by which it is satu- 
rated with azote. A tube divided into 100 parts and im- 
mersed in the solution is sufficient for the use of it. 

Guyton employed sulphuret of potassium also in hti 
eudiometer, but he used it in a solid state, and applied be^i 
to expedite its action. In this case, as when the solutioi. i> 
used, both the sidphur and potassium are oxidized, and i^« 
result is sulphate of potash. It has been objected, and pro- 
bably with reason, to this eudiometer, that &ulphun*i!> I 
hydrogen was elicited by the action of the heat u|>on tiA- 
sulphuret A description of this eudiometer, which h> 
been but Uttle used, is given in NichoUon*s Journa/, 4;'. 
vol. i. 

The eudiometer of Seguin is a glass tube, about ?? 
inch in diameter, eight inches long, and open at or.t 
end. It is to be filled with and inverted in mercun . 
a small piece of phosphorus is then put under the rfv 
end of the tube, and by its lightness it immediate iv 
rises to the top of it, where it is to be melted by iLt 
approach of a red-hot iron. A measured portioo of the e ^* 
to be examined is then to be passed into the tube; ii< 
phosphorus inflames on eac^h addition of the gma, and :ic 
mercury rises, owing to the condensation of the ox^^v^ 
When all the gas under examination has been thruvu .^ 
into the tube, the hot iron is again used to ensure the ouis 
pletion of the process: the quantity of the residual g&> c» 
determined by transferring it into a graduated tube, and ic 
difference between the quantity submitted to expernn^ : . 
and that left after it indicates that of the oxygen abeort •. * 

In this operation, owing to the sanity existing betvc«. 
the phosphorus and the oxygen, they combine and f ru 
phosphoric acid : it is however stated that the azote diB^ol \ ^^ 
a small quantity of phosphorus, and that, owing to tha <\ 
pansion which this occasions, about ^ of the vuum« vf i* 
azotic gas is to be deducted. 

Bertnollet also employed phosphorus in his eudiometer, 
but instead of beating it, as m the abovendesoribed meth «l 
he allowed combination to take place between it and I't 
oxygen, by what is termed slow combustion. He expose. . 
stick of phosphorus fastened to a glass rod in a narr. « 
graduated glass vessel, filled with air, and standing o\ * 
water : the phosphorus immediately begins to act on t . - 
oxygen of the air, as shown by the formation of the w} 
vapour of phosphoric or phosphorous acid ; but this oc^r* 
without visible combustion : in six or eight hours the wi)« :l 
of the oxygen disappears, and iU quantity ii| of oourvc. 



E u a 

bination oceun without explosion, and yields lesulta of 
great accuracy. Dobereiner found that when the spongy 
platinum was mixed witli certain substances, so as to prevent 
Its immediate and exiilosive action, it caused the oxygen 
and hydrogen to comoine with moderate rapidity. The 
Into Dr. Henry, who performed a most important and accu- 
nitc series of experiments on this eudiometrical process, 
n-commeuded a mixture of three parts of spongy platinum 
and two of fine china clay made into a paste with water 
and moulded into spherules about the size of a pea ; these 
were fastened to a platinum wire, that they might be re- 
moved after the action was over. Tbey should be heated 
and suffered to cool a short time before use : they suffer no 
loss of power, and possess the great advantage over the 
electric spark, that tney act upon gaseous mixtures which 
contain so little oxygen and hydrogen that they cannot be 
fired. The late Dr. Turner ascertained that it was possible 
to determine the presence of tJo of hydrogen or oxyeen in 
a gaseous mixture ; whereas, when these gases formed j| of 
a mixture, they could not be detected by electricity. The 
effect takes place more rapidly in large than in small tubes. 
There are various gases which impede the action of the 
platinum balls. It appears from tnc experiments of Dr. 
Henry, that when the compound combustible gases, mixed 
with each other, with hydrogen, and with oxygen, are ex- 
posed to the balls of platinum, the several {^ses are not 
acted upon with equal facility ; that next to hydrogen car- 
bonic oxide is most disposed to unite with /oxygen, then 
olefiant gas, and lastly, carburettcd hydrogen. 

Dr. Henry observed, that the prouerty inherent in certain 
gases of retarding the action of platinum, when they are 
added to explosive mixtures of oxygen and hydrogen, is 
most remarkable in those which possess the strongest at- 
traction for oxygen. Heat occasions the platinum balls 
to act in many cases in which no combination would occur 
without it. 

In concluding this historical sketch of eudiometers and 
audiometry, we repeat an observation already made, viz., 
that whatever volume of the mixed gases may disappear 
aAcr detonation or by the action of the spongy platinum, 
one-third of such portion is to be considered as oxygen and 
two-thirds as hydrogen, the result of their combination 
being water, formed of these proportions of its constituent 

EUDO'CI A, daughter of Lcontius, an Athenian sophist, 
was called Athenais before Iter baptism. She was carefully 
instructed by her father in literature and the sciences. 
After her father's death, being deprived by her brothers 
of all share in the inheritance, she repaired to Constan- 
tinople, and appealed to Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius U., 
who was so pleased with her that she induced her brother 
to marry her, a.o. 421. Eudocia surrounded herself with 
learned men; but the emperor, through jealousy, dismissed 
all her court, and had her exiled to Palestine, where she 
continued to reside after the death of her husband. She 
there embraced the opinions of Eutychcs, and supported 
by her liberality and influence the monk Tlieodosius, who 
librced himself into the see of Jerusalem, after driving away 
Juvenal, the orthodox bishop, and kept it until he was 
himself driven away by order of the Emperor Marcianus. 
Euthymiiu, called the Saint, by his reasonings brought 
back Eudocia to the orthodox faith, after which she spent 
the remainder of Ler days at Jerusalem, where she died in 
460, protesting her innocence of the guilt with which her 
husband had charged her. Eudocia wrote several works, 
of which Photius quotes a translation in verse of the first 
eight books of the Old Testament. Thercr is also a work 
attributed to her, which was translated into Latin by 
Echard, and was published imder the title of ' Homerici 
Con tones GriDce et Latine, interprete Echardo,* Paiis, 1678. 
It is a life of Jesus Christ, composed of lines taken ftom 
Homer. Most critics however believe that it is not the work 
of Eudocia, though Ducange is of the contraiy opinion. 

EUDOCIA the Younger, daughter of the preceding 
and of Theodosius U., married Valentinianus III. After 
the asiaasination of her husband by Petronius Maximus, 
she was obliged to marry the usurper. Eudocia, out of in- 
dignation and revenge, called in Genaeric, kins of the 
Vandals, who came to Italy, plundered Rome, and carried 
Budocia to Africa with him. Some years afterwards she 
vaa sent back to Coitatantinople, a.d. 462, where she died. 
BUDOCIA» the widow of Constantinus Ducaa, married 
Romanua Diogenea, an officer of distinction, ▲.o. 1068, and 

associated him with her on the throne. Three Years aftt i 
Michael, her son, by means of a revolt, was proclaimed i in- 
peror, and caused his mother to be shut up in a coiiveu*, 
where she lived the rest of her hfe. She left a treatise >/. 
the genealogies of the gods and heroes, which dift]^la\s ;: 
extensive acquaintance with the subject. It is printed .^ 
Villoison's Anecd^ita GnscOyl vols., 4to. 1781. 
EU DO'R A. [Medusa.] 

EUDOXUS, a native of Cnidus, a city of Caria, io A-.* 
Minor, and the son of iEschines, flourished about 3*0 b ( 
He studied geometry under Archytas, and afterwards tn- 
veiled into Egypt to study the scienceii under the priests f 
that country. Diogenes Laertius informs us that he at.*! 
Plato studied in these schools for about thirteen years ; af.c- 
which Eudoxus came to Athens, and opened a school of :. ^ 
own, which he supported with such reputation that it t j. 
citecl the envy even of Plato himself. Proclus inform^ ij> 
that Euclid ver)' liberally borrowed from the elemetit» ■ i" 
geometry composed by Eudoxus. Cicero calls Eudv>\ « 
the greatest astronomer that had ever lived; and we Um' . 
from Petronius that he retired to the lop of a very h:.,L 
mountain that he might observe the celestial phenume].. 
with more convenience than he could on a plain or il i 
crowded city. Strabo (p. 119) says that the observatory "f 
Eudoxus was at Cnidus, from which the astronomer >. • 
the star Canopus. Vitruvius (ix. 9) describes a^uii-di.. 
constructed by him ; and Strabo (p. 390) quotes him as i 
distinguished mathematician. Nothing of his works re- 
mains. He died in the fifty-third year of his age. [A«>tk< - 
NOMY, p. 531.] 

EUDOXUS, of Cyzicus, was sent by Ptolemy VIL. .. 
Egypt, on a voyage to India about b.c. 125. (Strabo, p. .■^. 
Casaub.) The passage of Strabo referred to contain^ a. 
account of his act ventures. From this Eudoxus, or anutli . 
of the name, Strabo derived some materials for his grc 
work (379. 550. &c.). 

EUDYALITE, a mineral which occurs both crystallif^ . 
and massive. The crystals are generally smalL TUt 
primary form is a rhomboid ; the colour is red or brown i^l 
red, and the crystals are iaintly translucent or opa<{u 
Lustre vitreous, sometimes dull. Sp. gr. 2*9. Hardi.« -> 
5*0, 5*5. Streak white. Fracture uneven. The i&av«i.« 
varieties are imbedded and amorphous. 
It occui's at Kandarluarsuk, in West Greenland. 
Before the blow-pipe it fuses into a leek-green scoria. 
According to Stromeyer it consists of— 

Silica • 


Zircon ia * • 


Lime • • 




Oxide of Iron 


Oxide of Manganese 


Muriatic acid • 



Water . 




EUDY'NAMYS. [CucuLiDiB, CucuLiitiK, vol. \...- 
pp. 206 and 211.] 

EU'DYTES. [Divers, vol. ix., p. 37 ] 
called Prince Eugene, was paternally descended, in Uie th. 
degree, from the ducal house of Savoy, but was a Frei. - . 
subject by birth, being a younger son of the Comle d« 6k»^ 
sons, and born at Paris, October 1 8, 1 663. He was desig l«. . 
for the chmxsh, but having formed a decided pref^rvur 
for a military life, and being also moved by certaia vkr<.>i..* 
which he conceived to have been done to his &milv by Lak • 
XIV., and which he deeply resented, he entered toe sen .* * 
of the Emperor Leopold. From this time he renoaooed .:-• 
allegiance to France, and long after, when his reputat-. . 
was at its height, rejected tlie most brilliant offers made 
the French government to purchase his return to the sen . 
of his native country. His first oampai^ was against :;.. 
Turks, at tlie celebrated siege of Vienna m 1683. Suiint^. 
bravery and talent, joined to high birth, ensured liim ruv- 
promotion. In 1688-9, on the breaking out of war betvitr: 
Fran<?e and the Empire, he was employed on a diploms.. 
mission to the duke of Savoy, and in 1691 was raised : 
the command of the imperial army in Piedmont. I>ui.r. 
two campaigns he maintained a decided advantage over t. 
French: in 1693 he was less successful. The duke Uu% 
returned to the French alliance, we next find Prince £uf;et. 
commanding the army in Hiuigary, where he won a ^t\*« 
victory over the Turks at Zenla, on the nxw Theism Sii 

E U G 



tembcr 11, 1697. The peace of Carlowitz (1 699) closed this 
8ccno of action ; but a more brilliant one was opened in 
1 7u I by the war of the Spanish succession. During two 
vuars Eugene maintained the imperial cause in Italy with 
nonour against superior forces commanded successively by 
Catinat, Villeroi, and Vendomc, against the last of whom 
he fought the indecisive baltle of Luzara, August 1, 1702, 
in which the flower of his troops was destroyed. At the 
end of this campaign he returned to Vienna, and was ap- 
pointed president ox the councU of war. 

In 1704 he commanded the imperial troops at the battle 
of Blenheim, August 1 3, 1 704. The successes of the French 
in Piedmont ma-^ it expedient for him to return thither in 

1 705. He soon restored the duke of Savoy's declining for- 
tunes, and won the decisive battle of Turin, September 7, 

1706, after which the French evacuated the countiy. He 
was thus set again at liberty to co-operate with Marlborough 
in 1708, and had a share in the victory of Oudenarde, and 
in the capture of Lille, the siege of which was entrusted to 
him, while Marlborough protected his operations. In 1 709 he 
was wounded at the bloody battle of Malplaquet, of which he 
was the chief adviser, ana in which he led the attack upon 
the left wing. On the death of the Emperor Joseph in 171 1, 
he took an important part in securing the succession to his 
brother Chai-les VI., and he visited England at the end of 
that year, in hope of preventing the secession of England 
from the alliance. He was received as his services de- 
served, but made no progress towards his object ; for the 
dismissal of the Whig ministry was soon followed by the 
congress and peace of Utrecht. The emperor being no 
party to that treaty, Eugene invaded France in 1712 with 
little advantage, and it became evident that the interests of 
the empire would be best consulted by peace : the prelimi- 
naries were accordingly signed at Rastadt, March 6, 1714. 

In 1716 Prince Eugene again marched against the Turks, 
and won the battle of Peterwaradin, August 6, against an 
enormous disproportion of numbers. In the following year 
he besieged Belgrade with 40,000 men. With troops wasted 
by disease, pressed by an army of 150,000 men from without 
and opposed by a powerful garrison from within, he was 
in the utmost danger, when, with the happy boldness 
which distinguished nim, be seized the right moment, and 
inflicted a signal defeat on the army which threatened him. 
Upon this the town surrendered. Peace was concluded in 
the following year. 

He took up his residence at Vienna, honoured and 
trusted by the emperor, in whoso political service he was 
much employed. In 1733 a fresh quarrel with France 
called him agiin to command the imperial army on the 
banks of the Rhine. This war is said to have been under- 
taken against his advice : at all events age had diminished 
his energy: he contented himself with standing on the de- 
fensive, and used his influence to effect a reconciliation. 
Preliminaries of peace were signed at Vienna, October 5, 
1735. He died suddenly in that capital, April 21 > 1736, 
aged 73. 

'Asa general. Prince Eugene ranks among the first of his 
kind, but that kind was not of the highest order of excel- 
lence. His name is memorable for no improvements in the 
art of war, neither was he famous for skill in manoeuvring 
or combining the operations of distinct masses upon one 
object. His characteristics were penetration, quickness of 
perception, decision, and what usually goes along with them, 
readineaa in amending a fault when made ; so that his skill 
lay rather in making the best of ^iven circumstances than 
in bending circumstances to his will beforehand. It is said 
that he always took great pains to learn the character of 
the general opposed to him. Careless of his own person 
(he was thirteen times wounded in battle), he was also 
somewhat prodigal of his soldiers' lives. However, he threw 
a glory round the Austrian arms such as hta never digni- 
fied them either before or since. 

The best account of his exoloits is ' L'Histoire du Prince 
Suedne,' 5 vols. 1 2mo., by M. de Maubillon, but published 
without his name. In English, there is Campbell's Mili- 
tary History of Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marl- 
borough, 2 vols. fol. ; and several smaller works. Prince 
Eugene wrote memoirs of himself, which have been pub- 
lished both in French and English. 

EUGE'NIA, a genus of dictyledonous polypetalous 

plants of the natural order of Myrtaeeao; so named in 

nonour of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who was a patron of 

botany and hortieulturo. The genus, as at present coosti- 

P. C, No. 603. 

tuted, contains nearly 200 species, though numbers have been 
removed to the genera Nehtris, Jossinia, Myrcia, Sizygium, 
Caryophyllus, and Jambosa, in which are now contained the 
Clove tree, the Rose apple, and Jamoon of India, formerly 
included in Eugenia. This genus is confined to the hot 
and tropical parts of the world, as Brazil, the West India 
Islands, and Sierra Leone, and extends from the Moluccas 
and Ceylon to Silhet and the foot of the Himalayas in Asia. 

Eugenia is characterized by having the tube of the calyx 
of a roundish form and the limb divided into four parts ; 
the petals equal in number, and inserted on the calyx. The 
stamens are numerous. T^e ovary 2-3 celled, with several 
ovules in each. Seeds one or two, roundish and larg(^ 
with the cotyledons and radicle united into one mass. In 
habit and inflorescence the species resemble many myrtles. 
Like the family to which they belong, some of the species 
of Eugenia secrete a warm volatile oil in their herbaceous 
parts ; abound in tannin ; yield good wood ; and a few have 
fruit which is edible, though not very agreeable, from being 
impregnated with the aroma of the oil. 

The most remarkable species of the genus, and one of 
the few which it is necessary to notice, is the Allspice* 
Pimento, or Bay-berry tree. This is the Eugenia Pimenta 
of De Candolle ; theMyrtus Pimenta of Linnseus and of the 
London Pharmacopoeia. It is a native of South America 
and the West India Islatids, especially Jamaica, and from 
being cultivated there is often called Jamaica Pepper. 
The tree is very handsome, often 30 feet high, and much 
resembles the Clove tree in the form and appearance of its 
leaves as well as in habit The trunk is smooth, and much 
branched towards the ton. The older branches are round, 
the younger compresseu, and the twigs as well as the 
flower-stalks pubescent; the leaves are petiolate, oblong 
or oval, smooth, and marked with pellucid dots, forming a 
dense evergreen foliage ; the flower-stalks are both axillary 
and terminal, and are divided into three-forked panides ; 
the flowers are small, without show, and conformable in 
structure to the character of the genus. The berry ia 
spherical and crowned with the persistent calyx; wnen 
ripe, smooth, shining, and of a dark purple colour ; usuallr 
one, occasionally two-celled, containing large roundish 

The Pimenta is cultivated with great care m Jamaicat 
and abounds especially on the hills on the north side of the 
island. The trees are formed into regular walks, and begin 
to bear when tliree years old, but are not in perfection until 
they have been planted seven years. They thrive best in 
rocky lands, or a rich soil having a gravellv bottom. Mr. 
Bryan Edwards says that a single tree has oeen known to 
yield 150 lbs. of the raw fruit, or 1 00 lbs. of the dried spioe; 
but the crop is uncertain, and plenteous perhaps only onoe 
in five years. The tree has been introduced into and flou- 
rishes in the southern parts of India. 

The berries, being the valuable part of the tree, require 
care in gathering as well as drying ; the processes for which 
are described by Browne in his ' History of Jamaica,' p. 248. 
They must be picked when they have arrived at fhll growth, 
but before they begin to ripen : they are dried in the sun, 
on raised boarded floors, and frequently turned during the 
first and second day ; they are then put into sheets, often 
winnowed, and exposed to the sun until sufficiently dried, 
which is known by the colour and the rattling of the seeds 
in the berries. Brovme says, ' Such of the berries as come 
to frill maturity do, like many other seeds, lose that aro- 
matic warmth for which thev are esteemed, and acquire a 
taste perfectly like that of Juniper berries, which renders 
them a very agreeable food for the bird0» the most indus- 
trious planters of these trees.' 

The leaves and bark participate in the warm aromatic 
properties for which the berries are oelelomted, and which 
have received their name of Allspice from their fragrant 
odour being thought to resemble that of a mixture of cin- 
namon, cloves, and nutmeg. Their taste being warm and 
aromatic makes them useml as a spice in cookery, and a 
stimulant hi medicine. 

Bufenia Mickelii is a Brazilian species, cultivated in 
Martmique, whence it is called CerifMr de Cayenne, as it 
yields a small edible fruit 

EUGENIACIUNITES. [Bncrxnitbs, vol. ix., p. 39a] 
N3. The Rev. Lansdown Guilding, in his notice of a per- 
fect recent Enerinue, found in the Caribaian seas, and whiofa, 
according to hipa, comes nearest to the Siag^e Horn En- 
crinite of Parkinson, says that its capture has enabled him 

Vol. X.— K 


E U G 


E U K 

(0 fiottle the point (which way he does not in terms state) 
as to whether the animal is locomotive or fixed. He gives 
no detailed description of the species Enerinus f Muieri, 
but speaks of the Setsile genera of Crinoideat and says that 
K.Milteri inhabits the Caribwan sea at great depths (in pro- 
fundis), adhering to Gorgonia. He describes the abdomen 
of his species as being membranaceous, and situated be- 
tween tne bases of the arms. (ZooL Journ.t vol. iv. p. 1 73.) 

EU6ENIN, a substance which deposits spontaneously 
ftom the distilled water of cloves ; it crystallizes in small 
laroins, which are colourless, transparent, and pearly, and 
in time they become yellow : the taste of eugenin is but 
slight* and the smell much less strong than that of the 
clove. It is soluble in alcohol and fother in all propor- 
tions: by the action of nitric acid, like the oil of cloves, it 
becomes immediately, even when cold, of a blood-red colour. 
It is composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon, in the 
same proportions as constitute the oil of cloves, with one 
equivalent less of oxygen and hydron;en. 

EUGE'NITJS I., a native of Rome, was elected by the 
Romans, a.d. 654, as successor to Martin L, who had been 
sent into banishment to theThracian Chersonesus by order 
of the Emperor Const ans II., who favoured the schism of the 
Monothelitos. Martin dying in the following year, Eu- 
genius continued in dispute with the court of Constanti- 
nople till he died in 657, and was succeeded by Vita- 

EU6ENIUS II., a native of Rome, succeeded Paschas I., 
A.D. 824, in the midst of great disorder which occurred at 
Rome owing to the corrupt state of soc^iety and mal-admi- 
nistration of that city. To reform these, the emperor, 
Louis the Good, sent his son Lotharius to Rome, who cor- 
rected many abuses which, by the account of Eginh&rdt and 
other chroniclers, had grovni to an enormous extent. He 
confirmed the right of electing the pope to the clergy 
and people of Rome, but under the condition that the pon- 
tiff elect should swear fidelity to the emperor before the im- 
Serial missus or representative. Eugenius held a council at 
Lome, in which, among other things, it was decreed that in 
every episcopal residence, as well as in every country par- 
sonage, there should be a master for teaching the people and 
explaining the Scriptures. Eugenius died in 827, and was 
succeeded by Valentinus, who, dying also after a few weeks, 
wa> succeeded by Gregory IV. 

EUGEN lUS III., a native of Pisa, of the Cistertian order, 
and a disciple of St. Bernard, succeeded, a.d. 1 1 45, Lucius 
II., who had died of a blow from a stone intiicted in a riot 
of the Roman people. Amaldo da Brescia was then preach- 
ing his reform at Rome, the senate had declared itself in- 
dependent of the pope, and Eugenius was obliged to take 
up his residence at Viterbo. After some fighting and many 
ne(Totiations between the pope, assisted by the jieople of 
Tivoli, and the Romans, Eugenius repaired to France in 
] 147, and the following year held a council at Rheims. He 
afterwards returned to Italy, and with the assistance of 
Roarer king of Sicily defeated the Romans, and entered the 
city, AD. 1149. Kew disturbances however arose, which 
obliged him to take refuge in Campania, where he received 
of St. Bernard the book De ConsiUeratione, the subject of 
which was advice on his pontifical station and its duties. 
After having resided some time at Segni he made peace 
with the Romans, and returned to Rome in 1 1 52. He died 
the following year, and was succeeded by Anastasius IV. 
It was under his pontificate that Gratianus, a Benedictine 
monk at Bologna, compiled his code of canon law called 
* Decretum Gratiani,' which greatly favoured the extension 
of the papal power. [Canon Law.] 

KUGENIUS IV., Gabriele Condulmerob a native of 
Venice, succeeded Martin V. in March, 1431. His was a 
mjst stormy pontificate. He drove away the powerful 
fomily of Colonna, including the nephews of the late pope, 
from Rome, charging them with having enriched tnem- 
sclves at the expense of the papal treasur}-. Two hundred 
of their adherents were put to death, and the palaces of the 
Colonna were plundered ; but their party collected troops in 
tiie country and besieared Rome. Eugenius, through the 
assistance of Queen Joanna II. of Naples, defeated the Co- 
lonna, and obliged them to sue for peace and surrender several 
towns and castles they held in the Roman state. He after- 
wards made war asrainst the \'ahou8 lords of Romagna, 
who were supported by the Visconti of Milan; and he 
apiHimted as bis general the patriarch Vitelleschi, a mili- 
tant prelate, who showed considerable abilities and little 

scrupulousness in that protracted waifiu^ by which ih« 
pope ultimately recovered a considerable portion of tem> 
tory. But as Vitelleschi intended to keira Romagna f r 
himself, the pope had him put to death. Ine &mous co^.- 
dottiere Sfurza figured in all these broils. But the greatest 
annoyance to Eugenius proceeded from the council of Bav^l. 
which had been convoked by his predecessor, and wL: I. 
protracted its sittings year after year, broaching doctnir* 
very unfi&vourable to papal supremacy. After solemnlv 
asserting the superionty of the council over the pope, ii 
forbade the creation of new cardinals, all appeals from th*- 
council to the pope, suppressed the annates, or payment » ^ / 
one year*s income upon benefices, which wore a g^^ **. 
source of revenue to the papal treasury, and made 4»tlt>r 
important reforms. Eugenius, who had been oblige'! i^ 
escape from Rome in disguise on account of a popuiu: 
revolt, and liad taken up his residence at Bologna, xi* 
1437, now issued a bull dissolving the council, recai; i* 
his nuncio who presided at it, and convoking anutLrr 
council at Fermra. Most of the fathers assembled at B^-i. 
refused to submit, and summoned the pope himself to j;- 
pear before them, to answer the charges of simony, srlr^u,. 
and others; and after a time proceeded against him a^ c . 
tumacious, and deposed him. Eugenius meanwhile !••: 
opened in person his new council at Ferrara, in Febmn'^\ 
14.38, in which, after annulling all the obnoxious dei7t«> 
of the council of Basel, he launched a bull of excomni..! i 
cation against the bishops who remained in that a«HMr' . 
which he characterized as a ' satanic condave, which v .« 
spreading the abomination of desolation into the b(*M.'cii < f 
the church.' The Catholic world was divided between :t " 
two councils ; that of Basel proceeded to elect a new \ > • 
in the person of Amadous VlII. of Savoy, who as&nn:* : 
the name of Felix V., and vras solemnly crowned at Bi-' . 
The council of Ferrara in the meantime afforded a n '/ 
sight. The Emperor John Paleologus II. came with J v>^ ; 
patriarch of Constantinople, and more than twenty Gm> . 
bishops, attended by a numerous retinue, and took hi^ ^> ' 
in the assembly. The object was the reconciliation of . 
eastern and western churches, which Eugenius bad ^rtv: t 
at heart, and to which Paleologus was use favuural)!) :: 
dined, as he wanted the assistance of the powers of ««.-:':. 
Europe against the Turks. The plague having brok^ n • 
at Ferrara, the council was remov^ to Iflorence. A: .- 
many theological disputations on the subject of the 11 * 
Ghost, of the primacy of the pope, of purgatory, and un : 
controverted points, the decree of reunion of the > • 
churches was passed, and signed by both parties in J 
1439. The emperor and partiarch returned to Cun>::': 
nople highly pleased with Eng^nius ; but the Gierke t ^ 
offence at the terms of the union, the schism bruke .i«. 
afresl), and the separation of the two churches ho^ c ^ 
tinued ever since. 

A grave charge against Eugenius is, that he encoura.t . 
the Hungarians and Poles to break the peace thv) ■ 
solemnly sworn with the Turks, under pretence tliat' t. 
oaths were not valid without the sanction of the |h>} e ! - 
even sent Cardinal Julian as his nuncio to attend :..* 
Christian army. The result was the battle of Varua. u :. 
in which the Christians were completely deieat<>d, ; . 
King Uladislaus of Poland and Cardinal Julian Lo»t i..w.' 

Eugenius died at Rome a.d. 1447, after a reign of »ixu< 
years, and in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He Uk •. 
chureh in a state of s<^hism between him and his cv .: 
titer Felix, his own states a prey to war, and all Chi .-' 
dom alarmed at the progress of the Turkish artn&« ir 
last days he is said to have expressed himself wear v t^i ;.. 
tation, and to have regretted the loss of -his foi^ner u««>i:.v 
tranquillity before his exaltation. He recommenUed p. 
and conciliation to the cardinals assembled arotiii^ i 
He was succeeded by Nicholas V., in &rour of x« 
Felix V. soon after abdicated. The pontificate of £utz« 
forms a most stirring and interesting period in the 1^.. 
of Italy and of the church. L'Enfant and Mnem^ S..^. « 
afterwards pope, have written the history of the oouiii •< 
Basel See also the general collections of the qouucu> . 
Baluze*s ' Miscellanies.' 

EUKAIRITE, a seleniuret of silver and copper* diaco\ 
by Berxelius. It occurs in thin films of a afainini; :• 
colour; opaque; its textmre is granular; it yields re^rl.x 
the knife, and acquires a ailvery lustre. It occurs 
copper mine in Sweden. Before the blow-MM ii •aha.t- - 

E U L 


E U L 

gtrongr smell of ielenium, and with cKarcoal fuses into a 

brittle metallic globule. It consists of— 
Selenium . . 26 

Silver . . . 88*93 
Copper . • . 23*05 
Earthy matter . . 8*90 
Carbonic acid and loss 3* 12 

EU'L^ES. (Zoology.) [Rollers.] 
EULA^LIA (Zoology), a eenus established by Savigtiy, 
and placed by Cuvier among nis Dorsibranchiate Annelids. 


£ ULEN- SPIEGEL. [Ekolish Drama, toI. ix., p. 423.] 
EULER, LEONARD, a celebrated mathematician of 
the last century, yrua born on the 15th of April, 1707, at 
Basle, in Switzerland; his father, Paul Euler, was the 
Calvinistic pastor of the neighbouring village of'Riechen. 
He was a man remarkable for unostentatious piety, and 
imbued with a considerable knowledge of mathematics, 
which he had acquired under the tuition of James Ber- 

After being instructed by his fiither in analytical science, 
young Suler was sent to the university of Basle, in which 
John Bernoifilli was at that time professor, and by his 
rapid progress and decided mathematical genius he so fiur 
gain^a (he esteem of his teacher and of the sons, Nicholas 
and Daniel Bemouilli, that his father was easily dissuaded 
from hia original intention of forming his son into a divine, 
and wisely idlowed him to pursue unshackled the high dis- 
tinctions then conferred by a profound scientific reputation. 

A prize having been proposed by the French Academy of' 
Sciences on the management of vessels at sea, the ambition 
of Enler» then only nineteen years of age, induced him to 
attempt an essay, which was received with considerable 
applause, though the prize was conferred on Bouguer, an 
old and experienced professor of hydrography. 

The Academy of Sciences at St Petersburg was then 
rising to a distinguished rank amongst similar institutions 
in Europe under the fostering patronage of Catherine I., 
who hid invited several philosopners to her capital, among 
whom were the Bernouillis above mentioned. On the re- 
tirement of Daniel Bemouilli, Eiiler was appointed pro- 
fessor of mathematics under Peter}, is 1733 ; soon after 
which he married a Swiss lady named GrseU, by whom he 
had a nnmerous family. 

His works previous to the date at which we have arrived 
Were, with few exceptions, confined to those mathematical 
questions arising from the progressive march of the Inte- 
gral Calculus, which, at that time, caused much emulation 
in different eountries. In general, Euler was far more in 
his element in the abstruser parts of pure mathematics than 
in the appUed ; in many of the latter he was frequently con- 
ducted to paradoxical results. 

In the memoirs of the Petropolitan Academy, 1 729 and 
1732, are found several of his memoirs on trajectories, tau- 
tochronous curves* the shortest line along a surface between 
two given points, and on difierential equations ; besides which 
he had puolished at Basle a physical dissertation on sound. 

Euler found it convenient at this time to apply himself 
intensely to stady, not more firom his natural ardour for the 
sciences and the incentive of an increasing reputation than 
from the desire to avoid the political intrigues which, under 
a suspicious and tyrannical minister, then agitated Russia. 

During this interval he published an exoeuent treatise on 
mechanicB (Petersburg, 1736, 2 vols., 4to.), a treatise on 
the theory of music, and one on arithmetic, together with 
numerous papers in the Petersburg Memoirs, chiefly en 
astroiiomioal and purely mathematical subjects, amon^ 
which ar« contained his views on the solution of Isoperi- 
metrical Problems* which embodied the profoundest re- 
searches on a matter of great analytical difficulty previous 
to the discovery of the Ccdculus of Yamtions by Lageange. 
Upon the fiill of Biren he gladly accepted an invitation 
from the king of Prussia to visit mrlin. When he was in- 
troduced to the queen-dowager in 1741, she was so much 
struck with the paucity ef his conversation that on re- 
quiring an explanation, he replied that he had just returned 
from a eonntiy where Uiose who spoke were hanged. 

The princess of Anhal^De8sau, being desirous to profit 
by the presence of Euler in Berlin, requested to be favoured 
with iBstruetiontf on the known fitets in the physical sei- 
etoccMi. To Hfife Wislf hi ftiBy aeo^ded on Bis rtftimi to 

Petersburg in 1766, by publishing his celebrated work, 
* Letters to a German Princess' (3 vols., 8vo., 1768); in 
which he discusses with clearness the most important 
truths in mechanics, optics, sound, and physical asfronotny, 
having published previous to this date several isolated trea- 
tises and some hundred memoirs touching on every known 
branch of theoretical and practical mathematics. During 
his residence in Prussia he was much employed by the en- 
lightened monarch who then governed that kingdom in 
Questions connected with the mint, with navigable canals, 
&c. In the midst of such varied employments he was not 
forgetful of the ties which bound him to his native home ' 
having learned his father's death, he went in 1750 to 
Frankfort to receive his widowed mother, and brought her 
to Berlin, where she lived until 1761, enjoying with a 
mother s feeling the glorious distinction to which her son 
by his talents and indefatigable industry had arrived. 

An incident which occurred in 176Q showed how highly 
Euler was in general esteemed. The Russians having en- 
tered Brandenburg, advanced to Charlottenbur^, and plun 
dered a farm which belonged to Euler. When General 
Tottleben was informed who the proprietor was, he ordered 
immediate reparation to be made to an amount fkr above 
the ii\}UJ7, and the Empress Elizabeth presented him with 
4000 florins. 

In consequence of his unceasing application to study, 
Euler had the misfortune to lose the si^ht of one eye in 
1735, and in 1766 that of the other; he however con- 
tinued his valuable researches, some of his fkmily acting as 
amanuensis, and his powers of memory are said to have 
been wonderfully increased even in his old age. He ac- 
cepted the invitation of the empress Catherine II. of Russia 
to return to Petersburg in 1766, where he would have fallen 
a victim to an accidental fire which destroyed his house 
and property in 1771, but for the courageous efforts of a fel- 
low-countryman (M. Grimon), who bore the old man away 
in his arms. His manuscripts were saved by the exertions 
of Count Orloff. 

On the 7th of September, 1783, after some calculations 
on the motions of balloons, then newly invented, Euler 
dined with Lexell, and conversed on the lately-discovered 
planet Herschel. While playing with his grand-child, 
who was taking tea, he expired suddenly and without pain. 

Euler was twice married in the same family, and had 
many children and grand-children ; his habit of life was 
strictly religious, the labours of each day being closed with a 
chapter from the Bible and family prayer. A catalogue of 
his published and unpublished writings is given at the end 
of the 2nd volume of his ' Institutiones Calculi Differen 
tialis,' 1787 ; and to the first is prefixed an eloquent Eloge 
by Condorcet. 

Every useful subject of mathematical research engaged 
at some time the attention of Euler ; and for relaxation he 
amused himself with Questions of pure curiosity, such as 
the knight* s move in cness so as to cover all the squares. 
His various researches have gone far towards creating the 
geometry of situation, a subject still imperfectly known. 
The following is one of the ({uestions which Euler has 
generalized : — ' At Konigburg, in Prussia, the river divides 
into two branches with an island in the middle^ con- 
nected by seven bridges with the adjoining shores ; it was 
proposed to determine how a man should travel so as to 
pass over each bridge once and once only.' 

The memoirs of Euler are principally contained in the 
fbllowing works :— ' Comment. Acad. Petrop.,* 1 729-51 ; 
' Novi Comment. Acad. Petrop.,' 1750-76 ; * Nova Acta 
Acad. Petrop.,' 1777-81 ; 'Mem. de I'Acad. des Sciences,' 
1765, 1778; ' Recueil de TAcad.,' 1727, &c.; 'Miscell. 
Beroll.,' tom. vii. ; ' Mem. de I'Acad. de BerKn,' 1745-67. 

EU'UMA, a genus of marine Testaoeous Gastropods* 
established by M. Risso. 

Oenmie Cnaraeter,^SMl turreted, acuminated, pohshed, 
with many whoris ; aperture ovate, acuminated posteriorly ; 
external hn thiokenea, generally forming numerous obsolete 
variees. Operculum homy, thin, its nucleus anterior. 

Mr. O. B. Sowerby, who gives this generic character, says 
iZooL Proe. 1834) that this genus of marine shells appears 
to be most nearly related to PyramideUa and Rissoa, A 
species, he adds, which has been long known has had the 
appellation of Turbo poUiui among British Linnean 
writers ; and a ibssil species has been placed by Lamarck 
among the BuHni, under the speoiflo name of B. tere^ 
MhtHi. Mt. SowMy sepantes tito genus into the two 

Ihe other is deeply uinliilicitefl. All tlie sp«ciua, lie ob- 
serves, are mnuRable for a britlioDt poUr 

e shelia are frequenll; (liRlitl^ and lomcwhal irregularly 
Twisteil, appMently in ronsequsDce of ihe very obiiolete 
varicct fblloiring each olhpr Id an irresulor line, ptincipally 

e aiil^ from the apex toKards ibo aperture. 
ncnbei ibcleea tpecies. chielly froni Mr. Cuming'a cotlectiun. 

Geographical liitlributiun. — Wide ; principally found, as 
yet, in warm seas C^uih and Central America, and Pacific 
Ocean, AuBlratia) but there are <e\eml British Kperies. 

flaiiU.—Tbe apecitrs found by Mr. Cuming were drudged 
or uiberwiM collected in sandy mud, coarse Hand, and cural 
-nend, on mother-of-pearl shells, or on the reefs; at deptlu 
(not including the reefa) ranging from m\ to thirteen 

Ferforaled RuliniED. 
Hxample. Eulima tpleitdidula. Shell acuramate-pTT3- 
midal, brownish, erliculatcd with white and chestnut near 
the KUturei; umbilicus large; aperture angulaled anle- 
riorly. length 14.% breadth 0'6 inrhes. ly>ciility. Saint 
£lena, Soutli America. Mr. Cuming drc<lgcd a single 
: .-_ -^n^j jmiij ,t from six to eight fallioms depth. 

Imperforate Eulinin. 

Example, Eufima major. Shell Bnuminate-pyramidal, 

cpaqae, milk-white ; external tip subaicuated. Length 

1-6 iiichea, breadth 04. Locality, the Island of TahitL 

The UrgMt specimen was found in coral sand on the rceb. 



Mr. G. B. Sowerby says that the ftwsil species ar« found 
in the coieairf grotrter near Paris. 

EULI'MENE. [Branchiopoda. vol. v., p. 343.1 


EUME'DONUS, a genus of brachyurous crustaceans, 
the first of the ParlAeaopiiau of M. Milne Edwards, and 
which, in his opinion, establish in soma sort the passage 
between the Stenorhipichi, Ac/iirut. on the one side, and 
Jiurynamr, Lambnii. and FarUienope, on the other. Tlic 
form of the carapace is nearly pentagonal as in Ihe latter, 
but it is, at the same time, thrown forwards, as it wore, and 
scarcely overpasses the line of the feet of Ihe hind pair of 
linabs, a disposition which recals the construction of the 
fbrmer. The body is depreaaed ; the rottrtan, which is 
very targe and projecting, is only divided towarrls its extre- 
mity ; the tyet are very short, and their peduncle entirely 
Alls the orbits, which are circular ; a character which again 
approximates these cruslaceans to the Stenorkynchi : the 
internal mtennte are folded baok very obliquely outwards, 
and the external antennsi are but little devckiped. The 

male the thoracie /»et of IIm Ont pair are large and much 

8 E U M 

longer than the rest: all these are a little compraued. a- J 
(heir ibird joint is surmounted by a cre^t, which it not 'I - 
tinctly perceptible on tho other joints; ihe feet cif t>" 
second pair arc rather liborter than tboso of the third !■■■ . 
flflh pair, which are nearly as long as ibe fburth- T..> 
abdtunm of the mala is com|iosed of &even articulations. 

Example, Kumedonut niger. This small species the w.': 
one known, is of n bronzed black colour, and inhabits ; 
coasts of China. [PABTHtNOPE.] 

EUTHENES. of Cardia, a town in the Thfacian O r 
Ronese, was an important actor in the troubled llines v I. . ', 
followed Ihe death uf Alexander the Great. [Alkxj^*-':' k 
III.; Astipateh; Arrhid.bvs; Pfrdiccab.] Being <^-.. 
laken iuto the service of Philip of Maccdon, be servcil t ^ 
for seven, and Alexander for ibirteen years, in the eoiif i.* ■ 
tinl office of secretary. He nlso displaycil great lalcii: . 
military affairs through IhePursion campaigns, and w a- ' 
of Alexander's favourite and most esteeinetfotlicer*. Al' 
Alexandei's death, in the general division of his ciinfiui.--. 
Cappadocio, Paphlagonia, and the coast of theEuxi'x' •> 
fbr C39t as Trapeius, fell to Eumenes' shore. This wut ^ - 
oxpeclancy rather than a provision, fi)r the Haccd<>;.. 
army liad nasscd south of these countnes in the mar. h :. 
Pen,in, and as yel they were unsubdued. Perdiccn*. h * 
ever, took arms to establish Eumencs in bis new gotir'i 
mciit, and ilid so, at the expense of a single battle. I 
Perdiccas as regent, and slier his death to the royal taTi- '.' 
ofMacoiLin, Eumencs was a faithful ally through good i . . 
evil ; indeed he Is the only one of Alexander's officers <■ 
whose conduct any appearance of gratitude or disinlere^L'- 
iiess can bo traced. When war broke out between Pt«k:r 
and Ponliccas, n.c. 331, he was appointed by the latter ' 
the chief command in Asia Minor between Mount Ta..: 
and the Hellespont (Otr. Nep., c. 3), to resist the expc '.- 
invasion of Antiratcr and Craierus. The latter he .; 
feated; but the death of Perdiccas in Egypt threw tlit '. 
lance of pon-er into Aniipater's hands, who made a r. - 
allotment of the provinces, in which Eumcnes was omir. L 
and Cappadocia given to another. The task of rcdi.,j .- 
him was assigned to Antigonus, n.c. about 320. Tlic i<-' 
of bis life was spent in open hostility or doubtful allia* 
with Antioonus, by whom he was put to death, n c. '. 
as is related in that article, vol. ii., p. 101. EumeDes wss ;: 
admirable partisan soldier, hiave, full of reeoimea, ofj; 
broken spints. Those parts ofDiod. Sic, bookxviii..vti.. 
relate to him, and Plutarch's Liff, will be read with p]uL->L . 
by tl^ose who are fond of mUitary adventure. Pluiar. . 
(Li/e qfEummet, c. iL) speaks of some of his letters. 7 ,. 
reader may consult aUoI>^ysen, GetchieAte der NacA/..-, ■ 
Alexanderi, Hamburg, 1836. 

Billlih WoHuiu. AcInml.iB. Silicr. n'ri(lit, SfiS (nln. 

EUME'NIDES (tho kind goddesses}, a name gitcr 
the Erinyes or Kuries, a set of goddeiwe* wboae iiu?.i^. 
it was to avenge murder upon earth. They were also cs.. 
Semnoi, or 'venerable goddesses.' The name Erinys wi> i 
rived from the old Arcadian word erinuein {iftmia''\, ' i^ -. 
angry.' (Pausan. viii., 25, G.) Theee godde&ses appear m ' 
play of i%E«bylus which bears their name, not only ><• :: 
uistrumentiof wrath and the pleaders for jus1ic«agwn~i :, 
matricide Orestes, but also as the promisers of \ir:< 
proapehty, and all sorts of blessings to tlie Albe&ian pp. ) 
this mixture of characters is to be explained by ibr I 
that their worship was connected with that of a Oem<- 
Erinyiat Thelpusa, in Arcadia, and we have seen eUcni' 
how the goddess of the earth and its productioos waj. .: 
the goddess of the nether world. [Bacchus; EteMs-ii 
The site of their temple at Athens, where their wo:-:. 
possessed a peculiar importance, was the north-ea>l an; 
of tho Areopagus, at iu base. ' There is a nide ! 
cbaam there formed by split rocks, through which we rr. 

gloomy recess. Here is a fotant«in of very dark. ws'... 

E n p 


e UP 

of Or^n, not onl; to castrate IboM of lh«ir own per- 
(otiioa, bat *I1 whom ili«j coald Is^ huidi on. Tbfy were 
also called V«]esi»ii», from ValeMiu, an Arab, who was 
their cbier. fSee Epipbanius and Baionius' Aimali, under 

the yeare 249 and 260.) 

EUCMPHALUS. ITbochid*.] 

EUPATOTtlA. [CniKBi.] 

EUPATORIA'CE^E, one of the tribes of composite 
plania admitted by De Candotle, ^rho defines it thtu: — 
' Style of the hennapbrodile flowers cylindrieal ; the arms 
long, somewhat clavale, covered exlernally with downy 
pIpiUs at the upper end. The sttgmalic series bat little 
prominent, and usually disappearing before they reach the 
middle of the arms of the style." Under this character are 
arranged 38 genera, the most extensive of which is the 
genua Eupalorium. including no fewer than 294 species. 

EUPEN, a circle in the Prussian admLnistralive circle 
of Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, and in the western part of 
the province of the Lower Rhine, is, though wooded and 
mountainous, full of fine pastures. It contains about 7G 
square mites. It produces timber, grain, vcgelahles, flax, 
&c,, and large quantities of cheese are made. There are 
considerable manufactures. Iron, calamine, and potters' 
clay, are among its mineral products. The population in 
1S16 was 17,419; ill 1831, 19, OSS; and is now abput 

KUPEN, the chief town (the Nfau of the former de- 
partment of the Ourthe), is situated in a fertile valley on 
the banks of the Weeie, in 50° 39' N. lat. and 6° l' E. long. 
It is well built, and with its gardensand meadows covers a 
considerable surface. It has four churches and chapels, an 
orphan asylum, and a good school, and contains nearly 1200 
houses. The number of inhabitants was 8805 in 1818; 
10,334 in I83t ; and is at present about 1 1,300. There are 
large manufactures of kerseymere and fine woollens. The 
other productions are woollen yam, soap, chicory, powder, 
deals, blotting paper, &c. It is a place of extensive trade, 
and haa B^veral manufacturing villages in the neighbour- 

EUPHKUS. [IsopoD*.] 

EUPHO'RBIA, a genus of exogenous plants, giving its 
nafne to an extensive and ironorlant natural order. It has 
very small monandrous naked male flowers, crowded round 
an equally naked female one, in the inside of an involucre 
Wking like a calyx, and formerly mistaken for that organ. 
The species have either a common leafy appearance, with 
the involucres proceeding from among large foliaceous 
bracts, or they are neatly leafless, with their stem excea- 
sively succulent, so as to reiemble Cacti. Those with the 
former character are nstives of most parts of the world, and 
are the only kinds found in Europe ; the succulent species 
chiefly appear in the hottest and driest countries. Barren 
uncultivated places in the plains of Hindostan and the arid 
regions of Asia and the north of Africa aro their laTOurite 
stations; in the Canaries, on volcanic soil, E. Canari< 
and laphylla form great hushes with arms like candela- 
hras. From Cacti, which some of these plants much 
resemble, they are readily known hy their spines, when 
they have any, not growing in clusters, and by their emit- 

ting, when punetored, an abundant ditchar^ of m. '- 
juice. This, in a coDcrete slate, formi what ts cal!e<l ' 
gum-resin, or rather reain, called Euphorbium, an ?' - '. 
corrosive, most dangerous drug, principally furnished In k 
officinarum, antiquorum, and E. Cantuiensit. The <-:-, ' 
properties exist in the herbaceous leafy species, diffusi..' 
some, concentrated in others. 

E. Lathyris, a common weed in cottage -gardeiu, «h<^:: ;' 
is called 'caper,' yields from its seeds an oil of the ii; 
violent purgative nature. If it were less dangerui-^ .' 
might be substituted fbrTighumoiL P£esUtea that « i 
aa much of this oil as could be sold foe a franc ii.:^...> 
adults might be purged. 

A few species, having the involucre of some ^h- '- 
colour, are cultivated as objects of ornament; otlienf ^'^ 
they are looked upon as mere weeds. 

EUPHORBIA^CE^.anaturalorderof exogenous pU: -. 
with unisexual flowers and tricoccous IWiit. "Their rcA •:! 
nity is a matter of great uncertainty. Jussieu placL-tl ti : 
among his Diclinous Dicotyledons, and probably he •< :• 
right in so doing; nevertheless there are many fcir ; 
marks of resemblance between them and Malvaeeuuh. C'- 
lastraceous, and even Elaeagnaceous plants. The nu:; -r 
of Buphorhiacete is unknown, but certainly very cun*..' ' 
able. They vary from trees of the largest size to nn;. ■■■ 
herbs, of only a few weeks' duration, and from haviu); I .- 
calyx and corolla highly developed to the total obstr, v ^ 
those orgiins. In fact they are constant in scarcely j ■ 
thing except the short character ne at first oisigncd il, '..... 
and in their sensible properties. Acridity, a viruknt '- : 
rosive properly, which someiiroes is so coo cent rat fj a- ' 
render them most dangerous poisons, and sometiu..'- - 
diffused as to he of little importance, with all imaginsb;.. 
termediate quahties, exists throughout the older. H>:- 
some are fatal, others drastic or purgative, and some ^:l.. 
laxative. They also occasionally secrete a farinaceous - - 
stance which, being separated from ihe poison, is vuIj: . 
for the food of man, as in the Cassava. 

Among the more dangerous species of this order ar* -L 
Manchineel, whose very shade is asserted to be dancr .- 
the Excatcaria, which derives its ominous name fr^mi 
juice producing bUndneu; and the Euphorbias, that >, . 
Euphorbium, Castor oil, and oil of Tiglium, well V:. ': 
valuable purgative medicines. Among other produi':^ :. 
be named Cascarillo, theharkofaCroton.Tumsute. bH. r 
by a Crozophora, Caoutchouc, the produce of Sipbonia •.■ ■■ 
tica, Hura crepitans, and others, and a kind of bird-, i 
yielded hy Sapium aucuparinm. 

Andractitn (et*t>>il°U«, 

1. a mil* flowBj 1 > 1trat\m flcmr; S. in <rctij BMili tlft: 


EUPHO'RBIUM. improperly called a gum. or r 
resin, since it is entirely deatilule of any gum in in ■- 
position, is theconcrete juiceof several specieaof cue!) ' 
•ither exuding naturally or from incisions made in liv \<- 
Much of the article found in British commerce is ol'iu:- 
from Ihe Euphorbia Canariensis, while that which o<:. 
on the continent is obtained from Euphorbia ofiicm:. 
(Linn.) and E. antiquorum (Linn.), and other Ai: 
species, particularly from an undescribed species, call>'l 
tlie Aiabi dergmute. The branches of this plant aiv v- 
in tannis^ and to it, aocording to Ur. Jaoktou iEdtnOt.- 




Lire. Beaumont, Brione, Pont-Authou, Annebaut, and 
Pont-Audemer in that of Euro ; it receives between Beau- 
mont and Brtdne the Charentonne, which rises in the de- 
partment of Ome, and flows north-north-east poist Cha- 
bridiBs and Bernay ; the Charentonne receives the Gruil. 
The length of the Kille is nearly 80 miles, that of the Cha- 
rentonne about 35 miles, and that of the Gruil 16 to 18 
miles. The Epte and the Andclle, both feeders of the 
Seine, rise in the department of Seine Inf(Srieure, and water 
the eastern side of the department of Euro ; they have a 
length of about 50 and 28 miles respectively. Part of the 
course of the Epte is on the border of the department ; most 
of that of the Andelle is within it. 

The Iton and the Rille arc, in one part of their course, 
absorbed by the stmta over which they flow : the Iton loses 
itself near Damville, and flows underground for two miles. 

The department is almost entirely occupied by the chalk 
which encircles the Paris basin and the strata more imme- 
diately connected with it, and covered with a vegetable soil, 
for the most part clayey, and very thin on the crests of the 
hills. Along the bank of the Seine there are some tracts 
covered with barren sand, and other parts are covered with 
the debris of quartz and silex, quite incapable of cultivation. 
Below QuilleboDuf, a marsh on the bank of the Seine, once 
covered by the tide, has been reclaimed and brought into 

The climate is in general mild, moist, and changeable, 
bearing a considerable resemblance to that of England. 
The west and north-west winds bring rain and fog ; these 
winds, with the north and the south-west, are the most 
common. The country is better wooded than France gene- 
rally is, though it does not admit of comparison in this 
respect withJ^iigland. In clescending towards Pacy on the 
Euro, on the road from Paris to Caen, the magnificence of 
the prospect is very striking. The valley of the Euro, broad 
and perfectly level, abounos with fine trees, which enclose 
the rich meadows. But though the country is rich and fer- 
tile, the habitations of the peasantry are very wretched, 
being clumsily built of wood and earth, like the h-^bitations 
of five or six centuries ago in the rest of France, and covered 
with thatch. Bricks and tiles might be made in the depart- 
ment, and houses built less liable to destruction by fire. 

The agriculture of the department is considered to be in 
advance of that of the greater part of France. The produce 
in grain is considerable ; in wheat it is twice as great as the 
average produce of the departments; and in rve and mixed 
corn or maslin three times as great : a considerable quan- 
tity of potatoes is grown, a small quantity of oats, and very 
little barley or buckwheat. The quantity of woodland is 
nearly a sixth of the whole area of the department ; the 
quantity of land occupied in vineyards is small, and the 
amount of wine made is trifling. The plum, the pear, and the 
apple, are the fruits most cultivated : the principal timber 
trees are the oak, the beech, the elm, the hornbeam, the 
aspin, the scr\'ice tree, the chestnut, the birch, and, in the 
valleys, the alder, the ash, the poplar, and the maronnier, 
or large chestnut tree. In tlie arrondissemens of Bernay 
and Pont Audomer, fine flax is grown from seed imported 
from Riga and Holland ; and in ^-arious places, leguminous 
plants, hemp, weld or dvers* weed (for dyeing yellow), and 
teazles are cultivated. l*he farming is not very neat ; and the 
hedgerows and ditches are not well kept. Plantations might 
be increased on the higher grounds. There are many na- 
tural meadows and pasture lands, and the cultivation of the 
artificial grasses is on the increase : the quantity of cattle 
is not mucn more than half the average of France, but the 
number of horses is above half as much again as the aver- 
age. Horses are much emplovcd in the labours of the field : 
the fine Norman breed, whicn the long wars had nearly de- 
stroyed, has been renewed with great care. The number of 
sheep is rather above the average of France : the wool is 
ordinary ; but the flesh of those fed near the sea is delicate 
and in good repute. The nuinber of swine and the quantity 
ofpoultry are considerable. Small game is tolerably plen- 
tifol ; but the larger sorts, the roebuck, the stag, ana the 
wild boar, which were formerly abundant, have been almost 
entirely destroyed since the Revolution. The rivers abound 
with fish, especially tench ; and great quantities of the sal- 
mon and the shad ascend them from the sea and are taken. 

Tne mineral productions are iron, freestone, sandstone, 
millstones, lime and gypsum, potters' clay, brick earth, and 
fbllm* earth. There are several cold mineral springs ; those 
of V ieux ConchiM are in the highest repute. 

The manufkctures of the department are various and im- 
portant : Dupin (Farces Productives et Cofnmereiaies de /n 
Eranee, Paris, 1827), states the number of esiabliiihnivtiri 
of various kinds at 1511, of workmen at 30,157, and tl.e 
value of the articles produced at 26,772,297 francs, or aKu\c 
1,100,000/. The workmen are thus classified by Mal'e 
Brun: in tlie woollen manu&cture 8500 ; in the iron luA 
copper works 8000 ; in the tape manufacture (SOOO ; in li.t 
cotton manufacture 4500 ; in the leather manufacture louo . 
in the manufacture of glass, paper, and hosiery 2000. The 
population is not however collected into large towns, then; 
being no town with 10,000 inhabitants, and only five nh. h 
have 5000; and taking the whole department, the ruial 
population is to that of the towns as nearly j to 1 . There 
are many iron-works, and at Romilly oo the Audelie are 
some of the most extensive and important copper-work» ui 
France ; nails and pins are made at Rugles on the Ruir, 
cards for carding wool and cotton, and machinery at Louviert, 
and machinery in the arrondissement of Louviers. Tbe 
manufacture of linens is widely extended ; the linen« of 
Bernay are much esteemed. The woollen cloths of Lou vie n 
are among the best in France : other cloths of inferior qua- 
lity, druggets and flannels, arc made in different places in 
the department Leather of excellent quality is made at 
Pont Audemer, and there are tan-yards at Evrcux and oth"; 
places. Tapes are made at the town and in the arrondL&.-o- 
mcnt of Bernay, bed-ticks at Evreux, and printed cal:(\: 
and other cotton goods in various places : cotton and woolIeL 
and linen yarn are also spun. To the above articles ina> U- 
added hosiery (at Pont Audemer), thread (at Bernay), glaiv, 
paper, musical instruments, ivor}' and boxwood coml* 
Dyeing and bleaching have been carried to great pcrfc-< 

The exportations to foreign countries consist of wooV.^n 
cloths of all kinds, bed-ticks, linens, cotton goods, leaih*:. 
copper goods, and pins : similar articles, together with in-'. 
goods, wood fur the shipwright and the builder, and f : 
fuel, com and cattle, are sent into other parts of Frauc^ 
The imports consist chiefly of the raw material for the va- 
rious manufactures. * 

The navigation of the Seine enables the department lo 
communicate readily with Rouen and Paris : a cut in or ' 
part shortens the navigation a little: the Eure is naMga\.v 
for a considerable part, if not the whole of its cour^t- r. 
this department : the Iton is used for floating during \ a t 
of its course ; but the Rille is no longer used lor iKt' 
purpose- It is navigable however up to Pont Andcui : 
The length of the navigable rivers and canals is liali *i 
much again as in the average of France. The departnid" 
is also better provided with roads than the greater par ( ' 
France : the road from Paris to Caen and Cherooun; cfu^*» 
it from east to west through Pacy and Evreux ; that £r z. 
Paris to Rouen by Pontotse (department of Oise) sf. 
Ecouis : and that from Paris to Rouen bv Vernon, Gaill' n, 
and Pont de TArche, along the valley of the Seinc^ crn^ n 
from south-east to north-west. Roads from Rouen to }!• n- 
fleur (department of Calvados) by Pont Audemer ; to AUu- 
con (department of Ome) through Bourgtheroude, Brio ^ 
Bernay, and Chambrois ; and to Evreux throueli Pont ii* 
TArche and Louviers; and from Evreux bv Vernon *■ 
Gisors, also cross it in different directions. The road fp t. 
Paris to Dieppe just passes through Gisors in the easte.ii 
extremity of the department; and that from Piaris to Mvu- 
'9on, Laval, Rennes, St. Brieuc, and Brest, crosses the f'^- 
partment just within the southern boundary f<^awing tL-. 
%'allcy of the Aure or Arve through Nonanoourt, Tillirrt^ 
and Verneuil. A road from Rouen to Beauvmis just tou< un 
the north-east extremity of the department. The o^lsr 
roads are bye-roads. 

The department is divided into five arrondtssemens . thst 
of Les Andelys, in the east and north-east ; that of P> : ' 
Audemer, in the north-west; that of Bernay, in the struxu 
west ; that of Evreux, in the south; and that of Louvio. 
central. The population is thus distributed among tl*tta 
— ^Les Andelys, 64,337; Pont Audemer, 89»744; Bcrr.' 
82,828; Evreux, 118,397; and Louvien 68,94*2. 1. 
number of cantons or districts under the jurisdictioa ct * 
justice of the peace is 36 ; that of the oomraiines 844. 

The principal towns are Evreux, the capital, on the Iv ■ 
population 7988 for the town, 9963 for the whole oommur ' 
Louviers, on the Eure, population 8627 for the town. S'>* 
for the whole commune; Pont Audemer, on tlie Ru . 
population 5305 ; Bernay, on the Cbarentoim«» popalati. . 




4480 for the town, 6605 for the whole commune ; and I^es 
Andelys, on the Seine, population 3432 for the town, 5168 
for the whole commune. [Andelys, Les ; Brrnay ; 
EvuEUx ; LouvisRS.] The population is from the returns 
of January 1, 1832. 

In the arrondissement of Les Andelys there are Gisors, 
Etr^pagny, Ecouis, Maineville, Lions-la-Foret, Charleval, 
and Ecosc. 

Gisors is on the Epte, which divides it into two parts, 
and on the road from Paris to Dieppe, 39 miles from Paris. 
The castle was huilt about a.d. 1100. In the wars of the 
English in France under Heniy V., Gisors was taken by 
them ; but it was afterwards delivered up to the French 
by the treachery of the governor. In the war of the 
• League of the Public Good' agiunst Louis XI. this town 
was taken by the revolted lords. There are considerable 
remains of the castle at the extremity of the town towards 
Rouen, on the river Epte. From its position and general 
outline, it much resembles the remains of Launceston 
Castle in Cornwall. The inclosure of the castle is now 
used as a market-hall ; the fosse is planted with trees, and 
forms a promenade. Some portions of the antient town- 
wall yet remain. The church of Gisors is a large well- 
proportioned cross church, adorned with much elaborate 
sculpture; but its architecture is for the most part a jumble 
of Gothic and Roman. (Dawson Turner's Toitr in Nor- 
mandy,) It has -some fine painted glass windows. The 
town Itself is poor, but its situation is delightful, and the 
walks very pleasant. The population in 1832 was 3248 
for the town, or 3533 for the whole commune. The inha- 
bitants are euj^aged in bleaching calicoes and other fabrics, 
and manufacture cotton-yarn, printed calicoes, blonde and 
other lace, leather, glass ;ind beer; they trade in corn and 
calves for the supply of Paris. Ttiere are a high school, a 
school of mutual instruction, a school for outline-drawing, 
and an hospital. Near Gisors is the antient castle of 
Vaux, now in ruins. 

Etr6paffny, otherwise Estrcpaguy or Trepagny, a small 
town a snort distance west by north of Gisors, has a sub- 
stantially-built church. Its population, as given in Du- 
laure's ' Histoire des EnN-irons de Paris' (Paiis, 1828), our 
latest authority, was 1250. The inhabitants manufacture 
lace, cotton-yarn, and knit goods, and trade in grain, pulse, 
cattle, and hemp. There are two fairs in the year. 

EcouU is on one of the roads from Paris to Rouen. It 
has a market-place covered in with wood, a ch&teau of 
modern construction, and an antient parish church, for- 
merly collegiate. The last mentioned is a substantial but 
rather plain building in the form of a Greek cross ; it con- 
tains the statues of several saints and the tomb of Jean de 
Marigny, archbishop of Rouen. The inhabitants are given 
by Dulaure at 634: they manufacture laoe. There are 
two fairs in the year. 

Maineville is near, hut not on the Epte, a few miles 
north of Gisors. 

Lion3-la-Foret is on the little river Lieur, which flows 
into the Andelle. It was inhabited in the Roman times, 
as appears from some antient tombs, columns, painted 
walls, medals, and other antiquities discovered here at the 
beginning of the last century. There was in the middle 
ages a castle at Lions, where Henry I. of England died 
A.D. 1135. The population of the commune is given by 
Dulaure at 1900. The inhabitants manufacture printed 
calicoes and leather, and trade in corn. 

Charleval is a small town at the junction of the Lieur 
with the Andelle. It takes its present name from a resi- 
dence built here by Charles IX., of which there are some 
remains. Calicoes are printed and paper made. The neigh- 
bourhood ia fertile. 

Ecose or Ecos, a very small place, is near the Epte, and 
between Gisors and Vernon. 

Pont St. Pierre, a village on the Andelle, has fulling- 
mills, a cloth factory, and a cotton-mill, in which above 300 
workmen are employed; and at Romilly, just across the 
river, is an extensive fbunflry, employing above 300 work- 
men. Copper, brass, and zino in sheets, and brass wire 
for pins are produced. At these works zinc is used instead 
of lapis calamioaris in the mannfaoture of brass. The coal 
is brought from Anzin and Si. Etienne, in France [Aif- 
zipr ; Stiknnx, St.], and from Belgium* 

In the arrondissemeiit of Pont Audemer are Pont Au-' 
demer, Beuzeville, Conteville, Cormeilles, lieurey, St. 
George du Viivre, Pont Authou, Annebaut or Appeville, 
P, C No. 604. • 

Bourgth6roude, Bourgachard, Routot, Bournevillc, and 

Pont Audemer is on the left bank of the Rille, and on 
the road from Rouen to Honfleur, 29 miles from Roucu 
In the Norman period it was a military station, and was 
the first scene of conflict between Heury I. of England and 
his rebellious Norman barons : the victory was gained by 
the king, to whom the fortress immediately surrendcrea. 
In the fourteenth century it was defended successfully by 
its lord, the count of Evreux, against the generals of the 
king of France : this was the first siege in which cannon 
were employed in that kingdom. It was afterwards taken 
by Duguesclin, its castle razed, and the walls and towers of 
the town destroyed. It is a small neat place, at the foot of 
an eminence, with handsome streets and ^ood brick houses. 
It is defended by w^ills and a ditch, which may be filled 
with water at will by means of sluices. It has four gates, 
and several places or squares. There are several churches, 
but some of them are now desecrated and converted to other 
uses. The population in 1832 was 5305: the inhabitants 
manufacture cotton yarn, printed calicoes, muslins, bed-ticks, 
tapes, hosiery, and especially leather. The leather is 
thought to be the best in France. There are an agricul- 
tural society and a theatre. The river is navigable up to 
this town : several of the arms into which its channel is 
divided have mills on their banks. 

Beuzeville has a population, of above 2000 : the inha- 
bitants are engaged in tanning leather and sawing marble 
they have some hnseed-oil miUs. 

Conteville is near the mouth of the Rille. The ' Dic- 
tion naire Universel de. la France,' our latest authority 
(Paris, 1804), gives its population at 900. « 

Cormeilles is on the road between Pont Audemer and 
Lisicux. It had formerly a Benedictine abbey, founded by 
William Fitzosbome, a relation of William the Conoueror. 
The church and other monastic buildings, which haa gone 
much to decay, were repaired in the early port of the last 
century. The population, according to the ' Dictionnairo 
Universel de la Trance,' was 1210. There are an oil-mill, 
a paper-mill, and tan-yards ; linen and calico are manufac- 
tureo, and some trade carried on in com. 

Lieurey and St. George du Vievre (population 900), 
where Unen and paper are made, are between the Calone 
and the Rille. 

Pont Authou (population 628), where woollen yarn is 
spun and cloth made, and cattle sold, and Annebaut (popu- 
lation 1150), where are the ruins of an antient castle, are 
on the Rille. The population of these places is given from 
Dulaure : it is not tne last return. 

Bourgth^roude, near the boundary of the department, 
not far from £lba;uf, derives its name (in Latin Burgus 
Thuroldi) from Thurold, one of the preceptors, and aner- 
wards grand constable, of William the O)nqueror. Its 
church was formerly collegiate. The inhabitants are given 
by Dulaure at 738. 

Bourgachard is not far from Bourgth^roude. There was 
an abbey at Bourgachard, but it is now levelled with the 
g;round ; there is an hospital or almshouse. The population 
IS given by Dulaure at 1114. The market is considerable. 

Routot (population 1100, Dulaure), which trades in 
cattle and wool, and Bourneville (population 781, Dulaure), 
are on a bye-road from Bourgachard to Quillebceuf, which 
is on the left bank of the Seine, on a point formed by a 
bend of the river. Its port is much frequented by the boats 
which Jiavigate the Seine, and those vessels which are too 
large to ascend the river as fiir as Rouen discharge their 
cargoes here. It was formerly a place of considerable 
strength. The inhabitants (1500, Dulaure) carry on a con- 
siderable fishery, or pilot vessels up the Seine ; the women 
manufacture lace. 

Montfort, on the Rille, between Pont Authou and Anne- 
baut, is given as a village in some of our authorities, as a 
town in others. It has the ruins of an antient castle, be- 
sieged for thirty days in a.d. 1122 by Henry I. of England, 
and gives title to an English peer. The inhabitants (520, 
X>ulaure) manufacture leather, paper, and woollen cloth, 
and trade in cattle and linen. 

In the arrondissement of Bemay are Le Bee, BriOne 
or Brionne, Beaumont le Roger, La Barre, Beaumenil, 
Chambrois, Thiberville, and Harcourt. 

Le Bee, sometimes distinguished as Le Bee Hell ou in, is 
near the bank of the Rille. Here, before the Revolution, was 
a Benedictine abbey of the congregation of St. Maur, one oa 

Vol. X. — tt 




the wealthiest in Normandie, founded by Hellouin, a noble of 
the country, about a.d. 1 034. The abbot s patronage was very 
extensive. Soon after its foundation this abbey became the 
seat of a famous school, founded here by Lanfranc, one of the 
monks of the convent, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. 
Anselm, Theobald, and Hubert, also inmates of this abbey, 
were subsequently raised to the same arcbiepiscopal see, 
and Rog^er, the seventh abbot, had the offer of that dignity, 
but refused it. The sees of Rochester, Beauvais, and Evreux, 
were filled by monks fh>m this abbey, which furnished abbots 
to the convents of Chester, Ely, and St. Edmund's Bury. The 
Empress Maud, daughter of Heury I. of England, is said to 
have been buried here. The abbey was fortified when 
Henry V. invaded France, and stood a siege of a month 
before it was surrendered to the English. Hie greater 
part of the conventual buildings still exist. The tower, 1 50 
feet high, a few ruined arches, and one of the side chapels, 
ore the only parts of the church which remain. A part of 
the grounds are appropriated to a stud for keeping up the 
breed of Norman horses. The town of Le Bee is unim- 
portant : its population is about 700. 

Brionne was, under the dukes of Normandie, a place 
of some importance; it had three churches, an abbey, 
and a lazar house, beside an antient castle, of which some 
slight remains exist, and it was the capital of an earldom, 
created in favour of a son or brotner of one of the 
dukes of Normandie. The town is pleasantly and advan- 
tageously situated on the banks of the Rille. It has only 
one church now. The inhabitants may be estimated at 
about 2000. A mill for spinning cotton yam employs 120 
hands, and a cloth factory 500 * rape and linseed oils are 

Beaumont le Roger, on the Rille, had also a strong castle 
and a Benedictine priory. The inhabitants are given in 
the Dicticnnaire Univtrsel de la France at 3325: a cloth 
factory employs 400 hands, a glass-house 100; bottles, 
chiefly intended for Bretagne, are blown in great quantity 
at the latter establishment 

La Barre and Beaumenil are between the Rille and the 
Charentonne : their population was, according to the Die- 
tionnaire Universel, 948 and 484 respectively. 

Chambrois is on the Charentonne, above Bemay; and 
Thiberrille, near the scarce of the Calone; the inhabitants 
of the latter (population 1200 according to the Dictionnaire 
Universel) are occupied in weaving tape. This branch of 
industry employs at the neighbouring village of Drucourt 
and the surrounding communes, 4600 workmen. 

Harcourt, not far from Brionne, gives title to an English 
nobleman: there are some remains of an antient castle, 
built by Robert de Harcourt, one of the companions of 
William the Conqueror in his invasion of England : the 
Dictionnaire Umversel gives the population at 1297. 

In the arrondisscment of Evreux are Neuvelire, Rugles, 
Conches, Damville, Breteuil, Bourth, ChSnebrun, Yemeuil, 
Tillieres, Nonancourt, Ivry, Pacy, St. Andr^, Villiers-en- 
Desccuvre, and Vernon. 

Neuvelire (otherwise Neuvelyre) and Rugles are on the 
Rille ; the latter is higher up the stream. Neuvelire has 
600 inhabitants, who trade in com and cattle; at Yiellelyre, 
near it, there are iron works. Rugles is of more importance ; 
it is the centre of a pin manufacture which employs 2500 
workmen, and of a nail manufacture which employs 3600 
more. Zinc and copper are rolled out into sheets : the ma- 
nufacture of iron caoles, once carried on in this tovni, has 
been transferred to Nevers, in the centre of Franee. 

Conches (pop. in 1826 1725) is on the river Conches, a 
small stream which joins the I ton between Damville and 
Evreux. Nails, agricultural implements, and other iron 
g(xxls, are manufactured here : there are tan-yards, paper, 
oil and tan mills, and trade is carried on in iron, earthenware, 
hay. and cattle. The iron work of the bridges des Arts and 
d'Austcrlitz at Paris were cast here. 

Damville, Breteuil, and Bourth, are all on thelton. Their 
population is given by Dulaure at 762, 2000, and 1670, re- 
spectively: there are iron works at all of them. Pins are 
uiade at Bourth ; and at Breteuil, cannon of every calibre, 
projcr tiles of all ksnds, screw taps, cauldrons, iion pots and 
oilier iron wares, tiles, and bricks. There are at Breteuil 
mineral waters and the remains of a castle, built by William 
the Conqueror. 

Ch^nebrun, or Chcnnebrun, is on the Aure : it im Tery 

all ; \Xh population is about 360. ' 

'eraeuil is on the Aure: it is well laid out with broad 

straight streets, but wretched and ill-built houses of Mirth 
and wood, with a few only of brick: it bad in 1832 a popu- 
lation of 3722 ibr the town, or 4178 for the whole oommuna. 
The manufactures of this town and its vicinity consist of 
leather for bookbinders (but this branch of industry has 
much declined) and of cotton hose, but this is also Is&- 
guishing. There in a Gothic church in the town, the 
steeple of which is said to have been built by the English, 
and an old tower, the remains of a castle which formeriy 
defended the town. This tower is popularly but erroneous.) 
ascribed to the Romans. The site of the ramparts \lL 
been laid out in promenades. The English obtained i 
victory over the French at Vemeuil in the reign of Henr) VI^ 
A.D. 1424. There is a small library. 

Tillidres and Nonancourt are also on the Aure : they have 
a population (according to Dulaure) of 950 and 1359 re^i>o> 
tively. At Tillidres pins and nails are made ; and at Nun.:-. 
court woolcombors* cards, machinery, woollen and ojc a 
yarn, woollen cloth, calicoes, hosiery, linen, and puj'-r. 
trade is also carried on in corn and catt)e. 

Ivry, on the Euro, at the junction of the Vesgre, is cc!l- 
brated for the battle fought in the adjacent plain, in \kh. » 
Henri IV. routed the army of the League under the duke (-( 
Mayenne, a.d. 1590. A pyramid, overthrown at the Re\ <!v 
tion, but restored by Napoleon, commemorates the battle h 
is a town of 800 inhabitants (Dulaure), who manufact^ic 
musical wind instruments, ivory and boxwood combs, curt . 
yam, and leather, and carry on trade in coru, cattle, a:. . 

Pacy is on the Eure, at the point where, according to fr:<:ar 
of our authorities, the navigation begins, in a fertile \ailc\ 
It was antiently a place of soqie importance, and wa^ a? 
fended by a castle and strong ramparts. Before the He^^ 
lution it had three churches (one parish church and t^. 
others) and a Benedictine abbey. The inhabitants, 1 Z\\ < /» 
number (Dulaure), trade in cattle and horses (for which tL.> 
have a large fair), corn, woollen and linen cloth, and ir <ii. 

St Andr6, between the Euro and Iton, had a [ ., . 
lation of 977 (Dulaure): some trade in cattle is carrit-ti \ ; 

Villiers en Desoeuvre, a short distance from the bai.l 
the Eure, had a population of no more than 450 (DuUuii. > 
it has some trade in cattle and horses. 

Vernon is on the left bank of the Seine, and on the r w! 
from Paris to Rouen. Here was in antient times a ca« .>. 
which William the Conqueror bestowed on his relation, G »•. 
son of the count of Bourgogne, and which was strengthc:. •: 
by Henry J., the (Ik)nquerors son. The town is situated \z •> 
singularly beautiful valley, and is connected by a brid^i .: 
twenty-two arches with the suburb of Vernonnet, on the k^\u. 
bank of the Seine. Of the antient defences of the town th ri 
remains only a tower, in which the archives of the place «a 
preserved. The church, part of which eiLhibits some v.;;. 
early Norman architecture, was formerly ooUegiau. ;; 
contained before the Revolution several monuments T. 
popuktion in 1832 was 2703 for the town, or 4b^b fur a*. 
coinmune, including the suburb, Vemonnet Cotton \ el • . '. 
plain and printed calicoes, leather, and cotton >'am, ,^ 
maiiufactured : there is an establishment for making i u 
equipage of the artillery, and another for lawing atone ; &.^ 
lime, gypsum, and tile kilns: trade is earned on in ( :.. 
flour, wine, wooL feathers, and cattle. 

The arrondisse'ment of Louviers contains Pont de T An'^e. 
Gaillon, and Neufbourg. 

Pont de VArche is on the left bank of the Sw^ 'y>' 
below the junction of the Eure, and at the point «:.>.^ 
the tide ceases to be perceptible. It owes its orij^iti \ 
Charles le Cbauve, who erected here a palace, in h u; _ 
he convened councils, held assemblies of his nobles, a. . 
drew up edicts; and built a fine bridge, defended at « .. 
extremity by a citadel, from which the name of the p. ■ 
(in Latin Pons Arcis) is derived, and which was d^.K- 
lished about the beginninir of the Revolution. Punt *' 
I'Arche was burned by tlie Enghsh under Edward III T..-. 
walls of the town yet remain flanked by circular u^ > 
The bridge is the lowest stone bridge down the S^ine, . . 
the only one of any kind between Vernon and Boucu : i 
a picturesque object, with mills in some part of il* Ir^.j . 
and a lock under one of the arches to facilitate the nax .. 
tion of the river and render it secure. On the bank ui \ 
river near the town are the remains of a Cisterlian al t* 
founded, aj>. 1190, by Richard Cg^tf de X^on, in pu . 
ance, it is.said, of « vow which he had made wh«u iw. 
lott in the rapid cnjcrent of the Seine. Thteohureb oi V ^ 

. ^D 




western side of the deportment) there are many tracts of 
waste land scarcely capahle of producing anything; the 
a>hos of the heaih and furze are used for manure. Two- 
tliii-ds of the department consist of the former territory of 
Beauce, or Beausse [Beausse], which is a great agricul- 
tural district: com, especially wheat, which yields a great 
proportion of flour, constitutes its principal riches of this 
part of the department: the harvests are very ahundant, and 
tbcir produce is chiefly destined for the supply of Paris. In 
tlio rest of the department rye, harley, and oats are pro- 
duced; pulse (legumes) is ^wn every where; the turnips 
of^aussaie, the melons of Nogent le Roi, and the onions of 
Chaudons are in high repute ; few potatoes are grown ; but 
in some parts rape, flax, hemp, dyers* weed (reseda luteola), 
and teazles are raised for the use of the manufacturers ; hops 
grow spontaneously ; the vine is cultivated in many places ; 
the wine is of middling quality, and liable to turn sour in hot 
weather. There are few fruit-trees in the former district of 
Beauoe, hut many in the arrondissement of Nogent le Ro- 
trou, especially apple-trees, which furnish cider for home 

According to M. Dupin (Forces Productives, ^c, de la 
France) the value of land and the aggregate rental of the 
department are above the average of France ; the quantity 
of wheat grown is to the average produce of the other de- 
partments as more than five to two ; that of oats nearly as 
four to two ; and that of potatoes, contrary to what is stated 
in the above extract, is more than eight to two. * The 
forests (we quote again from the Dictionnaire Giogra- 
phique Universelle) occupy an extent of 45,000 hectares 
(above 111,000 acres), and consist, in a great measure, of 
oaks and birches : all the woodland is on the western side 
of the department, except some round Dreux, in the north- 
ern part, llie pasture and meadow-land is not in pro- 
portion to the quantity of arable, but it is of good quality. 
A considerable number of horned cattle of a small race 
are reared; but not a sufficient number of horses for 
the wants of the agricultural districts : those which are bred 
in the arrondissement of Nogent le Rotrou are in reouest 
for the light cavalry. There are many sheep, some of which 
yield a fine wool;' pigs, fowls (which are sent in great 
quantity to Paris), and bees. Game is abundant; the 
rabbits are in repute, as well as the red partridges, plovers, 
lapwings, and especially a species of the plover called guig- 
nard, from which the Chartres pies derive their reputation ; 
pigeons are again increasing. The rivers abound with fish ; 
the golden carp of the Loir, the crayfish of its affluent, the 
Connie, the trout of the Blaise, the £ure, and the Huine, 
are accounted excellent.' The number of horses, however 
insufficient, is* given by M. Dupin at 35,967, nearly 8000 
above the average of the departments: the number of 
horned cattle is given by him at 56,464, more than 23,000 
below the average: the quantity of wool grown is to the 
average produce of the departments in the proportion nearly 
of five to two ; and this is more available for exportation, as 
the woollen manufacture of the department is not great. 
The department is essentially agricultural; corn is sent 
not only to Paris, but into the neighbouring departments. 
There are about 600 flour-mills ; a great number of them 
are on the Euro, the Blaise, the Loire, and other streams. 
The cottages of the peasantry are, in some parts at least, of 
a most miserable character; they call to mind the tents of 
the antient Camutcs who occupied the country. 

Tlie only metal dug is some iron : but the mines supply 
only a part of the ore for the different iron-works, and are 
becoming exhausted : good freestone is quarried, and sand- 
stone for pavement ; there is much marl ; peat for fuel is 
obtained in several places, also pot ten* clay, and clay for the 
finer kinds of earthenware proauccd in the manufactory at 

The manufactures are of small importance; they are 
chiefly in the arrondissement of Dreux, and ii\ that of 
Chartres. The manufiicture of linen is generally diffused, 
but it is only in one place that it is carried on on a con- 
siderable scale ; some cotton yam is spun and some cotton 
goods arc woven ; woollen cloths, serges, and other light wool- 
len stuffs, blankets, flannel, knit and woven hosiery, foot car- 
pets, and common hats are made ; there are a considerable 
number of tan-yards ; a small quantity of earthenware is 
made, and a little beet-root sugar. 

The department is very ill provided with the means of 
water carriage ; a small part of the course of the Eure, 
along the boundary of the department, is» according to tome I 

of our authorities, navigable. With roads it is better pro- 
vided. The great road firom Paris through Toura to the 
south-west of France crosses the department, pasHn.j 
through Epcrnon, Maintenon, Chartres, Bonneval, CI*..- 
teaudun, and Cloyes; the groat western road from Pan* 
to Rennes and Brest just crosses the northern part thn»uc'< 
Dreux: these are the only roads of the first class. Of tli 
second class are the Orleans road, passing just within t)i * 
south-eastern boundary of the department, through Tliauo : 
and the road which, branching off" from the great »outii 
western road at Chartres, runs through 0)urville Chnm(»- 
rond and Nogent le Rotrou in the direction of Le Man^, 
Angers, and Nantes. Of roads of the thir4 class are a r xi 
from Paris to Chartres through GuMelongroy, roods from 
Chartres to Dreux and to Orl^ns, and from Ch&le%udui] 
to Nogent le Rotrou (and from thence to Alen^on, in \l^ 
department of Ome), and to Orleans. The otner roads arc 

The department is divided into four arrondifiaemen* 
that of Dreux, in the north, population in 1832 70.^3 j ; 
that of Chartres, in the east and centre, population 103,7'^ ;. 
that of Chfi teaudun, in the south, population 59,758 ; an 1 
that of Nogent le Rotrou, in the west, population 44.74: 
These arrondissemens are subdivided into 24 canton^. •; 
districts of justiees of the peace, and 460 or 463 commune 
The chief towns are Chartres, the capital, on the Euir. 
population 13,576 for the town, or 14,439 for the wh< * 
commune [Chartrss] ; Chfiteaudun, on the Loire, pt^r'-- 
lation 6461 [Chateaudun] ; Dreux, on the Blaise, pf>pu- 
lation 5166 for the town, 6249 fur the whole commur^ 
[Dreux]; and Nogent le Rotrou, on the Huine, popui.- 
tion 5812 for the town, or 6825 for the whole commur.- 
Of this last and the smaller towns an account is subjoinr'. 

In the arrondissement of Dreux we have Bu, Anet. N >^ 
gent le Roi, Le Tremblay, Chfiteauncuf, Digny, Senunchi n 
Maillebois, BrezoUes, and La Fert^ Vidame. 

Bu (population 1549, Dulaure, Environs de Paris, Pan<, 
1828) was once a place of considerable strength; it 1ul< &>' . 
the ruins of an antient castle, of which one tower i> 
pretty good preservation. It was the capital of a cour. v 
Its markets are well attended. 

Anet (population 1500, Dulaure) is in the northern r*.- 
tremity of the department, in a pleasant valley between ti.« 
Vesgres and the Kure ; it has the remains of a magnitii *> •: 
residence, built by Henri II. for Diane de Poitiers, durl^-^^ 
of Valentinois, his mistress. There are tan and crom-iu.! >. 
and in the neighbourhood paper-mills and iron-works; ins 
inhabitants carry on trade m com, wood, and hay. 

Nogent le Roi (population 1242, Dulaure) is in aplifa^r: 
pulley on the left bank of the Eure. The inhabitants earn 
on a trade in cattle. Nogent belonged to Philippe VI. «. 
Valois, who died here a.d. 1350. It is nrobable ilat '-. 
derived from this prince its distinctive epithet of Le K< . , 
it was, with its territory, erected into a county in favour «• 
Bautru, one of the courtiers of the cardinal de Richch*- ; 
The castle of Nogent, built on a hill which commands i :: • 
town on the western side, was an object of frequent ci.iitr-; 
in the times of feudal warfare and in the wars of the Er. 
lish in France under their kings Henry V. and VI. i 
was garrisoned by Henri IV. inTiis war with the Leaim*-. 
taken by the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns, \k t 
had embraced the party of the League, and to whom itt 
garrison was an annoyance, and retaken by the royal fun ^^ 

Le Tremblav is very small ; its population is under ^* ^ 
(Dulaure) ; it lies a little out of the road from Dreux t 

C)hftteauneuf (population 1250, Dulaure) is in a ferttv 
plain between Dreux and Nogent le Rotrou. Herv ui> 
an antient castle, Castrum Theodemerense, a name «!.;«.• 
was corrupted into Thimer, and gave to the aurroundn; 
territory the name of Thimerais ; whence Ch&teattncuf :• 
sometimes distinguished as Ch&teauneuf en Thimerais. It 
A.D. 1589 it was taken by the troops of the duke of MavcniM^ 
and retaken by those of Henri IV. The inhabitants n.- 
carry on a trade in cattle. 

Digny is not fax from C^&teauneaf, with a populatt--* 
according to Dulaure, of 1197. Some of our aiilhontir- 
make this to be only a village. 

Senonches and Maillebois are on the Blaise; the^ Ibrtni* 
near its source, the latter lower down. At Senonch^^ 
(population 1911, Dulaure) steam-engines and hycLnsu. .- 
machines are made, and there are iron^worka. Trade i« 
carried on in cattle and horses. At Maillebota (7M inba- 




Salamis in the year b.c. 480, on tlie day of the great victory 
obtained over the fleet of Xerxes. His father Mnesarchus 
and his mother Dito were among the refugees driren to 
Salamis by the progress of the invading army. They seem 
to have been Athenian citizens of the poorer class, as \ve 
find that the mean occupation of this poet's mother was 
made by Aristophanes one standing subject of the ridicule 
which he so perseveringlv heaped upon him. Philocho- 
nis, on the contrary, says that he was of noble birth ; but still 
his parents might be poor. (Suidas, thpitrUtjs.) Euripides 
however found means to devote himself early and closely 
to the study of philosophy in the school of Anaxa^oras, 
as well as to that of eloquence under Prodicus. While 
he was yet very young, the persecution and banishment 
of Anaxagoras appear to have deterred liim from, or at 
least disgusted him with, the cultivation of philosophy as a 
profession, and combined with the strong natural bent of 
his genius to direct his exertions chiefly to dmmatic composi- 
tion. He is said to have commenced writing at the age of 
eighteen ; and in the course of a long life he composed not 
fewer than seventy-five tragedies, or, according to other 
authorities, ninety-two, whidi rivalled in the public ap- 
probation the contemporary productions of Sophocles ; and 
notwithstanding the constant and bitterly satirical attacks 
which, in the author's own time, they sustained from 
such as were exclusively and intolerantly attached to the 
elder tragic school, they secured him for all succeeding ages 
a place beside its two great masters. When upwards of 
seventy years old, weary, it should seem, of the feverish 
excitement in which he must have been kept alike by the 
petulant criticism and the turbulent applause that attended 
nim at Athens, he accepted the invitation of Archelaua, 
king of Macedon, and went to live in honoured and tran- 
quil retirement at his court. Here, however, a singular 
as well as tragical end awaited him. According to one ac- 
count (for, in this as in many other matters of antient 
biography, there are discrepancies), he had spent three 
years in this retreat, when, walking one day in a solitary 
spot, he was met by some of the king's hounds, which, 
rushing furiously upon him, tore him so violently that he 
shortly after diea in consequence of the laceration. Aulus 
Gellius tells us that the Athenians sent to Macedon to ask 
for the body of Euripides, but that the Macedonians con- 
stantly refused it, in order that their own country might 
retain the honour of the magnificent tomb which they erected 
for him at Fella, and which, according to Ammianus Mar- 
cell inus, was sanctified by the thunder-stroke, as Plutarch 
informs us had been the case with that of Lycurgus. Thus 
Athens was obliged to content herself with engraving the 
name of Euripides upon an empty monument, which in the 
time of Pausanias was vet standing beside the road from 
the PircDus to Athens (Wusan. AUic, 1, 2), near the tomb 
of Menander. 
Of the nnmerous tragedies of Euripides, nineteen sur- 
much larger proportion than has descended to us 


of the works of either of the two elder tragic masters. We 
have already [Dhamatic Art, &c., vol. ix. p. 131] pointed 
out his ' Electra* to the reader's attention, not as a favour- 
able specimen of the general powers of Euripides — for, in- 
deed, as a work of art it is decidedly one of the least meri- 
toriuus of his cxiant piccesi — but as affording the clearest 
point of comparison between his roost prominently distinc- 
tive features as a dramatist and those of his two great pre- 
decessors ; this being the only instance in which we have 
a piece from each and all of the three composed upon one 
and the same historical or mythological subject. 'Orestes,' 
the suhjcrt of which, inasmuch as it relates to the persecu- 
tion of that hero by the furies of his mother and his pro- 
script iun an a matricide, is the same as that of the ' Eume- 
nide«' of ^*chylus though in scene, incident, and character, 
exc«*])ting that of Oresten himself, they are wholly different, 
is more vit^oruus and more afferting than the * Electra.' 
• Ipliii^t-nia in Tauris' and 'Andromache' follow out still 
farther the fortunes of Orestes; both rank amon^ those 
pieccH of the second order in which the highest praise can 
be i;iven only to certain portions. The same may be said 
of the six following pieces : the * Troad^^s,' the mournfully 
grand ronrlu»ion of which exhibits the captive Trojan 
Women leaving Troy in fUmes behind them; 'Hecuba,' 
relatinu to the subsequent history of the capti%'e queen ; 
the * Hercules Furens/ or ' Raging Hercules ; the ' Phoe- 
ntMA,* having the same historical groundwork as the ' Seven 
against Tbebea' of iBscbylus; the ' Heraclidl0|' which cele- 

brates the Athenian protection of the diildren of Hereiile«. 
ancestors of the LaccMiiemonian kings, from the nersecuti. ^n 
of Eurystheus ; and the ' Supplices,* which in liae mannt. 
commemorates the interment of the Seven before TIk-Im« 
and their army, gained, on behalf of Adrastus, king : 
Argos, by a victory of the Athenians over the ThebuL^. 
' Helen' is a very entertaining and singular drama, full if 
marvellous adventures and appearances, being founded • t 
the assertion of the Egyptian priests that Helen hud r. 
fact remained ooncealed in Egypt, while Paris had mer^U 
carried off an airy semblance or her. The genuinene^*' 
* Rhesus,' taken from th^ eleventh book of the ' Iliad,' V • 
been much disputed, chiefly on the ground of its great rt-t- 
tive inferiority— an argument which is outwelghSl by «v r- 
tain internal characteristics of the piece itself, combiiifi 
with the external testimony of the antient writers asent i. ^ 
it to Euripides. For beautiful morality and unafibcied u: 
overpowering pathos^ his *Ion,' his * Iphigenia in Al .^ 
and above dl, his ' Alcestis,' are peculiarly distingui^lu ' 
He found subjects especially suited to the development >•: 
his finer powers in the purity and sanctity of the vol:* 
from whom the first of these three tragedies is named, i. 
the unsuspecting innocence of the heroine of the secoiui 
and in the tender yet resolute devotedness of connubial .i: 
fection portrayed m the third, to which Milton so beaulitu..^ 
alludes m his well-known sonnet, beginning 

' Methoaght I taw my late espoaaed taint 
Brought to me like Alcettia from the grave. 
Whom JoTt't great ton to her glad hatband gaTV,* fee. 

The ' Hippolytus' and the ' Medea,' exhibiting all in 
romantic violence of irregular and vehement feminine fu- 
sions, are deservedly celebrated among the ^reate:>t a: ■ 
most thoroughly successful achievements of this drama;*: 
In the former the heroism of Hippolytus is sublime as o 
as beautiful ; and as regards the conduct of Phocdra. i.* 
Schlegel has well remarked, it merits the highest r. u.- 
mendation for the striet observance of moral proprh ;i 
in a subject of so critical a nature. After the * Hipp«jl> i^" 
the same eminent critic is disposed to assign the ne.\t pi: r 
among all the remaining works of Euripides to the * Baerh • 
on account of its harmonious unity, its weU-sustained vii: : 
and of the appropriateness to the very peculiar subject 'u- 
treated, of that luxuriance of ornament which Huh; \-i * 
constantly displays. This piece also merits especial ntu 
tion as being the only one remaining of the 9eriou$ dr^: . 
that were coropo&ed expressly and immediately in ho:i 
of Bacchus himself, the patron deity of the theatre. 1 - 
this instance the glory ana the power of Bacchus are i 
merely the occasion — they form the subject of the Imirc «'. ♦ 
atid the wildly picturesque chorus of Bacchantes, as SchU*. - 
observes, ' represent the infectious and tumultuous in«, . . 
tion of the worship of Bacchus with great sensual y%)*t 
and vividness of conception.' 

An interest yet more peculiar attaches to the ' Cyrl * v' 
as being the sole remaining specimen o(ihesatynetfu^K^»*. 
so called from the chorus of satyrs, which formed an e^^ ' 
tial part of its composition. This, therefore, seems tn * 
the fittest place in which to give a brief account uf t." 
particular and somewhat remarkable dramatic sfH< - 
From this piece itself and from all collateral evidenci* it 
to be inferred that the satyric drama was never act^r'i ^ • 
as a kind of shorter and lighter after-piece, to relivie ': 
minds of the audience, especially the ruder portion uf ti:^' 
after the grave impression of the serious performances : . 
which purpose, however, it seems to have been veri r 
stantly employed, each tragic trilogy being almost u. 
riably accompanied by one of these shorter and lighter i r< 
ductions. Thus we find mention made of five satyric f>i«vN - 
of ilischylus, seven or eight of Sophocles, flwof kurtju^ « 
besides a number of others by various minor authors. N . 
withstanding its burlesque ingredients, the tragic chartu-- 
was so far preserved in the satyric play, that the sul>; 
appears to nave been always historical, and the aetioci pc ' * 
serious, though with a fortunate catastrophe. No les« n . 
tragedy and comedy, the satyric drama had its peculiar • 
appropriate stage decorations, representing %tx)ds, rr. • 
mountains, and other diversities of the 8yi\'an lands'-. 
Satyrs old and young, with Silenus in his various s^ - 
were distinguished fi!om one another by the variety of t) 
grotesque masks, crowned with long shaggy goats* 1 * 
while the satyrs were negligently dad in skina of bea.- < 
and the Sileni decorated with garlands of flowcn skilf u. « 




of the countries which were contiguous to the boundaries. 
The regions north of the Danube are mostly plains, and at 
that time were only inhabited by wandering nations, who 
could not be subjected to a regular government. Such at 
least are the countries extending between the Carpathian 
Mountains and the Black Sea ; and therefore the conquest 
of Dacia by Traian was of short continuance and speedily 
abandoned. The countries between the Alps and the 
Danube were soon added to the empire ; but as the nations 
who inhabited the tracts north of that river had not yet 
given up a wandering life, they were enabled to elude 
the Roman yoke. The most important addition to the 
empire and to geographical knowledge was the conquest 
of England during the first century after Christ, to 
which, in the following century, the south of Scotland was 

Nothing seems to have been added afterwards. The 
Geography of Ptolemy contains a considerable number of 
names of nations, places, and rivers in those countries, 
which were not subjected to the Romans. Probably they 
were obtained from natives, and from Roman traders who 
had ventured to penetrate beyond the boundaries of the 
empire. But these brief notices are very vague, and in 
most cases it is very difficult to determine what places and 
positions are indicated. 

The overthrow of the Roman empire by the northern 
barbarians destroyed a large part of the geographical know- 
ledge previously obtained, except perhaps as to that portion 
of Germany wnich was subject to the Franks, which by 
degrees became better known than it was before. But two 
sets of men soon made their appearance, who contributed 
largely to extend the geographical knowled^ of Europe — 
missionaries and pirates. The Christian religion had been 
introduced into all the countries subject to the Roman 
power. The barbarians who subverted the empire soon be- 
came converts to the Christian faith, and some of them 
ventured among other barbarous nations for the purpose 
of converting them also. They visited the natives who 
inhabited the eastern parts of Germany, but here their pro- 
gress was at first slow ; they did not cross the river Oder, 
or at least they did not venture far beyond it, and the geo- 
graphical knowledge of this part of Europe was consequently 
not much increased. The progress of those missionaries 
was more important who penetrated from Constantinople 
into the interior of Russia, where they succeeded in con- 
verting to the Greek church the different tribes into which 
the Russians were then divided. This was effected in the 
ninth century. In the tenth the western missionaries got 
into Poland, and its inhabitants by degrees became converts. 
Ip the beginning of the thirteenth century the Prussians 
and Lithuanians had not been converted to Christianity, 
and the attempts of the missionaries were for a long time 
abortive. Christianity was however introduced among the 
Prussians during the thirteenth century by force of arms, 
the knights of St John having conquered the country. 
The Lithuanians were the last to embrace Christianity, 
which was effected by a stroke of policy : their sovereign 
acquired the crown of Poltftid by embracing the new faith. 

To the pirates we are indebted for our acquaintance with 
the northern parts of Europe, especially the Scandinavian 
peninsula; but this was not owing to pirates who went to but 
to pirates who came from these countries. The Northmen 
or Normans, who inhabited Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, 
first laid waste and then settled in part of France, and aAer- 
wards conquered England. In their new settlements they 
maintained a communication with their native countries, 
which thus gradually became known wherever the Nor- 
mans had settled. 

It is worthy of remark, that no part of Europe has been 
discovered or explored by travellers who went for that sole 
purpose. We must however make an honourable exception 
in favour of Alfred the Great, who sent two noblemen to 
explore the countries around the Baltic Sea; and in the ac- 
count of one of them. Other, or Otter, we find the first 
accurate notions respecting these regions, especially Prussia, 
more than 300 vcars before the Prussians were converted to 

IL Survetji of Europe. In the beginning of the last 
century tngonoroetrical surveys were first made with the 
view of couatructing accurate maps. The first of these 
•urve>s wa« made in Franca under Cassini. Since that 
time other European governments have caused some parts 
t. least of their respective teiritories to be surveyed^ es- 

pecially Prussia and Austria. England followed in thv 
same steps towards the beginning of the present oentiin, 
and to this great national undertaking we owe the publir^^ 
tion of the &dnance Maps. The souOiem parts of Swed* r 
and Norway have likewise been surveyed. Thus we are n« *• 
in possession of very exact maps of nearly one-half of E - 
rope. The maps of the other countries of Europe rest on ili - 
partial surveys of particular districts, and on agreati^r ^-r 
less number of astronomical observations ; by means • •: 
which those parts which have not been surveyed can st..l 
be laid down within certain limits of accuracy. Thou^ . 
maps of this latter kind cannot altogether be relied on. thv 
attention paid by all governments to their gradual improM- - 
ment has been sufficient to correct very gross errors, ai d 
thus these mans have by successive and partial inipra%c- 
ments attainea a certain degree of correctness. 

The great increase in commerce and navigation in m>. 
dern times has convinced t^e respective govemnicnt^ •>( 
Europe of the necessity of a minute and accurate sur^ »-> 
of their coasts. But all the coasts of Europe have not be* .. 
surveyed, though more than half of them have been ai*.* 
rately laid down. The greatest part of the coast of loci t: ■! 
has been surveyed by the Danish government, and tl>.« 
survey is still going on. The whole western coast ••!' 
Norway, and east of Cape Lindesnaes, as far as the h.i-- 
bour of Christiansand, was surveyed by the Danes 6:' y 
or sixty years ago, but this survey is not considered ::.'• 
curate. . The Baltic, including the Kattegat, has been sur- 
veyed by the governments to which the coasts beloi.^. 
but not minutely, nor is the survey considered accum; 
The coast between the mouth of the river Elbe and tli-' 
DoUart was suireyed by the French, and continued to m.- 
Schelde by the Dutch. The coast between the Schelde 31. . 
Gravelines was surveyed by the French, while the Etigh^i. 
ascertained the outer dangers. 

Our government has shown great activity in surveying \).k 
British coasts. A minute and accurate survey has been m: :~ 
of the whole eastern coast of Great Britain south of ".-. 
Murray Frith, and of the whole southern coast, except ) 
tract between Sidmouth and PI vmouth. The western cii'-t 
including the Bristol Channel, has been survevcd as far r^ 
Bardsey Island, and again between Holyhead and Li>-" 
pool. Farther north oulv the Solway Frith is pa ::. 
surveyed. The coast of Ireland has been sur\'eyed betwe 
Dublin Bay and Donegal Bay, inclusive, along the norths 
shores of the island. The Shetland and Scilly Ibb:ii% 
as well as Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, &c., have bt.- 
surveyed completely, but the survey of the Orkne}s is i. : 
yet terminated. 

The coast of France has been siurveyed by the Trvu j 
government from the Strait of Dover to Bayonne, excer t : 
part of the coast of the Bay of Biscay from about Belk* ]« s 
to the Isle of R6. Most of the harbours on the coast of S} . 
have been minutely sun'eyed by the Spanish govemmcr : 

Most of the islands in the Mediterranean have been m.: 
vcyed; Corsica and Elba by the French, Sicily and ^^r- 
dinia by the English. The survey of the Adriatic* has Ih> * 
completed by the Austrians and English co-operating. Fr - 
the Adriatic to the Archipelago the coast has beensurve . 
by the English, and they have also carried on a mip ^ 
through the islands and coasts of the Archipelago, wliii^ « 
nearly completed. 

III. Physical Geography, Nearly two-thirds of the «» - 
face of Europe consist of an immense plain; the remaiii 1 : 
is partly mountainous, and partly hilly. The plain occuv ^-> 
the east part of the continent; and the hilly and mounts ' - 
ous countries extend along its western and southern sbir>^ 
On the eastern boundary tne plain extends across the «t . 
continent from south to north, from the mountain-range « f 
the Caucasus and the shores of the Black Sea to thu^** • 
the Arctic Ocean. In width it extends in this part of t! • 
continent from the Ural Mountains to 26'' E. long. T^^ t * 
west of this meridian it terminates on the north on * - 
shores of the Baltic, and in the mountain -region of S« 3 
dinavia ; on the south it continues along the southern ^ho- - 
of the Baltic, and extends even fiirtber west to the >b 
of Holland opposite the British Islands. If small eminer.o-N 
are not taken into accomit, it may even be said to conti" * 
in a south-west direction through Belgium and the nortKt :• 
parts of France to the banks of the Seine, where it tm . 
nates between Paris and the mouth of the river. The p« «r: 
of the nlain, west of the meridian of 26^, is narrowed on ^ 
south by the Carpathian Mountains, and other mnges w h ■ .. 




it if always covered with snow ; while other districts, where 
the snow melts during sevcrsd weeks in every year, afford 
pasture-f^ound. On the plain there rise a small number of 
summits, among which the Skagstolstind attains 8400 and 
the SneehUttcn 8200 feet. The western side of the plain is 
indented by deep inlets of the sea. which penetrate from 30 
to CO miles, and even more, inland: the eastern side is fur- 
rowed by narrow and deep valley:^, of nearly the same 

l>iorth of 63° N. lat. the masses of rocks take the form of 
a high ridge, the summits of which however rarely extend 
more than a few miles, and frequently present a sharp-edged 
crest. Their ascent on the side towards the Atlantic Ocean is 
rapid and frequently precipitous, a character which increases 
as we advance farther north, because the highest part of the 
range gradually approaches the ocean till it constitutes its 
very shores. The highest summit is the Sulitelma, which 
rises to more than 60U0 feet ; but many other parts exceed 
the j^now-lino, which varies between 2000 and 3000 feet, and 
towards the north sinks much lower. 

The country tu the cast of this range, and at the base of 
it, is more than 1 000 feet above the sea, and descends to- 
wards the Gulf of Bothnia in long slopes, interrupted by 
small level plains, and intersected here and there by ridges 
of hills, running in the direcliou of the slopes, and ap- 
proaching in some parts to the shores of the gulf 

Mount Slyltfiellcn is on the northernmost extremity of 
the mountain-plain, where it begins to contract to the 
dimensions of a range. It stands near 63*^ N. lat., aind at- 
tains the height of G486 feet above the sea. From it, as 
from a common centre, branch off several ridges to the east, 
south-east, south and south-west, and though they soon 
sink down to hills, they continue thiough the south-eastern 
part of the peninsula, the mean elevation of which is from 
300 to 400 feet above the sea, and above which the hills rise 
a few hundred feet. Tlie Scandinavian ridges enclose the 
great lakes of Malarn,Wenern, and Wettern. To the south 
of the last lake these ridges unite, and form the table-land 
of Smiiland, whose surface is on an average about 500 feet 
above the sea, and which constitutes the most southern ex- 
tremity of the Scandinavian system. It descends with a 
gentle slope towards the cast, but very rapidly to the south 
and west. The peninsula of Scania, which joins it on the 
south, is low and fiat. 

The Fiiroe Islands, which arc between Norway, Cape 
Wrath in Scotland, and Iceland, and nearly equidistant from 
these three countries, resemble in their conformation the 
rocky plain of South Scandinavia, rising abruptly from the 
sea to more than 1000 feet, and presenting on their sum- 
mits, at an elevation of more than 3000 feet above the sea, 
generally a level surface. This seems also to be the case 
with the south-eastern part of Iceland, which is called the 
Klolk Yokul, where a surface of more than 8000 square 
miles has never been explored, probably owing to the thick 
layer of snow which has accumulated on a mountain-plain 
which rises above the snow-line (3000 feet). The western 
and northern districts of Iceland, which in general rise only 
to a moderate elevation, though some isolated ridges and 
summits attain the snow-line, seem to be the prcxluce of 
that active volcanic agency which has frequently laid waste 
this portion of Iceland. 

Though the Scandinavian Mountains are not visibly con- 
nected with the South European Mountain system, we may 
wrhaps be excused in considering the island of Great 
liritain as forming such a link. The most northern part 
of Scotland lies in the same parallel with the southern part 
of the Scandinavian mountain-plain, and bears a consider- 
able resemblance to it in configuration, consisting of one 
enormous mass of high rocks, which rise abruptly from the 
sea, and exhibit on their surface extensive plains, some- 
times flat and sometimes diversitied with eminences. These 
plams however are not covered with snow, as they do not rise 
above 2000 feet, and sometimes attain only 1 000 feet, or a 
little more, an elevation which falls considerably short of the 
snow-line. This description is applicable to I he whole of 
Scotland north of the Central Grampians (57** N. lat.), with 
the excention of the greater part or the counties of Caith- 
ness ana Abc^rdeen. Even to the soutli of 57" N. lat we 
meet with an elevated plain, about loOO feel above the sea, 
which, under the name of the Moor of Rannoch, extends 
more than thirty miles in every direction between Ben 
Cruachan and tlie southern chain of the Grampians. But 
Ikrther south the Scandinaviaa character of the country is 

lost, and the Burfitee presents the broken character oftid^* - . 
valleys, and plains, by which the most northern portion < i 
the South European mountain system is distin^uiyl i 
This character of the country softens gradually as we ) : •• 
ceed farther south. Between 57'' and 54° N. lat. the pl;^.:.% 
are generally of small exient, and a great number of >m. 
mits rise to 1000, 2000. and sometimes even to 3(J00 feet tu. i 
upwards above the sea. South of 54" N. lat. however ih t> 
lofty elevations, and the comparatively narrow volleys w in ;i 
accompany them, occur only along the western coast of G ! . i 
Britain, in >^ ales, and the counties of Devon and Curowr.. 
East of the Severn the hills do not generally rise so hit:li ; > 
1000 feet, nor are their slopes abrupt; the whole burl.«'. 
consists of gentle swellings and slopes, with wide le\eU 1 — 
twcen them. Towards the North Sea it sinks down ci 
tirely, and forms (with few interruptions not worth xnent. 
in this general survey) a p^at plain, which occupit^ 'i* 
counties of Lincoln, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Norfolk, S .:- 
folk, and Essex. As these flats lie opposite to the wotrriv 
extremity of the Great European Plain, one might im3[;:i 
that they aie a continuation of that plain, ancf that m il. • 
island of Great Britain the three great systems which • • - 
cupy Europe have their representatives. South of i\ . 
Tliamcs tlie country resumes its undulating surface, l : 
approaches in its form to those districts of France vlii . 
extend along the southern shores of the Channel. 

South Euroyean Mountain System. — This system, wl;- > 
extends over the whole of South Europe, from Cap*.* J- 
Roca in Portugal to the Straits of Constantinople, pre. r /- 
a surface more diversified in its form than any other ]Vi ;; - . 
of the globe of equal extent, China perhaps excepted. 

To give greater perspicuity to our description, we >1 . . 
follow the natural division made by a valley which tra^c7> • 
the whole of this mountain-system from north to south. I* 
tween 4** and 8** E. long. In the northern part of the xcl < 
flows the Rhine from Basel northwards, in the southern 
Rhone from Lyon southwards. The middle portion ot -• i 
valley is occupied by the vale through which the Saont- a 
tributarv of the Rhone, and the Doubs, a branch ff n 
Saone, nave their course. The most northern bend of : . 
Doubs lies nearly under the same parallel as Basel, and !• 
than thirty miles from it. In this part there occurs a ^t^*. 
depression in the mountains, which divide the Rhine fi n 
the Doubs, and the French government have taken aih.. 
tage of it, by carrying through this depression a canal, w I. .. 
is called the Rhone and Rhine canal, and which unite- :. 
Doubs to the 111, a tributary of the Rhine. The In^l • 
part of this canal is nearly 1760 feet above the sea. 

In the region which lies west of this long trans ver>e -. . 
ley, nature has effected another natural division, by furnt , 
across the continent a wide plain, skirting the northern • ■ 
of the Pyrenees, and extending fi"om the Bay of hi^cx ■ 
the Mediterranean. The western part of this plain is I - 
and flat, and drained by the river Garonne; the ea>ti n, .. 
traversed by low hills, but does not rise much higher li. . 
the western part. The canal of Langucdoc, which is f.i.i 
through this portion of the plain, and unites the Gar. :.. ».• 
with the Mediterranean Sea, attains at its greatest ele-; «l .. 
about 600 feet above the sea. 

South of this plain the mountain-chain of the Pyrt* r, > 
rises with a rapid ascent, and runs across the whole r . 
tincnt from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean. In . - 
central parts it attains a mean elevation of about 6i m» • 
7000 feet, but a much less height towards its two c\:. - 
mities. The highest summits are upwards of ll.ctu i'. 
high, as the Mont-perdu (11,282), the Maladeta (] l... 
and there are many more which exceed 10,000 feet, 'i . ^ 
southern declivity runs out in long mountainous s1u|h.>. . .- 
tersectcd by deep valleys, and terminates on the hui.k^ : 
the river Ebro. Not far from the western extremity of ' • 
Pyrenees another chain branches off, which may Ik* i^ - 
sidered as its continuation, since it runs directly to : 
west. As far as 6® W. lat it is a single chain, wiih >h - 
offsets, but west of that meridian it divides into s*r> % 
ranges, which traverse the north-western part of Sjiain • 
different directions, and termmate respectively at the c.t . ♦ 
of Ortegal, Finisterre, and Siljeiro. This chain, which l .. 
be called the Cantabrian range, rises in its eastern parr- 
about 4000 or 5000 feet, but west of 5** W. lat. it allaju^ i 
height of 5000 or 6000 feet, and even more. 

South of these ranges extends the table-land of S:.. 
the highest parts of which occur between 1* and 4** W. k. .^ ^ 
where they are from 2000 to 2500 feet abgvo tb« he\xi ''' ] 




are pUint of moderate extent, wliicb are sometimes nearly 
1000 feet above the sea. 

The island of Sardinia consists of two chains of moun- 
tains running north and south, and an elevated valley 
between them. The eastern chain, which is the higher, 
rises in Mount Schimschiu to 6000, and in the Lyubarra 
mountains to 5768 feet. The western chain probably does 
not exceed 3000 feet in ele\-ation. Along the coast there 
are some low swampy tracts. 

The island of Corsica is still more mountainous. If a 
fow small tracts along the eastern shores are excepted, which 
are covered with swamps, it is everywhere studded with 
high hills and ridges or mountains. Some of the summits 
attain a great height. Monte Rotondo is 9060, and Monte 
Paglia Orba 8691 feet above the sea. The valleys are 
numerous but very narrow, and of indifferent fertility. 

Passing to the countries north of the Alps we find that 
this great mountain-system, at its western extremity, is 
bounded on the north by the river Rhone, from the point 
where it Issues fh)m the lake of Geneva to its junction with 
the river Saone. Immediately north of the Rhone there 
rises another chain of mountains, different in character and 
in elevation, called the Jura. This chain extends from 
the banks of the Rhone, in a north-east direction, to the 
river Rhino, on whose banks it terminates between the 
mouth of the river Aar and the town of Ba^el. Its length 
may be about 100 miles, and its width less than 20 on an 
average. It consists of a number of parallel ridges, rising 
1000 feet and more on a base which is nearly 3000 feet 
above the sea. Some of the summits exceed 5000 feet in 
absolute elevation. The highest are towards the southern 
extremity of the range. ThePr^ desMarmiers attains 5640, 
Reculet 5619, and the D61e 5500 feet. 

Along the south-east side of the Jura, and between it 
and the Alps, extends the plain of Switzerland, beginning 
on the shores of the lake of Geneva and terminating on 
those of the lake of Constance. This plain is between 1250 
and 1350 feet above the level of the sea. At each extremity 
some hills rise to a considerable height, but the central dis- 
tricts exhibit only a strongly undulating surface. Its length 
may be about 180, but its width does not exceed 20 miles. 

Opposite the northern extremity of the Jura, but on the 
nortnern banks of the Rhine, rises the Black Forest, a 
mountain-range, about 20 miles across, which runs parallel 
to the Rhine, and whose western sides approach the river 
sometimes within three or four miles. It terminates on the 
banks of the river Neckar. Its length may be between 130 
and 140 miles. The upper part of this range extends in 
wide ploins more than 3000 leet above the sea ; the number 
of summits which rise above these plains is not great. 
The Fcldberg attains 4912 fbet, and the Kandel 4160 feet 
above the sea. The Odenwald, which extends between the 
Neckar and Mayn, in the same dirc<:tion, may be considered 
as its continuation, but it does not attain an equal elevation, 
its highest summit, the Katzenbuckel, rising only to 2000 feet. 

Between the Black Forest and the Odenwald on the east, 
and the Vosges mountains on the west, lies the valley of 
the Rhino, which is about 20 miles in width, but the length 
from Basel to Mayence is not less than 200 miles. At its 
upper extremity it is 800 feet, but at its lower hardly more 
thun 400 feet above the sea. This valley presents a level 
surface of great fertility. 

The Rhino, below the ffreat cataract of Schaf hausen, is 
not more than 1000 feet above the level of the sea; but the 
Danube, at Danaueshingen, nearly under the same me- 
ridian, is 2200 feet above it; yet between both rivers no 
mount ain'ranfl;c occurs. With only a hilly surfkce, and in 
nn extent of hardly 15 miles, the country rises more than 
1200 feet. This hilly country may be considered as the com- 
mencement of the elevated plain of Bavaria, which extends 
from the foot of the Alps (about 471° N. lat.), between the 
Black Forest and Odenwald on the west and the Buhmer- 
VfM (forest uf Bohemia) and Fichtcleebirge on the east, to 
tho Thiirinj^cr Wald and the Rhimgebirge (51* N. lat.). Tlie 
length of this plain is about 1 80 miles, and its breadth about 
the uame. The western part of the plain, which joins the j 
Black Fcri'^tt, is hilly, and intersected by a mountain-ridge. 

rallifl the Rauhe Alp, which runs along the northern bank 
of the Danube for 70 or HO miles, with a mean width of 
about 16 miU*n. South of this ridge the country is nearly 
2000 feot nbo\e the sea, but north of it less than 1000 feet. 
The eastern part of the plain, south of the Danube, is nearly 
a lo>el, whirh sinks gradually and almost imperceptibly 

firom the foot of the Alps towards the river. The town nf 
Munich, which nearly occupies its centre, is 1664 feet abo>e 
the sea, and Ratisbon, on the Danube, more than 1 000 leet. 
That nart of the plain which lies north of the Danube has 
an unaulating sumce, upon which some hills rise toward% 
the banks of the river Mayn. From the banks of the 
Danube the country rises slowly, but hardly more than 1 5i» 
feet above the river, when it forms the water-ehed betw<^!i 
the Danube and Majm, and begins to subside towards iKt 
bank of the bst-mentioned river, where it is only from 6uti 
to 800 feet above the sea. 

The elevated plain of Bavaria does not extend hr enoueh 
north to reach the Great Plain, being divided from it b\ i 
mountain -region which extends between 50i^ and 52^ >. 
lat over the whole of Germany, from the very banks of tbr 
Rhine to the Fichtelgebirge and Erz^birge. This reg«m. 
which has a width of about 100 miles, contains a grcut 
number of ridges, bearing different names. Their taciu 
elevation is about 3000 feet, and the highest summits attnm 
upwards of 4000. The most northern of these ridges is the 
Harz. For a more peculiar account of them we refer to 

The countries which we have hitherto considered are t^ 
the north of the Higher Alps, To the north of the Lowrr 
Alps, and divided from them only by the narrow \-allo> if 
the Danube, is another system of mountains, which in- 
closes, in the form of a quadrilateral figure, the kingdom • f 
Bohemia, and might therefore be called the Bohemian 
mountains. Tlie several ridges of which it consists lia\f 
different names. They attain a mean elevation of 3000 < r 
3500 feet above the sea; their highest summits rare'.r 
exceed 5000 feet. The great valley of Bohemia, which i* 
enclosed by these ridges, is subdivided into numenu." 
smaller valleys by the lower ridges, which advance mt 
it from those which surround it Near the higher rid;:«.^ 
the surfiice of these valleys is 1500 feet and upwards aU^r 
the sea, but they subside rapidly towards the middle of xU 
great valley, where they are not more than 700 and 900 It-t 
above the sea. Where the Elbe carries off the waters • i 
Bohemia it is somewhat less than 400 feet above the 9ea. 

At the eastern extremity of this mountain-system, wbt-Tv 
the rivers Oder and Morava take their origin, the Crr 
pathian Mountains commence. They run first due en^\ 
then decline to the south-east, and when in that direct: >r 
the range has passed 26^ E. long., it tun\s suddenly to th 
west, and having proceeded in that direction to 23"* E. L-^n^. 
it gradually declines to the south, and terminates on i > - 
banks of the Danube on both sides of the meridian of .: 
The length of this range does not fall much short < . 
800 miles; its breadth is not very considerable, in a ("• 
places only exceeding 70 or 80 miles. Its mean ele\a:: : 
may be between 3000 and 4000 feet; but in two plact-^ i 
rises much higher : Tatra Mount, which is intersected ' > 
20° £. long., is an enormous mass of rock, about 50 iml** 
long and 30 wide in the central parts, whose surfar^ .« 
about 7000 feet above the sea. Above this huge n^^-^ 
there rise about ten peaks which exceed 8000 feet. 7 .'.< 
highest is the Peak of Lomnitz, which rises to 8675 f-. 
above the sea. The Peak of Eisthal (dale of ice) i& h*ii 
and the Krywan 8150 feet high. Elevated summits Of\^ 
again on the most southern part of the range, where :'< 
Buzesd attains 8700 feet, and Mount Surul 7572 feet. T * 
wards the great plain, and on the north and east, the ran^- 
sinks with gentle slopes, forming no offsets, except a i * 
short ones at the sources of the rivers Pruth, Serith, a.: . 
Suezava, between 47® and 48^" N. lat. But some consi.^rr- 
able offsets occur towards the two extremities of the xnr : 
Four chains are detached from it between 18** and *20' K 
long., which run southward and terminate not far fi-om t* 
banks of the Danube, after traversing the norih-wc^ur 
part of Hungary : they are comprehenoed under the gciK n 
term of Hungarian Ore Mountains, from their being^rich 
gold and silver ore. The valleys between them are w . 
and fertile. No considerable chain branches off frx>m t - 
middle part of the range, but from its eastern extrrm.t 
four or five ridges issue: these ridges running in a wester 
direction some hundred miles, traverse Tmnsyh-ania, a: : 
render the whole of this country a succession of mounta r? 
and wide valleys, which are generally very fertile. 

Between these offsets of tfie Carpathians on the east, t: r 
principal range, and the Hungarian Ore Mountains on ir. 
north, and the eastern termination of the Alps (16*" K. lon^ . 
lies the plain of Hungary, the most extenaive thai u 




necofisaiyto defend them by dykes from the inTosion of the 
waves. The width of these marshes varies from one to four 
or five miles, except at the western extremity, where they 
occupy the whole of the province of Holland. Towards the 
banks of the Elbe the soil mostly consists of sand, but it 
begins here to be covered with forests. 

The countries between the Elbe and the Vistula are more 
fertile, though the sandy soil prevails, especially towards 
the north ; yet even here extensive tracts of fertile land 
o^'cur. Towards the mountain region which borders on it 
on the south, especially in Silesia and the southern districts 
of Poland, the country may be considered as rather fertile. 
No marshes occur along the Baltic, but at the south-western 
extremity of this sea a series of small lakes begin which 
run parallel to the shore and follow its sinuosities. Their 
distance from the sea is about 50 miles, and they are situ* 
atcd on the highest part of the plain, perhaps at a mean 
elevation of 1 50 feet. They form, the watershed between 
the small rivers which fall into the Baltic and those which 
run southwards into the interior of the plain. 

That portion of the plain which we have so far noticed 
is drained by rivers which originate in the mountain-region 
south of it and traverse it in a north-western or northern 
direction. But east of the unper branches of the Vistula, 
the rivers originate in the plain itself which they drain. 
These rivers run either north-west and north to the Baltic 
and White Seas, or south and south-east to the Black 
and Caspian Seas. The watershed which separates their 
sources begins about 23° E. long, on the northern declivity 
of the Carpathian Mountains, in a range of hills which sepa- 
rate the Saan, a branch of the Vistula, from the sources of 
the Dniester. This range of hills runs in a north-eastern 
direction to the sources of the Bug, another tributary of 
the Vistula, where it turns north, and Is lost in the plain. 
It IS soon replaced by an immense swamp, the largest 
in all Europe. The principal body of this swamp covei-s 
nearly the whole basin of the river Priepec, wnich ex- 
tends about 200 miles east and west, with an average 
breadth of 100 miles. It also continues northward, but 
with a much diminished width, between the sources of the 
Niemen, Beresina, and Vilia, and terminates on the banks 
of the Diina, south of Diinaburg and Polotz. The sm*- 
face covered by this swamp is perhaps not inferior to that of 
England. Some parts of it are wooded. We do not know 
what is the elevation of this swamp above the level of the 
."^a, but we may conjecture that it is not less than 300 feet. 
Towards the northern extremity of the swamp the water- 
shed turns due east, and is here formed by an undulating 
country which separates the upper courses of the rivers 
Diina and Dnieper. But where it a])proachcs the sources 
of the Volga it turns first northeast and then north, and 
here it is overtopped bv steep and rocky hWU, called 
the Hills of Waldai, which rn^e highest in the neigh- 
bourhood of that town, where they attain an elevation of 
1200 or 1300 feet above the sea. This seems to be the 
highest point of the watershed. It continues in a northern 
direction till it passes 60** N. lat between the lakes of Onega 
and Bielo Osero, and then turns south-east to the sources of 
the Suchona, the principal bianch of the Dwina : thence it 
proceeds in an east-north-east direction to the sources of 
the Petshora, which falls into the Arctic Sea, and of the 
Kama, a branch of the Volga, where it terminates in the 
Uralian ran^e. That portion of the watershed which is 
east of the hills of Waldai is covered with an immense 
forest, called the Forest o£ Volkhonsky. 

The country north of the watershed is, in general, 
of moderate fertility ; there are some districts which are 
covered with sand, while others have a rich soil That series 
of small but very numerous lakes which we noticed in the 
western part of the plain continues in this at nearly the 
same distance from tlie Baltic, forming likewise a subordi- 
nate watershed. East of 22^ £. long, however it stretches 
farther inland, approaching the northern extremity of the 
great swamp, and then continues north of it along the 
watcrtihed to the hills of Waldai, and still farther m the 
Forest of Volkhonsky, where it terminates near 35° £. long. 

The country north of eo'' N. lat. Is only in a few places 
fit for agriculture, partly on account of its cold climate, and 
partly on account of the sterility of the soil. That portion 
which lies wont of the lake of Onega is rocky, and is mostly 
traversed by ridges of rocky hills, which Ue in a north and 
south direction. These hills rise in some places to 500 or 
itOQ feet above the sea* Most of themi as well as the level 

country between them, aflbrds exeeOent pasture ground. 
This i^on is remarkable for its numerous large lakes 
which cover nwu^y one-fourth of its surface, and are con- 
nected by short natural channels. The largest of thtr«e 
lakes are the Ladoga, Onega, Saima, and Enara. 

There are only a few lakes east of the lake of Onega. It 
appears that the watershed here rises to a greater elevation, 
and that the slope of the country is more regular. Iti 
southern districts are still covered with forests, and a few 
spots are cultivated; but its northern dbtricts extend tn 
immense plains, covered with moss, which by attracting the 
water of the melting snow renders them impassable for tbf 
greatest part of the summer. A few rockjr ranees of hiWi 
occur on this plain, but we are not aoquain tea with their 
direction and elevation. 

By far the greater part of the Great Plain extends to th« 
south of the watershed. Contiguous to its southern decli- 
vity extends a country of great fertility, from 30 to -i- o 
miles in width. It begins on the west near the foot of the 
Carpathian Mountains, and terminates on the eaat where 
the Volga begins to run south-south-west The parallel of 
49** forms its southern boundan', as far east as about 40' £. 
long., whence it runs in a north-eastern line to the town of 
SinXjirsk on the Volga. The town of Moskwa, situatt <l 
nearly in its centre, is 480 feet above the sea. The coun:r) 
east of the Vols;a, as fkr as the Uralian range, is mii-'\' 
covered with hills, and is even mountainous, being tra^e: v! 
by the offsets of the great range : it is of moderate fcrtr..M 
in the valleys, which are firequently wide. The hills a:. I 
lower parts of the mountains are covered with forests. 

To tne south of this region extend the deserts which iir-: 
called the Steppes. They may be divided into the H i;;<:er 
and Lower Steppes, the line of separation between thcci 
being the high ground which extends north and south hf^ 
tween the Don and Volga. The Higher Steppes occupy ihe 
western part of the plain, extending south of the fertii« r^• 
gion to tne very shores of the Black Sea. Their cle\at. > 
above the sea may be between 150 and 200 feet. Tlicy sjc 
without trees, produce only in some places a few shmhs i:A 
are overgrown in the earlv part of the summer with a r»jai<« 
grass, which affords very mdifferent pasture. In tbe b:!' r 
part of the summer and autumn their dry brown ^urfj^^^ 
shows no sign of vegetation. Agriculture can only be ju- 
ried on in the narrow bottoms along the rivers. Tlie penin- 
sula of the (Mmea is connected with them by a low i<tnmu&. 
Three-fourths of its surface resemble the Lower Stcpc^t 
but on its southern shores rises a mountain-range, v \n>e 
highest summit, the Chatyr Dagh, is 5040 feet. Tlic valU}> 
of this range are fertile. 

The Lower Steppes are at the eastern extremity of Euro]'e. 
extending between the southern extremity of the Uralun 
range and Mounl Caucasus along the banks of the ri\(.x 
Ural, and on both ^ides of the lower course of the VoIcj. 
They occupy a space more than twice as lar^ as t!)c a;Vi 
of the British Islands. The southern part is lower than tU 
level of the sea, the Caspian Sea being more than t^oo ftxt 
beneath it, and the adjacent country rising very little abo^r 
its shores. The town of Saratow on the Volga, mozc tbar. 
300 miles from the Caspian, is not above the sea level. W'l 
do not know how much higher the noi-them distnets •/ 
these steppes rise, nor ^f their soil differs from that uf t:- 
southern, which are covered with a fine sand, intermix- ' 
with shells, producing no trees nor shrubs, but at ccrt-i. 
seasons a scanty grass. This soil is strongly imprejj;;^.. 
with saline matter, and most of the lakes which o<- r 
here contain such a quantity of salt that it cr}'stalli2e< r 
summer, and supplies the greatest part of the inhabit ar. ^ 
of Russia. In no part of these steppes are any traces. : 
agriculture visible except in the neighbourhuud of As- 

We shall conclude this general surrey of Eurojic by • 
serving, that the Cralian range, which runs about 1 5«:o iiiil ■ 
fu^t south and then south-south-east, rises in its hi^*l)e < 
summit, the Pawdinskoi Kamen, to more than 6S0(i :«.-» ' 
above the sea; that the Lower Steppes extend oast <.>f :l i 
river Ural far into Asia ; and that Mount Caucasu^ th..ii:- 
onlv few of its summits attain the snow-line, rises in :* 
highest summit higher than the Alps, Mount £lboor2 :. 
tainin][( an elevation of J 6,800 feet. 

Looking at the map of Europe we find that its coast \ 
is formed alternately by wide projecting promontoric3> -. . 
deep bays, which divide them from one another. TIut. |*- 
culiarity has led a large proportion of its inhabitants i^ i 




tniallest of all tho&e vhieh belong to the inland seas of 
Europe, comprehending only about 250,000 square miles. 
Tlic largest of its rivers, the Rhone, flows only 500 miles, 
including its bends. The other rivers, which are of a con- 
siderable length, are the Ebro in Spain ; the Po and Tiber 
in Italy, and the rivers of Albania ana the Maritza in Turkey. 
All the rivers which drain the basins of the Mediterranean and 
Atlantic Sea rise in the South European mountain region ; 
those which fall into the Black Sea rise within the Great 
Plain except the Danube and its tributaries, which drain 
about one-tnird of the mountain region. The rivers which 
run to the Caspian rise partly on the watershed of the Great 
Plain, and partly in the Uralian range ; and the same is the 
case with those that drain the basin of the White Sea. The 
rivers which flow ftom the east into the Baltic rise on the 
Great Plain ; those which flow into it from the south rise on 
the edge of the mountain region ; and those which fall into 
it from the north descend fh>m the Scandinavian range. 

Climate, — ^The climate of Europe presents ^at differ- 
ences, if we compare it with that or those countries in other 
divisions of the globe, which lie within the same parallels. 
It is a well-established fact, that the eastern coast of North 
America is much colder than the western coast of Europe, 
under the same latitudes. This difference is in some places 
equal to 10^ of latitude. Thus we find that the mean annual 
heat of London (51" 31' N. lat.) is nearly 50^ Fahr.. while 
at Quebec (46'' 48' it hardly exceeds 42" Fahr. At 
Lisbon iSS" 43' is 6 1)"* Fahr., and at Williamsburg 
in Virginia (37** 5' N. lat.) only 56** Fahr. It is however 
worthy of remark, that the eastern countries of Europe, 
especially those north of the Black Sea, are much colder, 
and approach in climate those of the eastern coast of Ame- 
rica. At Moscow (55° 47' N. lat.) the mean annual heat is 
not quite 38"* Fahr., whilst at Edinburgh (55*^ 58' N. lat.) it 
exceeds 47" Fahr. 

This difference in the climate of Europe may perhaps be 
explained by the circumstance that this continent is en- 
closed on most sides by seas whose water is wanner than 
that of the ocean at large. The water of the Mediterranean 
is fi!om 4** to 5° Fahr. warmer than the ocean without the 
straits. Between America and Europe the warm water of 
the gulf stream, which exceeds the heat of the other water 
of the Atlantic by 8" or 1 0® Fahr., covers a sur&ce not in- 
ferior to that of the Mediterranean, and the exhalations of 
this immense expanse of warm water are carried by the pre- 
vailing western and south-western winds to the western 
shores of Europe. Besides this, the water in the sea be- 
tween Spitibergen, Greenland, and the coast of Norway 
indicates a higher degree of temperature when drawn fVom 
some depth under the surface of the sea than on the sur- 
ftce itself. This has been proved by the experiments of 
Sir John Franklin and Captain Scoresby, though the con- 
trary is the case in all other seas, as far as we know. 

Dt. Brewster however thinks that there are two frigid 
poles in the northern hemisphere, and that the degree of 
warmth increases with the distance from the meridian in 
which these poles are situated. By comparing the few 
exact meteorological observations which have been made in 
remote countries, he is induced to infer that these meridians 
are about 90" from the western countries of Europe, and 
hence he presumes we may account for the greater mildness 
of the climate in these regions. The observations which 
the latest traveller through the north of Asia, Dr. Erman, 
has made in thoae remote countries, seem rather to oonArm 
than to contradict the theory of Dr. Brewster. 

With respect to climate, Europe may be divided into 
three zones, the northern, the central, and the southern. 
These zones may be separated from one another by two 
lines, of which the northern begins near 60" N. lat, on the 
western coast, and terminates between 55" and 54° N. lat. 
on the Uralian range on the east; the southern commences 
about 48" N. lat on the west, and terminates on the east at 
t^e mouth of the Danube (45" N. lat). In the northern 
zone only two seasons occur, summer and winter, the former 
lasting about three months (June, July, and August), and 
the latter nearly nine months. These seasons are separated 
by a spring and autumn of a few days, rarely two weeks' 
duration. In summer the heat is very great, and the vege- 
tation inconceix'ably rapid. The winter is severe and bois- 
terous, and brings down immense quantities of snow. In 
the rentral zone the four seasont are distinct, and the 
Te from heat to cold and vice vend is very gradual. 
Nit is less than in th« northern zone, and so ia the 

cold during the winter ; still frost prevail during two, thrt^f. 
or four months, and snow is common except on the co.i»t-» 
In the southern zone frost is either not felt at all or <»;-:> 
during a few days; and snow is of rare occurrencQ,ur it (lv»^ 
not lie on the ground for more than a few days. Vet;eiat t- n 
accordingly is very little interrupted. But the count nt.-^ 
within Ibis zone have abundant rains during the last thnt: 
months of the year, and are subject to great and lo:.^* 
droughts in summer. These droughts frequently continue 
for four or five months, and in some places occasionally f r 
eight or nine months. 

IV. The Man qf Europe.— "i^eBily the whole populat.on 
of Europe belongs to tnat race which is compreheuJ- ! 
under the name of the Caucasian race; but along the 
Uralian range, and at the most northern extremity uf liu- 
continent, a few nations occur which belong to the Mttr 
golian race ; to which must be added the Magyars, vv ':. > 
inhabit nearly the centre of Europe (Hungary). 

The inhabitants of the Caucasian race may be divi<%-l 
into three great branches and several smaller oneai, if \f> 
consider them with reference to their language. The tl;-: 
division comprehends those languages which are dcrne<i 
from the Latin and an admixture of the languages ui t! * 
antient aborigines and of the later destroyers of the Rom.;. 
empire. These languages are spoken in the peniiisuljis \ 
Italy and Spain, and in the countries west of the valle> • [ 
the Rhine. They are the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, i:. I 
French languages. In some districts of the countries \\\^ n. 
these languages are spoken there still exist the lanuuaj-^ 
of some of the aboriginal inhabitants of Europe. On )» . 
sides of the western extremity of the Pyrenean mount a. «. 
south and west of the river Adour, the Basque langi i.t 
is spoken by a population not exceeding 600.000 ^«'t..^ 
according to the most exact computation. The Cv:^.« 
language is spoken in Wales, and also in the interior <i.v 
tricts of the most north-western peninsula of France, ^ I, l 
is called Bretagne (Little Britain), by a population amuu..:- 
ing to about 2,000,000 individuals. The most exteii»nc ; 
these languages is the Olto-Gaelic language, which t^ ^:. . 
prevalent in the greater part of Ireland, ana in some v\ tl. 
northern districts of Scotland. The number of the v i. 
viduals who speak it perhaps does not fall short of" c. 
Many persons think that the Cymric and Celto-r;.i* 
languages ought to be considered only as dialects oi' u 
same original language. 

The second great branch of the languages is forme<i \ \ 
those of Teutonic origin. These languages are spuWcn \ % 
the inhabitants of England, a great part of Scot Ian «( .. ' 
Ireland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Gem...: 
and the Netherlands. In everyone of these count r.t- j 
pecular dialect is spoken, though the affinity of all th. -i 
langnages cannot be questioned. It would seem as \f t!. • i 
languages had been introduced into these countries by :l. r 
first inhabitants, or aborigines, as at present no other \.. 
guage is spoken in any of these districts (with the c\c<*^>: . . 
of the British islands), nor do we find any mention in hi^:vr.- 
cal records of such other languages ever having exi^tiNi. 

The third great family of languages ia compreh<?i) \- i 
under the name of Slavonian. The most western tr.!i« 
that speak these languages are found in the eastern <i 
tricts of Germany. The Czekes inhabit Bohemia, an<l : 
Wendes the north-western part of the Prussian provin< v • t 
Silesia. In the south-western part of the same pn>\ir.> 
Polish is spoken. Between Vienna and Trieste is a nv': r 
Slavonian tribe, also called Wendes, or Windes by u . 
Germans ; but they call themselves Slovenzi. Toward> : - 
south the Slavonian language extends to the v«rv mii:.t i 
of the Balkan, the inhabitants of Dalmatia, Croatia, S . 
vonia, Bosnia* Servia, and Bulgaria, speaking dialects , 
that language. From these extreme points tbeSla^v- 
language is snoken over the whole of the great plan. , 
Europe to the borders of Asia, on the Uralian range, ft:.<i . 
the river Ural. The most extensively spoken langua-jo . : 
this family are the Russian and the Polish. 

In the immense tract of country in which the Sla%i>! .• * 
language may be considered as prevalent, some extci -- ■ 
districts are occupied by nations who speak different i. - 
guages. We shall first notice the tnbes of Monttoi 
origin, who form three different groups. The mo»t i.j 
mcrous tribe are the Magyars, who inhabit the ^rca:. >: 
part of the Hungarian plain, especially that portion H^. . 
lies east of the Danube, from tlie banks of which ri\cr ti.* « 
extend to the foot of the Carpathian mountains, where tl.. « 

«i * 





iMtlAV IlLAlflM 





]C«*ll(i*. f^Alf 

•MKCKLCMBOllO-SCHWBailf . • . . 

• Sthsuti . • • . 

MttorvA and Mama 


*Nas«iav .••••«. 

1*ABMA . . • 

I'OBTVOAt .••■««. 

*PMir-«[A ..•••«. 

•KrvM. Princfpal»ti««of . . . . 

K v*»i A, Empire uf—RiiMtaaDomiBioQt . 

Kiugduni of Ptfland . 


•Saxs-Altsicbuii* .^ 

•SaX'-Comiro and '»<»THA . . , . 
^Saxk-Wkimah EwtnAfB . . . , 
^SoHWARimnia I'riucipalitin Mf • • 


HieiMia. TlicTwu ...... 

(tpAm . • 

SwcDSir and NoftWAT • • . . . 


TvHKKY. Empire of Qadndiag WaIIkIiU,) 
MiddAvia.AOdScnruO. • • • 3 


*^^ALDROK ....... 


( Frr« sUtv; with OMOcil and omt duuibtr. uadn Brilfeh piotee* 
) tioD ...•••• 

Priudpality ; lioiit«d with one eliAmber 

Dow da .... 

Republie: ■HnateandeoBiiieaeoaodi • 

Oitclty : Uniitrd sovi^reiiiiity, willi a Brnnte « 

RrpiibHc ; wiih Mrnate mitd eouaeil oT aatlents 
Graud duchy ; limitwl •OTrreisnty, with one ehunbtr 

Da do. 

Duchy ; abioTuU* lovcmi^iity .... 

Prindpnlily : abaolitte ao>«-rnpifVty .... 
Dttchy; limited •ovrrvignty.viUitwvehiuabera • 

(irAtid ilachy ; abaolule auvereigiity .... 
Iliiehv; alMuliite . ' . . • . . 

LinitMl monnrchy; with chAmlwr of frpreMnU fives 
\l)«>Iuie nuDiirchy. with pniriaciAl atatei hAvtug limiMd powet* 
Liniiu^l BoviTi'iciity, with one dtamber . . . 

Abtolttle nioBATchy •.*.■. 

Do. ...... 

lAi. ....•• 

Limited mooArehy, with two ehamhera , • 



with one dtamber 

da . 

da . ■ 

da . • 

Limited monaicliy. with a roiindl (eouaalta) 

Do. with iKgisIalare . 

Do. with diet ami atorthiaf • 

ConfeiieratioD of re publica, w itli diet . 

Absolute monarchy . . • • 

Graod duchy; absolute BorerfixDly . • 

Priuclpahty : limited soTcreij^uty. with ona chamber 
Limitctt monarchy, with two cliambere 

















































47.000.0«>0 i 



13a. oco 



118. MO 



11. 963.000 <«; 






Zoology ftf Europe. — ^In eiving a general view of the 
animals of Europe, it will be found that the number of wild 
quadrupeds at present existing (many species having be- 
come extinct from the progress of civilization), is too small 
to exhibit many characteristic peculiarities in their geogra- 
phical distribution and local aaaptation ; and the close con- 
nexion of this continent with that of Asia makes it very 
ditficult to draw any exact line between their productions. 
Many of the animals of the south of Europe are also 
common to the north of Africa; and most of the quad- 

rock of Gibraltar, and thus enters mto th« geognpui.ol 
limits of Europe. 

The domesticated quadrupeds occupy a much more im- 
portant station among the animals of our continent ths4i 
any of the wild species : under this head we shall menti jn 
the horse, ass, goat, sheep, ox, hog, dojg, and cat, and in th • 
more northern parts of Europe the rein-deer may be arlded 

No wild races of horses at present exist which ha><^ r. t 
descended from domesticated varieties ; but it seems proUal li 
that they were aboriginal in Tartary, and mo6t likel\ : . 

rupods inhabiting the northern parts of our continent other parts of Asia. From the former country it is coi. 
Are found in the corresponding latitudes of Asia andijectured that they were originally imported into the nuri. 

America. But though the zoology of Europe does not 
po:isess much interest from the number, size, or pecu- 
liarity of its animals, this is in some measure compen- 
sated by the intimate acquaintance which we possess with 
the habits and manners of many of the smaller species, 
whose natural history has been carefully investigated by 
many able and industrious naturalists. 

In the following table the mammalia which are found in 
Europe are arranged according to their position in the 
orders of the Cuvierian system ; those which are peculiar 
to this continent, and those which are common both to it 
and other parts of the globe, are placed in separate columns. 

No. of spe- 

cies com- 

No. of ■pe- 

mon to 

Whole No. 

Whole No. 

ek's p«*cu- 

Europe and 

ORDERS. ofknowD 

of Buropf an 

liar to 

other Cun- 





I. Quadrumana 186 



11. Cheimptera 192 




III. Camivora 320 




IV. Marsupialia . 67 

V. Ro<lentia . 295 




VI. Edentata . 23 

VII. Pach\dermata 3U 



VIM. Ruminanlia 157 




IX. Cetacea . 76 









We here see the relative number of European mammals 
placed acroidini^ to their organization, in different groups 
ttr ojders; and we may remark that no animal ts found in 
Kurope belont;ing to the Marsupialia and Edentata, while 
of tlic Quadiutnaiia and Pachydermata two species only 
iiiliabit our continent, one belonging to each order, the 
B.irbary ape (Inuus 8ylvanu.s)- and the wild boar (Sus 
I'.rola). The former is found among the precipices of the 

and east of Europe ; while in the southern and wesicrr. 
pnrts of the continent they were probably derived fruir- 
Barbary and Arabia ; but this of course must be uu 
conjecture, as we cannot name any time within historic • 
limits when these animals were not spread over all i. 
the greater part of Europe. The horses of Snain vrc- 
cclcbrated in the time of the Romans, after wnich x\n'\ 
were probably crossed with the Barbary and Arab brtv N 
during the Moorisb dynasty. They may be consdccv^i 
as the lightest acid fleetest of the old European breeds 
and the nearest approaching to the Arab; but they haw 
fellen off greatly during the- last century, little cart 
having been bestowed in keeping up the more nt<blr 
breed. The best Spanish horses are generally about four 
feet six or eight inches high^ and closely resemble th' 
beautiful Arabians of Barbary called Biirbs: thoae oi 
Andalusia, Granada, and Estremailura are the beat. Tbc 
heaviest horses in Europe oome from the shores of tbf 
North Sea, and the smallest from the north of Sweden 
an I from Coi^sica. Those of Germany and Italy anr <.>t 
little note. Switzerland produces good draught borf«a» and 
those of Holland are noted for the same qualities. Tb - 
French is a useful and hardy race, and will endure prea'ci 
fatigue, though it is not possessed of the size and b«nui> 
which now characterize the English horses: the nati.*- 
breeds have been much improved lately by crossing v^ih 
Endish stallions. Greater attention is naid to the brecdi: ^• 
of horses in Eni'land than in any other country exn i . 
Arabia; but while the Arabs only endeavour to^- 
their breed in its original purity, we have improved up* n t 
by crossing with other varieties, till the English horse* Ik* -t 
exceed the Arabian in size and fleetncss, and equol tt.* .• 
in many instances in symmetry, though they are not qr % 
their match in no were'of endurance. The EugU&h Lor-. » 
have been divided into four principal classc!«'-the laix-. 
ihe hunter, the carria^^e-hoive, and the diayhurso, 
Tlie ass in Europe hulds a very inferior place to the lu 

« fl) loeluUng ih" ffurrrnmenu of IVrm. VialKa. KiM-in. .^imbink. Pti.s.i. Saratof. Aslraclmn, :umI lari of Oieubiirif. 45 j.SC'O «««it:e nn.0$^ 
U) Accardin^toth* AjipcMilutoaaecreein the' M.iJri.l'.;diHle"orAMgtiit, lr(J6. « . i -^ 



asserted that cats in some places, near woodit or furestH, will 
stray away and return to a savage state, when they assume 
very mucn the characters and appearance of the wild cat. 
According to Bewick (History r/ Quadrupeds), wild cats 
are found with little variety in most climates. Tlie domes- 
tic cat is very useful in destroying vermin, as rats and mice, 
and is a favourite pet, though it is not capable of much at- 

The reindeer, which is naturally wild in the north of 
Europe, becomes, when tamed by the Laplander, of the 
greatest value to him. It serves him for food, clothing, 
and as a beast of burthen ; by its organization it is formed 
for crossing the snowy wastes, which without tliis animal 
would be impassable : it will draw a great weight when at- 
tached to a sledge, and go with amazing swiftness. The 
riches of a Laplander are estimated by the number of rein- 
deer which he possesses : during the winter season when 
the ground is covered with snow, and the ox and horse 
would starve, the reindeer finds plenty of food in a peculiar 
lichen {Cladonia ran^ferina), which grows in the greatest 
abundance, and often covers the soil in steril places for 
miles, affording nourishment for vast herds of reindeer, 
which root for this vegetable under tlie snow like swine in 
a pasture. Attempts nave been made to domesticate this 
animal in England, but hitherto they have not succeeded. 
The reindeer is not adapted to our climate, and does not 
seem likely to be of much use in any point of view even if 
the experiment should succeed. 

The whole number of wild European raammaUa at pre- 
sent met with is only 160, which includes 28 belonging to 
the whale tribe, and 8 species of pkocida; or seals, among 
which the morse or walrus (Trichecus rosmants) is placed: 
these being deducted, the number of land animals is re- 
duced to 114, a proportion very small when compared with 
the three other great continents : of these seventy are also 
found out of Europe, most of them being common to Asia ; 
there only remain therefore forty-four quadrupeds which 
are now peculiar to Europe. 

We have already mentioned the only quadrumanous 
animal found witln'n our limits, the Barbary ape, or magot, 
which, though now naturalized, is probably not an abori- 
ginal inhabitant of Gibraltar. 

Of the Cheiroptera twenty-seven species are found in 
Europe, most of which belong W the genus Vespertilio, a 
small and harmless race of bats. The most common and 
best known species is the V, murinus, the Hitter-mouse of 
the English, whirh lives in caves, ruined buildings, church 
towers, the roofs of houses or churches, and hollow trees, 
where it hybernates during the whole winter, snugly 
wrapped up in the wing- membranes, and suspended by tue 
hind feet. There are two or three or perhaps more European 
species of the genus Rhinolphus, commonly called horse- 
anoe bats, and one species of Plecotus has been described as 
found in Europe. As many as sixteen bats have been enu- 
merated by Jenyns as inhabitants of Britain. 

Most of the Camivora of Europe are very insignificant 
animals by the side of their congeners of Asia and Africa. 
The only formidable beasts of prey now found within the 
limits of onr continent are the bear, the wolf, and the lynx ; 
but it seems probable that the lion was once met with in 
the south of Europe. Herodotus says that it was found in 
Greece between the rivers Nestus and Achelous (vii. 125) ; 
and he mentions the circumstance of the army of Xerxes 
being annoyed by lions on its march from Acanthus to 
Therme [AthosJ. The fact of these animals having inha- 
bited our continent is also confirmed by Aristotle, Pliny 
(unless he is merely copying other writers), and Pausanias. 
Of the genus Bear there are two species in Europe, the 
common brown bear {Urnu arctos), and the polar bear 
( U, maritimut) : the former was once general over the whole 
continent, and is now found widely diffused in the most 
•olitary districts from the arctic circle to the summit of the 
Alp« and Pyrenees. It is a lonely animal, hybernating 
during the winter in the hollow of a tree or a cavern, where 
it remaina till die spring without taking any sustenance. 
It ia auppoted to be nourished during that time by the fat 
which accumulates beneath the skin in great quantities in 
the summer. Cuvier describes a black bear peculiar to our 
continent, differing from that of America : nowever, as he 
newt saw but one living specimen, and did not know its 
habitat, it waa probably only a variety of the former species. 
The polar bear is almost confined to the frozen regions sur- 
iminaixig the north pole, but ft solitary individual is occa- 


sionally drifted as far south as Iceland, or even the nortbein 
extremity of Norway and Lapland. The wolf and fox, the 
latter under different varieties or species, appear genemlly 
distributed over Europe : the former is even now not un- 
common among the wooded and mountainotis districts of 
France: when pressed by hunger, it will descend to !K«- 
farms, and even attack the inhabitants. The lynx, otrv 
commop in central Europe, has for some time been extir- 
pated, except from some parts of Spain, the Apennin*-^. 
and the northern parts of the continent: it is about t*i«v 
the size of the wild cat, which is still said to be a nati%e cf 
Britain. The common glutton or wolverine {Gulo arritnt* i 
is a native of Denmark. It is one of those animals vh« *<? 
history is obscured by fable : it feeds principally on dcii 
carcases, though it will kill prey of the smaller kinds, a* 
mice, marmots, &c. ; but the stories of its falling fiom 
the boughs of trees on to the backs of deer and other large 
animals, and maintaining its hold there till they drop « ith 
fatigue and loss of blood, are doubtless entirely fisbulotis, .ih 
it is a most cowardly animal, and may be easily killed «i!b 
a stick. 

Of small carnivorous quadrupeds there are several sperir* : 
as many as eight Must elidse, or weasels, inhabit different part * 
of Europe, which arc particularly destructive to birds. 

Few of the Rodentia of Europe require particular nc»l.fv. 
The beaver was formerly recorded as a British animal ; a: 
present it is found in the neighbourhood of the Rhone. th«* 
Danube, the Rhine, and other large rivers on the continent 
The porcupine {Hystrix cristata) is said to be occa&i<ina!.« 
met with in Italy, and otlier parts of the south of Eur»- e 
The flying squirrel {Pteromys volans) is an inhabitant t 
Denmark and Lapland, as well as one or two species t «' 
lemming (Georychus). The different kinds of rats r/ * 
mice, of which seventeen species have been described, ar 
ranged in different genera, form an important featun* .:. 
European zoology. One species of Hamster {Crieetux vul- 
garis) is distributed over central and northern Europe: .f. I 
two marmots {Arciomys marmotta and Bobac)', andt..- 
Spermophilus Citillus, or Soulisk of the Germans, occur» . 
the same region. 

The mldboar,i\\Q only aboriginal pachydermatous anin- ' 
in Europe, was formerly an inhabitant of the forests of Gj« : 
Britain, and was one of the noblest and most favoiirTf 
objects of the chase ; it is still found on the continent. 

The number of Ruminants found wild in Europe j< ^c*^ 
limited, there being only eight species. Of these five o-\ 
deer, all of which are also inhabitants of other contincntv 
viz., the elk or moose-deer, the rein-deer, the follow-d**^: 
the red-deer, and tlic roebuck, which are several!} 0*- 
scribed in the article Deer. The three remaining animj'^ 
of this order are the ibex, the chamois, and the musm^u 
The first (Capra ibex) is found, though rarely, in the A\\ - 
still more rarely in the Pyrenees, and it is said in $• n.i 
other mountainous parts of Europe and Asia: it lives o. '\ 
in the most lofty and inaccessible places, and is soMi. .. 
for at the extreme peril of the hunter. The chamuis ir- 
habits also the wildest and most precipitous regions in xhr 
mountains of Europe, though it scarcely ascends to thr 
same heights as the ibex ; it is placed in the same gr>'.; 
with the antelopes, though by some naturalists it is cx>i)- 
sidered that it should form an intermediate genus betwctri. 
those animals and the goats. The musmon (Ovi* musw* n 
the only ruminating quadruped which appears confined .l 
its range to Europe, we have already mentioned as be.r- 
the supposed parent of our domestic sheep ; it has dt<a^ 
peared from the continent, though there is no reason f . 
oelieving that it formerly existed on the mountains of 8mtii 

The Cetacea ai*e a tribe of animals of which little :«> 
known. Their habitation being in the deenest reeesse« of 
the ocean, it is impossible to learn much of tneir habits and 
characters; and hardly any species can be said to be peculiar 
to one continent more than another, for the same whale 
may be met with on the coast of Europe at one time, anU 
on that of America at another. A ^at many species fre- 
quent the shores of Europe, principally on its nortberc 
part, and the Greenland fishery is an important brsneh oi 
European commerce. 

The birds of Europe are much more numerous than i)^ 
mammalia. Above 400 species have been described &« 
regular inhabitants of our continent, and a good many mo^r 
are occasional visitants ; but we must confine our notice r- 
a few of the more remarkable and typical species. In \ht 
northern or arctic regions very few birds sre met with, atui 




tome fl«K i> exceedingly destructive and voracious ; it baa 
been called tbe fresh- water shark. It is found in almost 
all the fresh waters in Europe, though more plentifully in 
the northern than the southern parts.- It sometimes grows 
to a very large size. 

EUROPE, BOTANY OF. This continent in iU most 
southern limits exhibits a strong reftemblance to the vege- 
tation of AfVira and its adjacent islands. In Sicily, for 
example, along with the vine, grow, in the more steril 
situation':, the poisonous leaflesii Euphorbia Canariennt, 
an inhabitant of the Canaries, and its congener E, baUanu- 
fera. Euphorbia dendroides, a fine globular shrub, is also 
met with in company 'with the castor-oil plant {Rieiniu 
4/Hcanttf ), and the Solanura sodomsBum of Egj'pt The 
Date, the Pisanpf (Muta Paradisiaea), and the Prickly Pear 
(Cactiu Opuntia), ripen their fruit abundantly; Agave 
Americana, the American aloe, darts up its gi^ntic flower- 
stem from the midst of huge horny leaves : nee is grown ; 
the sugar-cane is cultivated at Avola; the cotton-plant 
{Oissypium herbaceum) yields produce of the finest quality 
on the banks of the Simeto ; while the great Italian reed 
{Arundo Donax) supplies the place of the bamboo, and 
furnishes the long stakes on which the vine is trained. 
Many parts of the south of Spain partake of this character. 
The Sinilax nspera loads tne bushes with its fVagrant 
snow-white clusters, maize and Guinea oorn arc common 
articlcit of cultivation, the Peruvian Cherimoyer ripens its 
fruit in the {gardens of Grenada, and the delicate melons 
fif Valencia are as common an open crop as in the fields of 
Pei-sia. At Barcelona, in the neglected botanic garden, 
were still found, a few year«< «ince, the Snppaii tree of 
Brazil (Coral frt'nia i^appan), the Schimts Afo//* of Peru, 
ind other trees from similar climates fiourishing as if in 
their native air. In Portugal the laurel (Ceranu Lust- 
tanira) seems almost identical with the Hixa of the 
Canaries, while the Coral trees at Lisbon unfold their noble 
leaves and gorgeous blossoms with all their native South 
American vigour. In Italy arborescent Endogens extend as 
far OS Nice in the form of the dwarf Palmetto ; and the 
Victoria laurel (Launu nobilis), a common evergreen, is a 
Kuropean representation of the laurels of the Canaries, 
.^long all these latitudes the fig, the olive, the orange, the 
vine, and 'the maize find a climate congenial to their 
southern constitutions. Even in valleys the olive will not 
exist higher than 44^' N., nor the vine produce good wine 
beyond 48^ excent in a few sheltered places. 

About the northern limits of the oUve, that is to say, in 
the parallel of the south of France, a marked change occurs 
in vegetation; most of the southern ecjuinoctial forms of 
vegetation either disappear or become uncommon. The 
Quercus Cerris, so common in Italy and Turkey, is hardly 
found; evergreen oaks {QuercuM lUx), common oaks (Q. 
Dedunruiuta and »essili/lora) supply its place. Cluster pines 
and Scotch firs (Pinui pinaster and mflvestris) and other 
species, especially Pinus halepensis, grow along the sea- 
ruast and occupy the position held by the more southern 
stone-nine iPinut pinea) ; while Juniperue Phoenieea and 
oxyeearus, on the branches of which its peculiar mistletoe 
is sometimes met with, sweet chestnuts {Castanea vesca), 
the narrow-leaved ash {Fraxinui oxyphylla), the flowering 
ash (Ornue Europeea), mastich-trees, and Phillyreas in- 
crease the catalogue of trees, no vestige of which is to be 
traced much higher in a wild state. Still more to the 
north, where the vine begins to languish, its place is better 
occupied by broad plains of wheat and other corn; the 
hardv trees of England, elms, limes, oaks, ashes, alders, 
beeches, birches, willows, and poplars are found everywhere, 
with rich pastures and verdant fields, unknown in the land 
of oranges and myrtles. At last, in the more northern dis- 
tricts of the continent, aspens {Populw tremula), bird- 
cherries (Prunut Padui\ birches, lime-trees, alders, juni- 
pers, spruce-firs, and pines are the principal trees that re- 
main ; barley and oats are the only rom-plants, but potatoes 
continue to be reared in the short cold summer. 

Among plants less conspicuous than these and less popu- 
tftrly known, changes occur between the north and south 
of Europe not le^s striking to the eye of a botsnist. In 
Sicily occurs a Stapefia, a form of vegetation so Afirican, 
that Arabia Felix and Abyssinia are the nearest points 
where a parallel can be found. Mandrakes (Mandragora 
autumnalif) cover whole tracts in Turkey and Sicily in the 
autumn with their sky-blue flowers. Quantities of labiate 
DlantR, Boraginace» and gay Liliaee», M edic««t» in mbiui- 

dant ▼•riejhr, an endless heat of Cistua and HeliantheinuzB 
Narcissi, Tulips, many species of Ophrya* and numerous 
kinds of Genista and Gytisus mark a gone of vegetatiaq 
corresponding verv much With the distribution of the oli%» 
To the north of this limit such plants either disappear or 
diminish esaentially in number and Tariety; Apinoeou* 
and BraasicaoeouB species become predominant, fbngi awarai 
in the autumn, tumipa and buckwheat (Polygonum fa^o- 
pyrum) are cultivated advantageously, at alio are hemp^ 
flax, hope, carrots, parsnips* common clover, beans* vetchei^ 
and lucerne, as common field-crops. Bat in htgber latitude* 
the predominant fbrms of herbaceous yegetation an nume- 
rous species of Ranunculus, Potentilla, Saxifraga, Arena- 
ria. Primula, Mosses, and Lichens ; and there also occur 
abundance of stunted or pigmy trailing shrubs, such as bil- 
berries and whortleberries O^aecimum MyrtiUue and ult^- 
fiofsm), Salix herbaeea, Arbuiue Alpina^ Areio$iapkyl'*4 
Uva Ursi^ crowberries (Empeirum nigrum)^ and the like. 

These changea take place if we merely look to the di«- 
tricts of the plains. In Europe, as in other parts of the 
world, similar alterations in yegetation occur aa we ascend 
into the atmosphere. In Sicily for instance, with an almost 
tronical vegetation in the valleys, there is a transition to the 
middle fbrms of European vegetation midway on tii* 
mountain side, and then to the most northern flora at lu 
summit, 900U feet above the sea[iCTNA]; and so with other 
mountains as we advance to the south, till at last on Suh- 
telma, in Lapland, not a trace of vegetation can be dis- 
covered above the height of 3640 feet. 

EURY'ALE. [Stbllkridkans ; Mbddsa.1 

EURY'BIA. [Mbdusa.] 

E U RY'DICB ( Zoology). [Isofoda.] 

EURYLAIMUS. rftmciCAnojL] 

EURY'MHDUN. [Anatolia, vol. i., p. 494.J 

EURY'NOME, a genus of brachyurous crustaceans e^ 
tablished by Dr. Leach, and forming the second genus of 
the Parthenopians of M. Milne Edwards who remarks that 
it establishes the passage between Parthenope or Lambna 
and the other Oxyrhynchi. The general form of the bod% 
and aspect approximates these crustaceans to Burthenop^^ 
whilst the disposition of their external antenns is simiUr 
to the conformation in Maia. The earapace is neariy in xUt 
form of a triangle with a rounded base, and is atrongU 
tuberculated and covered with asperities. Tbe roetrum it 
horiiontal, and divided into two triangular home. The ^ft 
am small ; the orbits deep, their upper border yery much 
projecting and separated from the extemid angle by a slit. 
The internal antenna are bent back longitudinally, an*l tbe 
first joint of tbe external antenna terminatea at tha in- 
ternal ans^le of the orbit The epistome is nearly squared, 
and the third joint of the ejpternaijaw feet strongly diUtc 1 
externally. The sternal plastron is nearly ovaJ. and it« 
median suture occupies the two last thoracic rings. Tbe 
feet of the first pair are scarcely longer than the auoceed.r^ 
ones ; in the male they are rather long, whilst in the fema «• 
they are very short, but less than those of the second pair : 
the succeeding feet diminish progreauvely in length. Ah ' - 
men consisting of seven articulations in both sexes. 

Example, Eurynome aspera, Lensth about half an im-l 
colour lively red with bluish tints. Xiocality, tbe coa»T» f 
Noirmoutier and the Channel (La Manebe), at rather c-ti 
siderable depths. (Leach; Milne Edwarda.) [PxR^r^ - 





EURYPCyDIUS. [Lbftofodiidjb ; Macropodiaws.] 

EURYSTOnWDiB. [Rollers] 

EUSE'BIUS PA'MPHILI, bishop of Cssarea, in Pales- 
tine, the friend of Constantine, and one of the most distin- 
guished among the earlier Christian writers, was bom in 
Palestine towards the end of the reign of Gfallienus, about 
A.O. 264, He passed the earlier part of his hfe at Antioch, 
and acquired a great reputation for learning : it was said 
of him ' that he knew all that had been written before him.' 
He became intimate with Pamphilus, bishop of Ciesarea, 
who suffered mairtyrdom under Galerius in the year 309, 
and in memory of whose friendship he added to his name 
that of Pamphili. In 313 he was himself raisefl to the see 
of Casarea, which he filled until his death. lie attended 
the great oouneil of Nicsa, a.o. 325. where he joined his 
brethren in eondemning the tenets of Arius ; but he is said 
to have raised some objections to the word * consubstantial 
with the Father' as applied to the son, in the Niciean creed. 
His intimacy with his namesake Eusebius, bishop of Nico- 
media, who openly espoused the cause of Arius, led him 
also to favour the same, and to use his influence with the 
cmoeror for the purpose of reinstating Arius in his church, 
in deBaiipe nf the opposition of Athanasius. TArius ; Atha- 
NASius.J The party to which he attached himself were 
^dJled Eusebians, ih)m their leader Eusebius of Nicomedia; 
and they seem to have acted in great measure ftom hos- 
tility against Athanasius and his supporters, as thev did 
not as yet openly advocate the objectionable tenets of Arius, 
who had himself apparently submitted to the decrees of the 
rouncil of NieaMu in 331 Eusebius attended a council at 
Antioch, consisting of prelates of this party, who deposed, 
on some inaidioat chaige, the bishop Eustathius, a zealous 
supporter of the Nictean doctrine, and offered the see of 
Antioch to Eusebius of Csesarea, which he declined. At 
the council of Tvre, A.IX335, Eusebius joined in condemning 
and deposing Athanasius on the charges of disobedience 
to the emperor in not reinstating Arius, want of respect to 
the council, and an alleged desecration of some sacred ves- 
sels. Eusebius was deputed by the council to defend before 
Cunstantiue' the judgment which they had passed against 
Athanasius; and ho appears to have used his influence 
with the emperor to have Athanasius banished. The part 
which he took in this unfortunate controversy caused nim 
to be stigmatized as an Arian, though it appears that he 
fully admitted the divinity of Christ; ana all that his 
accusers can prove is, that he believed that there was a 
certain suboraination among the persons of the Trinity. 
(Mosheim, EeelenaiHctU History; and Schoell, History qf 
Greek Literature^ and the notes and references therein.) 
Eusebius of Nicomedia afterwards openly advocated the 
Arian doctrine under the reign of Constantius, especially 
at the oouncQ of Antioch, a.d. 341. Eusebius of Csesarea 
died A.D. 340. 

Eusebius was possessed of most extensive erudition, 
sacred as well as profane, and he was one of the warmest 
defenders and exj)ounders of Christianity. His principal 
Works are — I. 'Tne Ecclesiastical History,' in ten books, 
from the advent of our Saviour to the defeat of Licinius 
by Constantino, a.d. 324. Eusebius has been styled the 
father of ecclesiastical history. He is silent on the subject 
of the Arian controversy, although it had begun at the time 
when he ends his narrative. Upon the whole, his history 
is written with considerable discrimination and impartiality. 
2. * De Pneparatione Evan^licft,' in fifteen books. In this 
work he examines the vanous systems of theosophy and 
cosmogony of the antient philosophers, the purest part of 
which, he maintaina. was borrowed firom the Jewish sacred 
writingB. Among the writers whom he quotes, and whose 
works are now lost, are the Phcenician Sanchoniatho and 
the Egyptian Manetho. From the aberrations of the 
heathens and the speculations of the philosophers he draws 
arguments in ikvour of the truth of the Christian doctrines. 
This work of Eusebius was followed by anothei* — 3. ' De 
Demonstratione Evangelicd,' in twenty books, of which 
only ten have come down to us. It consists of ftirther 
proofii of the truth of the Christian fkith, chiefly directed 
ftj^ainst Uie Jews, being drawn from the books of the Old 
Testament. 4. The * Chronicle or Universal History,' 
was only known by fragments until it was lately dis- 
rovercd entire in an Armenian MS. version, found at 
Oinstantinople, and published hy Zohrab and Mai at Milan 
in IRli). The work is divided into two books; the first, 
entitled ' Chronography,' contains brief separate sketches of 
the history of tne varidus nations and states of the old 

world, from the Creation till the year 335 of our asra. Th« 
author gives extracto from Berosus, Alexander Polyhistor. 
Abydenus, Cephalion, Manetho. and other lost writers. 
The second book consists of synchronical tables, with the 
names of the contemporary rulers of the various nations and 
the principal -occurrences in the history of each, from the 
age of Abraham till the time of Eusebius. The author has 
made use of the works of Africanus, Josephus, and others. 
The discovery of the Armenian copy of Eusebius has been 
a valuable acquisition, as it serves to correct several errors 
and to supply many deficiencies in chronology and antient 
history. The other works of Eusebius are— 5. * Onomas- 
ticon Urbium et Locorum Sacrce Scripturm.' 6. * The Life 
of Constantino,' in four books, a piece of panegyrical bio- 
graphy. 7. A Life of his friend Pamphilus, of which only 
a fragment remains ; and other minor works. 


EUSTA'CHIUS. Bartolomeo Eustachio, or Eustachius, 
I was one of the distinguished band of Italian professors to 
whom we owe the restoration of anatomy and much of its 
advancement in modern times. He was born in the early 
part of the sixteenth century at San Severino, in the mar- 
quisate of Ancona. Having accomplished himself in the 
classical and Arabic languages, he studied medicine at 
Rome, and afterwards settled there ^rith a view to practise 
as a physician, under the patronage of the celebrated car* 
dinal Borromeo. The interest he could thus command and 
his unusual talents were sufficient to elevate him to the 
chair of medicine in the CoUegio della Sapienza ; yet he 
never obtained any degree of professional success, and aficr 
a long struggle with poverty and sickness, died in great 
indigence about 1574. 

It is not surprising that Eustachius should have failed a^ 
a practical physician, for the exclusive devotion with which 
he pursued lus favourite study must have left him little 
time for the cultivation of the lucrative branches of his 
art ; but the complete failure as a teacher, of a man of so 
much genius ana enthusiaj»m, is remarkable. It may be 
attributed perhaps to the ascendancy of the rival school of 
Padua, supported by the wealth of Venice, and illustrated 
by the established fame of Vesalius and his successors ; and 
may be due in part to a defective temper, of which some 
indications may be observed in his writings, and to the 
jealousy with which he concealed his discoveries. Eusta- 
chius published little in his lifetime, though he lived long 
and laboured much ; yet his treatises, short and few as they 
are, and composed when anatomy wa» yet an infant science, 
are of hiffh authority even at the present day, and bear wit- 
ness to ttie accuracy and extent of his researches. They 
are all in Latin, and are nearly all collected in his * Opus- 
cula Anatomica,' published in 4to. at Venice in 1564, by 
himself, and again by Boerhaave, Leyden, 1707, in 8vo. 
He also published an edition, with annotations, of Erotian's 
' Lexicon Hippocraticum.* His principal work, * On the 
Disputed Points of Anatomy,' upon wnich he evidently 
intended to rest his fame, was unpublished to the time of 
his death, although announced in the ' Opuscule,' probably 
for want of means; it was then lost, and has never 
been recovered ; but thirty-nine copper-plates, engraved as 
early as 1552, and intended to illustrate the text of this 
work, were found at Urbino in 171 2, and given to the world 
two years afterwards by Lancisi, with the aid of Morgagni, 
Pacchioni, and other anatomists of distinction. Several 
editions of them have since appeared with voluminous 
commentaries; the best is that of Albinus, published at 
Leyden in 1744, in folio, and reprinted in 1762. The im- 
portance attached to these plates, after so long an interval 
of oblivion, shows how much Eustachius must have pre* 
ceded his age ; and they prove that many facta of ereat im- 
portance in anatomy were accurately known to nim, the 
partial re-discovery of which had shed lustre on a century 
and a half of subsequent inquiry. 

Haller declares it to be impossible without writing a 
treatise on the subject to particularize the discoveries and 
corrections that Eustachius introduced into anatomy. Tlie 
tube leading fVom the ear-drum to the throat, and a certain 
valvular membrane in the heart which bear his name are 
among the former. 

EUSTArrmUS, archbishop of Thessalonica in the 
latter part of the twelfth century, was one of the most 
learned scholiasts of his age. •He wrote a Commentary 
upon the 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey,' which is a mine 
or antient erudition, and contains extracts from the 
older commentators, such as Apion, Heliodorus, Demo- 

E U T 


E U T 

itbeaet of Thrrnc*, Porphyriu«. and others. It wm first i Of the eerameDUnes of Eutoeius, thoM on the trestM 
printed at Rome in the edition of Homer. 4 vols. fol. ] of Archimedes • On the Spbefe and Cylmder are looi^t 
1 54>-48 • the latest edition is that of Leipzig. 1827. Eusia- j valued ; and chiefly for his account of the various modes of 
thius wrote likewise a Commentary on Dionysius Porie- solving the Delian problem of the Duplication of the Cube 
gctes, or the Geographer, which was published by Robert All of them, however, though of less value both as to hi*- 
£iitienne. 1547, and often reprinted since. He also wrote 
a Commentary on Pindar, which is lost There are letters 
of Eustathius existing in MSS. in several libraries ; but 
tliey have never been publislied. The novel of ' Hysmine J 
and Hysminias.* published at Paris, 1618, has been also ' 
attributed to Eu5tathius» but, as it is now proved, eirone 

ouslv. . ^, , 

EUSTATIUS, or BUSTATTA, St.. in 17« 33^ N. lat., 
and 63' 3' W. long, one of the Leeward islands in the West 

torical and geometrical matter, are still interesting to every- 
one who takes a pleasure in investigating the history of pure 

The commentary on the ' Measorement of the Circle,* by 
Archimedes, was translated into German, together witji 
the text of Archimedes to which it iefers,by J.Gutenacker. 
WurzbuTg. 1825 and 1828, 8vo. 

EUTRO'PIUS, FLAVIUS, was a Latin hUtorian of 
the fourth century. Little is known of his life; he w^t 

Indies. i& a small rocky island, about 25 miles in cir- I secretary to the Emperors ConsUntine and Julian, aii«l 

accompanied the latter in his unfortunate Parthian cam 
paign. He is believed to have been of senatorial rank. 
He is known as the autlior of a compendium of Roman 
hbtory, in ten books, from the foundation of the citj- d^;wii 
to the accession of Valens, ajx 365, which* being »ht«rt 
and easy, has been much used as a school-book. Mrjgri- 
as it is — for it might be contained in 100 comjnoQ-«i2«M 
octavo pages— it is still of some use towards filling up th «•- 
gaps in histor}' which are left in consequence of the to .•) 
loss of some writers and the imperfect condition in vum 

cumference, rising from the sea, in the form of a trun- 
cated pvnimid* or sugar-loai^ terminating in a plain sur- 
roundeii with woods, having a hollow in the centre, 
which is now a vast den for numerooa wild beasts, and is 
perhaps the crater of an extinct volcano. The climate is 
in general healthy, but the island is fr^uently visited by 
those rlreadful thunder-storms and hurricanes which have 
so repeatedly ravaged the West Indies. These hurricanes 
have usually occurred in August and September. The extra- 
ordinary fertility of the soil, aided by the industry of the 
Dutch, who have cultivale<l the island to the very summit, others have come down to us. The best edition is saiti t 
have rendered it one of the most tiourisbing and wealthy of be that of Haverkamp. Leyden. 1729, 12mo., improved U 
all the Caribbee islands. The principal article of cultiva- 
tion is tobacco, but they grow likewise sugar, indigo, and 
cotton. The island has great abundance of hogs, goats 
rabbits, and poultr)- of all Kinds, not only for the consump- 
tion of the inhabitants themselves, but for the suppiv of 
the neighbouring colonies, with which they are said to 
cai'ry on a profitable contraband trade, the situation of the 
island being remarkably convenient for that purpose. This 
mav be one ground of the very iealous policy of the Dutch, 
which is far more strict than tnat of the other European 
nations who possess any of the islands. The only landing- 
])lace, naturally difficult of access, is further guarded by a fort, 
and fortified so as to render it impregnable ; nor has any 
thing been neglected to render every part of the island 
equally fo. Strangers therefore being nearly excluded, 
have little knowledge of the ioternal affairs of the island 
and of the riches with which it abounds. 

St. Eustatius became the property of the Dutch by the 
right of first occupancy ; the States-General granted it to 
f>omo merchants at Flushing, and it was first settled about 
the year 1600. In 1665, when the English were at war 
with the Dutch, the latter were dispossessed by an arma- 
ment sent from Jamaica. In the sequel France and Hol- 
land having forme^l an alliance, St. Eustatius was recon- 
quered fh)m the English by a combined force, and the 
French kept a garrison in the island till the treaty of Breda, 
wlien it was restored to the Dutch. Soon after the revolu- 
tion of 1688, the French expelled the Dutch from St Eus- 
tatius, but were obliged to capitulate to Sir Timothy 
Thornhill, who granted them only their lives and baggage, 
and left a small English garrison for the protection of the 
Dutch, who again recovered the entire possession of the 
i:»land by the peace of Ryswick. They kept it till 1781, 
Tvhen it was taken by the English, but restored at the peace 
^n 1783. The English again took it in 1801, and gave it 
iKick to the Dutch in 1814. 

EUSTYLE. [CiTiL Architkctttbe] 

EUTO'CIUS, a Greek mathematician of Ascalon, in 
Palestine, who flourished about a.d. 550. He was pupil 
of Isirlorus, the architect who designed and chiefly built 
I he celebrated church (now the mosque) of St. Sophia at 
Constantitioplc; and he became ultimately one of the most 
«iistin'.;uis)ied geometricians of his time. 

It wxs the general custom of mathematical and philoso- 
phical authore, during the decline of learning, to give their 
\ i<w«» and their discoveries, where they made any, in the 
f>ria of commentaries on s*>me earlier writer, ^utocius, 
'■' ' Prr)clus and others, delivered his views in this 


i»ay ; and like them he furnishes some valuable contribu- 
tion* to the history of mathematical science amongst the 

The cr»mmentaries of Eutocius on the works of Archi- 
mcflcs an<l Ap*»Ilonius are the only works by which he is 
kn» wn lo m'j'lem reailers. His commentaries on Apollo- 
nniH were puhl^hed in Halle>*ft Oxford e<lition of the works 

* Miat author, 1710 ; and those on Archimedes in various 
ons, from that of Ba^l, 1544, to that of Oxford, 1792. 

Verseik. Leyden, 176*2, 2 vols. 8vo. 

EUTYCHIANS. a sect of Christians which began r 
the East in the fifth century. Eutyches, its repute:: 
founder, though the opinions attributed to him are »aid i> 
hove existed before {de Euiychianitmo ante Euiychtn, b> 
Christ. Aug. Selig, and also Assemani, Bibliotheca Ortr^t 
talis, tom. L, p. 219), was a monk who lived near Coa»;an- 
tinople, and had a great reputation for austerity and sanc- 
tity. He was already advanced in years when lie came o\it 
of his retirement, a.d. 448, in order to oppose the Nestoriaiis 
who were accused of teaching ' that the divine nature v:« 
not incarnate in, but only attendant on, Jesus» being sup.r 
added to his human nature after the latter was fbrmirl;' 
an opinion however which Nestorius himself had disavovivd 
In his zeal for opposing the error ascribed to the NeatonaiiN 
Eutyches ran into the opposite extreme of saying that .n 
Christ there was 'only one nature, that of the inau' ■; 
Word,' his human nature having bepn aWrbed in a aiau:'L : 
by his divine nature. Eusebius, bishop of Dorylat^uni, v ' . 
had already opposed the Nestorians. denounced £ut)cl.c? 
before a council assembled at Constantinople by FlaviaJi^s 
bishop of that city. That assembly condemned £ut>cbi^. 
who, being supported by friends at the court of Theodo^;u> 
H., appealed to a general council, which was soon afi*T 
convoked by the emperor at Ephesus, ad. 449, under iht 
presidency of Dioscorus, bishop of Alexandria, and 8ucce^y^r 
to the famous Cyril, who had himself broached a doctrr^r 
very similar to that of Eutyches. The majority of iL.- 
council tumultuously acquitted Eutyches and condemnci. 
Flavianus ; the bishops opposed to him were obliged t . 
escape, and Flavianus was cruelly scourged by the soldiers . 
it was in short a scene of disgraceful violence, which earu^i 
for the council of Ephesus the name of ' a meeting « f 
robbers.* Flavianus appealed to Leo the Great, bishi>p i i 
Rome, who, in his answer, condemned the doctrine f 
Eutyches, but coidd not obtain of Theodosius the conv^.-ca- 
tion of another council. After the death of that empcrvr. 
his successor, Marcianus, convoked a council at Chalced«»ii. 
A.D. 451, which is reckoned as the fourth CBCttmcnt> •< 
council of the Church, and which the pope's legatee a;- 
tended. By this assembly the acts of the councQ of £pbesu> 
were annulled, Dioscorus was deposed and banished, an«i 
Eutyches, who had already been banished by the empecor 
was again condemned, and deprived of his sacerdotal aftit 
The doctrine was at the same time expounded that * .i> 
Christ two distinct natures arc united in one person* ai.>i 
that without any change, mixture, or confusion. EutycLct 
died in exile ; but several monks, especially in Syrial c^ if 
tinned the. schism, and having found a protectress in xtf 
emraess Eudocia, the widow of Theodosius, who was hvir.^ 
in Palestine, they became more daring, and excited tb.' 
people against the partizans of the council of Chalrvd *k 
whom they stigmatized as Nestorians. The emperor vs^ 
obliged to send troops to repress these disorders. T" • 
doctrine of Eutyches was perpetuated in the East un«ic r 
certain modifications, or rather quibbling of words, wh.-ci. 
caused the sect to be subdivided under %*arioua name« 




•11 bowever comprehended under the general name > of 
Konophysites, or believers in one nature. (Asseroani, 
* de Monophjsitis,' at the beginning of vol. ii. of his Btbh'o' 
iheca OrientaliB, and Albufanragius's arguments in fiivour 
of that doctrine in the same vol., pp. 288,9.) In the sixth 
centuiy a fresh impulse was given to the fiutychian doctrine 
by one Jacob, a monk, surnamed Baradsus, who reconciled 
Ihe various divisions of the Monophysites throughout the 
East, and spread their tenets through Syria, Armenia, Me- 
sopotamia, and Egypt, found supporters amon^ several 
prelates (among others in the bishop of Alexanaria), and 
died himself bishop of Edessa, a.d. 588. He was considered 
AS the second founder of the Monophysites, who assumed 
from him the name of Jacobites, under which appellation 
they still constitute a very numerous church, equally sepa- 
rate from the Greek, the Roman or LAtin, and the Nestorian 
churches. The Armenians and the Copts are Jacobites, and 
so are likewise many Syrian Christians in contradistinction 
to theMelchites,who belong to the Greek church. Jacobite 
oongregations are found in Mesopotamia. 

The Monothelites who appeared in the seventh century 
have been considered as an offshoot of the Eutychians or 
Monophysites, though they pretended to be quite uncon- 
nected with them. They admitted the two natures in Christ, 
explaining that after the union of the two into one person 
there was in him only one will and one operation. This 
was an attempt to conciliate the Monophysites with the 
orthodox church, and it succeeded for a time. It was ap- 
proved of by many eastern prelates, and even by Pope 
Honorius I., in two epistles to Sergius, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, which are found in the Acts of the Councils. 
But the successors of Honorius condemned the Monothelites, 
and Martin I., in a bull of excommunication, a.d. 649, con- 
signed them and their ^patrons (meaning the Emperor 
Constans, who protected them) ' to the devil and his angels.' 
Constans, indignant at this, caused his exarch in Ittuy to 
arrest Martin, and send him prisoner to the Chersonesus. 
At last, under Constantino, who succeeded Constans, the 
council of Constantinople, which is the sixth oecumenical 
council. A. D. 680, condemned the Monothelites, and with 
them Pope Honorius himself. (Mosheim, The Acts qf the 
Councils ; and Bossuet, in his Defence of the Declaration 
qfthe Gallican Clergy, 1682.) 

EUXINE. [Black Ska.] 

EVA'(K)RA. [MkdusaJ 

EVA'GRIUS, born at Epiphania, in Syria, about the 
year 536, practbed as an advocate at Antioch, where he ac- 
quired a brilliant reputation. He was afterwards appointed 
qusstor, and filled other pubUc officer. He wrote an eccle- 
siastical history in six books, beginning with a.d. 431, about 
the period where the histories of Socrates and Theodoretus 
terminate, and continuing to the year 593. His work is 
spoken of favourably by Photius. Evagrius, though not 
always to be trusted implicitly, yet shows greater discrimi- 
nation than Socrates ; he consulted the original documents, 
and appears to have been tolerably impartial. He was well 
acquainted with pro&ne, as well as ecclesiastical history. 
His work was published by Robert Estienne, and afterwards 
by Valois, Pans, 1679, in an improved edition founded upon 
two different MSS. It was published again with notes at 
Cambridge, 1720. 

EVALb, JOHANNES, the most distinguished poetical 
genius produced by Denmark in the eighteenth century, 
was bom at Copenhagen, November 18th, 1743. His 
father, who was a clergyman in that city, possessed con- 
siderable theological attainments, but was prevented by 
ill health from acting as preceptor to his sons. Johannes, 
therefore, the secona and most gifted of the three, was 
shortly before his father's death (1754) sent to Slesvig, 
where his tutor left him entirely to his own choice of books 
for his leisure reading. Among these were translations of 
' Robinson Crusoe' and ' Tom Jones,' the former of which 
so captivated his imagination that he proposed its hero as 
a practical model to nimself, and when no more than 1 3 
vears old, eloped with the view of making his way to Hol- 
land, and there eet on board ship for Batavia ; but he was 
overtaken, and his project frustrated. He was still, how- 
ever, left as before to inflame his fancy with romantic 
reading and with legendary lore, including that of saints 
and martyrs, as well as of northern &ble and mythologv. In 
reading the classics it was the adventurous part that chiefly 
engaged his attention : indeed he had at that time no relish 
xhatever for the beauties of the Roman poets, as he him- 
P. C, No. 607, 

f elf has acknowledged in his fragmentary autobiography. 
Notwithstanding he was of exc^ingly weak fhime of 
body, he longed to devote himself to a military career, and 
the war then carried on between Pt-ussia and Austria 
afforded an opportunity ; but his mother would not consent 
to his entering the army. Soon after, his thoughts were for 
a while diverted from such views by a very different object. 
He suddenly became violently enamoured with a young 
lady, a relation of his step-father's, for his mother was now 
married again, whom he has celebrated under the name of 
Arensc, and his passion for whom he has described in the 
most glowing colours ; a passion which, althougli hastily 
conceived was lasting in its effects, and which, although the 
source of heartfelt bitterness to him — since Arense be- 
stowed her hand upon another — while it cast a shade of 
melanchol}^ over his whole life, had a favourable influence 
on his poetical talent, producing in hira that depth of feel- 
ing and pathos which discovers it»elf in his ' Baldei-s Dud' 
(Death of Balder). At this period, however, poetry, at least 
authorship, formed no part of his plans. Dissatisfied with 
being beneath his step-father's roof, he joined with his elder 
brother in the scheme of entering the Prussian 8e^^ice as 
hussars. The latter returned after reaching Hamburii;, but 
Johannes proceeded to Magdeburg, where he enlisted, but 
was received only as a foot-soldier. In consequence of thin 
disappointment he deserted to the Austrians; sened in 
Bohemia ; and was at Dresden when that capital was be- 
sieged by the Prussians. On his return to Denmark he 
applied himself to the study of theology, with the view of 
settling in that profession and manning, when his hopes of 
the latter were firustrated, us already noticed. He now 
regarded with indifference all schemes of earthly felicity ; 
and it was in this frame of mind that he took up his pen 
and produced his * Lykkcn's Temple' (The Temple of For- 
tune, a vision), which at once stampe<l his reputation. This 
was succeeded by his ' Adam and Eve,' a dramatic com- 
position replete with poetical energy, yet in many respects 
defective and anomalous. Conscious of its imperfections, 
he devoted two years entirely to the study of poetry and the 
best models, in order to prepare himself for some more 
finished undertaking. Having made himself master of the 
English language, he carefully perused Shakspeare, with 
whom he was before acquainted only through Wieland's 
translation. Ossian was likewise a favourite with him, 
and when he again took up his pen, he composed his ' Rolf 
Krage,' a tragedy strongly tinctured with Ossianic taste. 
It was first given to the public in 1770 ; about which time 
he was attacked with a most painful disorder in his limbs, 
that continued to afflict him with little intermission during 
the rest of his life. Notwithstanding his severe sufferings, 
he not only pursued his literary occupations, but wrote his 
comedy of ' Harlequin Patriot,* a masterpiece of its kind, 
abounaing with pleasantry and satire chiefly directed against 
pseudo-reformers. In the following year, 1773, he executed 
his literary chef-d'oeuvre, ' Balders Dod,' a drama of extra- 
ordinary poetical beauty, and greatly superior to anything 
of the kind that had then appeared in the Danish language. 
Yet although well receivea, its merits were not so well ap- 
preciated by its author's contemporaries as they have been 
since. Although it is on this and his other poetical works 
that his reputation chiefly rests, Evald produced several 
things in prose, some of which — as his ' Forslg om Pebers- 
vende' (Project respecting Old Bachelors), are replete with 
shrewd satire and strong comic humour, notwithstanding 
they were written when he had to contend both with ill- 
health and distressed circumstances. Their liveliness forms 
a strong contrast to the seriousness and even melancholy 
that pervade his other writings ; in which respect he pre- 
sents a parallel to the author of ' John Gilpin.' There is 
likewise another point of resemblance between Evald and 
Cowper ; each in his affliction met with eenerous svmpa- 
thy and succour from a female friend. What Mary t^nwin 
was to the one, Madame Skou was to the other ; and it was 
beneath the hospitable roof of the latter that the Danish 

goet breathed his last, on the 17th March, 1781, after 
eing confined during two years to his bed or arm-chair, 
and almost deprived of the use of his limbs. The two poets 
may further be likened to each other for the high moral 
tone of their writings, vividness of conception, and happiness 
of expression. 

EVANGELIST is the Greek appellation Euangelistes 
(c^ayyfXitfr^c, from cv andoyycXoc), which signified a mes- 
senger of any good news, as in Isaiah xli. 27, of the Sep« 

Voi.. X. -O 




tuagint ven^iuo. In the ant agen of Chmtianity it wm a 
general name of all thooe who, either by preaching or 
vntinc:. announced the 'glad tidings' of the Christian 
reyc'<uion. The learned Hooker, in his * Ecclesiastical 
P >Uty/ b. V. i 76, says that * Evangelists were presbyters 
whom the apostles sent forth, and used as aeents in pccle- 
siiuitical afTairs.' They were similar to the claSs of ministers 
wha in modern times are known as itinerant preachers. 
The deacon (suliordinate minister) Philip is called an 
evangelist (AcUxxi, 8: see Grotius on the passage); so 
Ananias, Apollos, Timothy, and several others. Si. Paul, 
in his eiiiitle to the Ephesians (iv. 11), places evangelists 
in the third rank of ecclesiastical officers; thus, apostles, 
prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers. The use of the 
term is now confined to the four writers to whom the ca- 
nonical gospels are attributed, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and : 
John, and the eospels themselves are not unfrequently, * 
though incorrectly, called the Evangelists. Sl Jerome ' 
states that the symbols of the four evangelists are a man, a 
lion, a calf, and an ox ; but St Augustine declares them to I 
be a lion, a man, an ox, and an eagle. {Ezekiel^ i. 5-10 ; 
Bet\ iv, 7.) Dr. Campbell, in his • Dissertation on the 
Gospels • (vol. i. p. 1 26, &c.), gives a variety of learned and 
critical remarks on the word ihayykKitnv as the translation 
of the Hebrew ^it^Q bcuhar, * l»la annunciare,' * to announce 
good tidings.' (See the word in Rose's ed. of Parkhursi's 
G/{. lex. qf the N. T, and a list of works on the Evan- 
geli>its in Watt's Biblintheca Britannica^ and Home's In- 
troduction to the Bible.) General histories of the four 
£vangeli<»ts have been written by Kirstenius, Spanheim, 
Mollerus, Florinus, Schroedcr, &c» 



EVELYN, JOHN, author of • Sylva,* * Memoirs,' &c.. 
was the second son of Richard Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton, in 
Surrey, and was born at that place October 31, 16*20. He 
received his education at Lewes' free school and Baliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. In 1641 he went abroad, and served for a 
short time as a volunteer in Flanders. Instead oi taking 
arms in the royalist cause, as his family politics would have 
inclined him, he went abroad a second time in 1644, with 
the king's permission, and spent, with one interval, the 
next seven years on the continent, diligently employed in 
studying natural philosophy, cultivating his taste in the 
fine arts, and acquainting himself with such particulars of 
manners, trade, and manufacture as were most worthy of 
notice. In June, 1647, he married the daughter of Sir 
Richard Browne, the royalist ambassador at Paris, and in 
right of bis wife became possessed of Sayes Court, near 
Deptford, where he fixed his abode on returning to Eng- 
land in 1652. He lived in privacy and study till the Resto- 
ration; after which, being much esteemed by the king 
and of some weight by fiimily, fortune, and character, he 
was often withdrawn from his retirement and engaged in 
many capacities in the public service. He was appointed 
a commissioner to take care of the sick and wounded, on 
the Dutch war breaking out in 1664, commissioner for the 
rebuilding St. Paul's, a member of the Board of Trade on 
its first institution, &c. He was also one of the first mem- 
bers of the Royal Society, and continued through life a 
diligent contributor to its 'Transactions.' His most fa- 
vourite pursuits were horticulture and planting, upon which 
ho wrote a variety of treatises, which are collected at the 
end of the fifth edition (1729) of his ' Sylva, or a Discourse 
on Forett-treee and the Propagation of Timber in his 
Majesty's Dominions,' first published in 1664. The object 
of mis. the best known and chief of Evelyn's works* was to 
encourage planting, both as a matter of national interest 
and of private adventure. It sold largely, and, as Evelyn 
himsoli says, had no small effect. In the same year he 
published the first * Gardener's Almanac/ containing direc- 
tions for the employment of each month. This was dedi- 
cated to Cowley, and drew forth one of his best pieces, en- 
titled ' The Garden,* in acknowledgment 

Mr. Evelyn's works on the fine arts are : ' Sculpture,' 
1662, a history of the art of engraving, in which the first 
account is given of Prince Rupert's new method of mez- 
xotmto engraving: 'A Parallel of Antient and Modern 
Architecture,' I6G9: * Numi«mata, a Discourse upon Me- 
dsU,* 1607. All these, though long ^superseded, were much 
p.^teeraed, and were in fact valuable additions to the then 
t'Xiikting stock of literature. 

By the death of hw brother, in October. 1699, Mr. Evelvn I 

succeeded to the family esUte at Wottoiv where he die 1, 
February 27, 1706, full of honour as of years. He »as a 
dili:;C<^nt and successful labourer, in that age of diseovery, 
in the subordinate departments of science; a valuable pio- 
neer, as he used to call himself, in the service of the Rov al 
Society. Besides this, he was a model for the character of 
a gentleman. A friend of the learned and the eood, devoid 
of jealousy, pious, beneficent, intellectual, deligntinff in th«r 
occupations of his station, yet always ready to quit them fur 
the public service : he was respected even by the court pra- 
tiigates to whom his example was a daily reproach. To the 
pre^nt age he is best known by his Memoirs, a journal ex- 
tending nearly from his childhood to his death, which c«>n- 
tains much curious matter relative to his travels, and to the 
manners and history, political and scientific, of the a^e. 
Many of his letters, and the private correspondence of 
Charles I. with Secretary Nicholas, and Clarendon with Su 
R. Browne, are subjoined to these memoirs, which were 
first printed in 1 8 1 8. (Kippis, Biog, Brit. ; Pr^ace and Ap- 
pendix to Memoirs.) 

E VERGE M, a town and commune of East Flanders^ in 
the district of Ghent, about three miles north of the citv of 
Ghent, in 51* 8' N. lat. and 3° 44' E. long. The canal of 
Sas-de-Gand, which connects Ghent with the Scheldt, parses 
Evergem, the little river Caele runs on the south of the 
town, on the south-west is the Ghent and Bruges can d. 
and on the west the Lidve, which rises in the north-ca«t 
quarter of West Flanders and joins the Bruges canal nc:^r 
Kvergem. The oopulation of the town is 7790 ; it contains 
establishments for cotton-printing and dyeing, brewene> 
distilleries, and a salt-refinery. Cotton and linen weavn^' 
give employment to many of the inhabitants. In 1$3*2 \\\c 
town contained a communal and six private schools: in \\\t 
former 67 boys and 49 girls were taught, and in the latter 
'261 boys and 211 girls. 

(Vandermaelen's Dietionnaire Geographique de la Pn> 
vinre de la Flandre Orientale.) 

EVE.RGREENS, in horticulture, are plants which sh^nl 
their old leaves in the spring or summer after the new f^!.- 
age has been formed, and which consequently are venki.t 
through all the winter season ; of this nature are the ho:i\. 
the laurel, the ilex, and many others. They form a ri^- 
siderable part of the shrubs commonly cultivated in garde n-. 
and are beautiful at all seasons of the year. 

The principal circumstances in which evergreens ph\%:>' 
logically differ from other plants are the hardnesa of thi-.> 
cuticle, the thickness of the parenchyma of their lea^i- 
and the small number of breathing iiores formed on the >t.i 
face of those organs. Tliese peculiarities, taken totrcthtr 
enable them to withstand heat and drought with more suc- 
cess than other plants, but are often not sufficient to proti'^'t 
them against such influences in excess. Hence we fina ihiut 
comparatively uncommon in those parts of the continent o 
Europe where the summers are hot and dry, and mo^t 
flourishing in a moist insular climate like our own. This^ i^ 
rendered more intelligible by a comparison of the pro{'*r- 
tions borne by their evaporating pores, or stoma tea, ai.^1 
those of deciduous plants. As far as this subject has bev:i 
investigated, it appears that their leaves are usually alto- 
gether destitute or such organs on the upper side, and th :t 
those of the lower are mostly fewer in number and muih 
less active than in deciduous plants. 

The greater part of evergreens are raised from mv<«: 
some are propagated by cuttings or layers, and the var.« - 
gated varieties by budding and grafting. The soO in vihirh 
they succeed best differs with the kinds; American ever- 
greens, such as rhododendrons, kalmias, &c., grow besr m 
equal quantities of peat earth, sand, and vegetable moiiM : 
European sorts grow in their greatest vigour in a fi^Oi 
hazelly loam, but will thrive in fumost any kind of soil. 

The operation of transplanting evergreens may be y^z 
formed with success at almost all seasons of the year. Mi.i- 
summer planting has even been recommended ; it hour* vr 
is a work of necessity rather than propriety, because it-* 
success depends entirely upon the nature of the weather 
after the operation; if it be cloudy and wet for some tiuo 
they may succeed; but if, on the contrary, it be hot ar.'i 
dry, they are sure to suffer: for this reason, if theprartic* 
may be adopted, it is not to be recommended. The com 
mon holly however has beentoften known to succeed whe: 
planted at this season, either for hedges or as single plants. 
The hollies in one very remarkable case, were careftill> du^ 
up in the cool of the evening and removed to lan^ trencher 





Andromeda arborea requires peat; grows 40 feet high in 
North America. 

Arbutus Unedo, the common strawberry tree ; of this there 
is a beautiful variety with deep red flowers, and another 
with double flowers, much less handsome than cither. 

Acacia affinis grows without protection near Edinburgh; 
dealbata, lophantha, and several other New Holland 
species, will flourish without protection in the southern 

Eucalyptus rerfoliatat pulferutenta^ exist in the open air 
near Edinburgh ; they and other species will thrive in 
the South and West of England. 

Lis^ustrum lua'dum, the wax tree, a Japanese plant. 

M:fgvotia ffrandi/iora, with many varieties; they are 
fccarcely hardy enough to live in this country away from 
the shelter of a wall, except quite in the south ; unpro- 
tected specimens exist, however, near Edinburgh. 

Shrubs or Bushes. 

Atidronieda. The handsomest species are A. Catesbtsit 
angustifolia, Mariana, which is rather tender, ptUveru- 
lento, sjieciosa^ snaijioribunda, Rc<|uire peat soiL 

Aretostaphylos Uva Ursi, a trailing plant. 

Ammyrsine Lyoni, a beautiful little American busli, re- 
quiring peat. 

Berberis aquifoliwn^ fwicicularis, repemt, Asiatica^ aristata. 

Bupleur'um /ruticosum stands the sea-breeze well upon 
chalky cliffs. . 

Cistus, all the species. They ore quite hardy if planted 
where wet cannot lo<lge in winter, and exposed to the 
full sun in summer. 

Colletia spinosa, 

Cvioncaiter microphylla and rotundtfolicu, small bushes. 

Cytisus scoparius, common broom ; there is a double va- 
riety ; alhus, the Portugal white broom. 

Duf hne. All handsome, the following the most so : Lau- 
reula, the spurge laurel, grows well beneath trees; 
pontica, with pale green fhigrant flowers ; and Cneontm, 
or Garland flower, one of the most lovely and sweetly 
perfumed p.ants in the world, but not to be cultivated 
except in a dry peaty soil and a well ventilated situation ; 
late spring frosts injure it so much that it is not worth 
cultivating in valleys. 

Duvaua dependens, and some others. 

Iirica Australisy cameo, stricta^ Mediterranea, codonodes. 

Escailonia rubra, illinito, montevidetisis, handsome South 
American shrubs. Bees take great delight in the blos- 
soms of the last ; the second species smells very strongly 
of mclilot. 

Guffya cl/iptica, with long poDdulous catkins of a yellowish 
green colour. 

Genista tinctoria^ the dyer's broom, with a few otliers. 

Ileliantficmwn of all kinds, to cover rockwork, or ground 
where the wet does not lodge in winter. 

K(dmia latifolia, angustifolia, especially the first ; require 

Lavanduia spica and latifolia, common lavender. 

Ledum latifoliuni, or Labrador tea, and palustre; low 
bushes requiring peat. 

Mtnzicsia pvlifolia or Irish heath ; there is a white variety. 

Myrtus communis, and its varieties; lives out of doors 
south of Loudon. 

Prunus Laurocerosus, the common laurel ; lusitanica^ the 
Portugal laurel. 

Pittusporum J^MrOf quite hardy south of London ; sweet- 

Rosmarinus officinalis, common rosemary. 

liliododendron. Numerous varieties are to be procured; 
those of ponticum, maximum^ and cataubiense are the 
most robust; hybridufn obtained between the Indian 
and American species is less hardy; ferruginewn and 
hirsutum, dwarf alpine species ; campanulatum, a North 
Indian species. 

tipartiwn Junceum, Spanish broom; and acutifoliumt a 
Turkish broom. 

Viburnum. Of the Laurustinus, one of the prettiest of all 

evergreens, there are three species ; F. Tinus, the oom- 

mou Lauru.-«tmus, the hardiest ; V. lucidum, with shining 

tfs, rather larger and more delicate; V, strictum, with 

upright shoots, more hairy, and the least hardy of the 

Ulex Europaus, the common furse ; a double variety, which 

is particularly handsome; and U. «/nWu#, the Irish furze, 

a smaller species, which does not flower abundantly. 
y'ucca. Several species quite hardy. They oidy require to 

be grown in places wnere water does not sta^pate to 

winter ; Y. gloriosa, JUamentosa, Draeomtfjbccidat and 

superbOf are the handsomest species. 

Twiners or Climbers. 

Bignonio capreolcUa, with duU brownish-red trampei>shaped 

flowers ; rather tender. 
Caprifoliumflexuotum, gratum, j€gxmieum, $empervir€ns ; 

all handsome honeysuckles. 
Jaxminum revolutum and officinale, the common white 

Vtnca major and minor, the larger and smaller periwinkle ; 


EVERLASTING FLOWERS. This name is popularly 
given to certain plants whose flowers have the property of 
retaining their brightness and colour for many months 
after being gathered. They owe this quality to a hardnci:> 
of their tissue, which has exceedingiv little moisture to 
part with, and which, consequently, does not collapse or 
decay in the progress of acquiring perfect dryness. It u 
gencmlly in the scales of the involucre of composite PJ^uu 
or in the bracts of others that this property resides. Tho^ 
who wish to possess such plants will easily find the following 
in the gardens of this country. 

Hardy annuals. Helicnrysum braeUatum (yellow x 
Xeranthemum annuum (purple or white). 

Hardy perennials. Antennaria dioica (pink), iripUnervis 
and margaritacea (white). Jmmobium alatwn (white). 
Gnaphalium stivcftas and arenariwn (yellow). 

Tender annuals. JRhodanthe Manglesii (redX Moma 
nitida (yellow), Gompkrena globosa (purple). 

Greenhouse shrubs or herbaceous plants. Astebna exi- 
mium (crimson), Helichrysum argenteum (white), ericoidet 
(pink), sesamoides, proli/erum, and others (purple). 

EVESHAM, a borough and market<town, having sepa- 
rate jurisdiction, locally situated in the hundred of Blaeken- 
hurst, in the county of Worcester, 15 miles south-east from 
Worcester, and 96 north-west-by-west fivm London. Eve- 
sham was formerly called ' Eovesham,' or ' Eovesholme,* an 
appellation derived from ' Eoves,' a swineherd of Etrwu 
bishop of Wiocii, who was superstitiously supposed to Iia\« 
had an interview with the Virgm Mary on this spot. It 
owes its importance to an abbey that was founded here m 
709, and deai<uited to the Virgin. 

The abbot and the convent received numerotts grants of 
land, as well as ecclesiastical and temporal privilqees from 
various kings and other benefactors. The last aobot but 
one was Clement Lichfield, who built the isolated tower, 
now almost the only relic of this once celebrated abbev 
This tower, called the Abbot's Tower, is a beautiful sptv|. 
men of the pomted architecture of the period immedi^u*!)* 
7>receding tne Reformation it is supported by pandU-I 
buttresses, adorned with windows having rich ogee m'.'ulci 
iugs, and sunnoimtcd by open embattled pampcts and i i^Ir. 
pinnacles. It was originnlly intcndtxl fur a campanile. t>> 
which purpose it was converted in 1745. The tower isi 1 i>i 
feet in height, and is 22 feet square at the base. 

A battle was fisught near Evesham on the 4th of August. 
1265, between Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.) snd 
Simon Montfort, earl of Leicester. Leicester placed King 
Henry III., whom he had made prisoner, in the van of Im 
army, hoping that he might be killed by his eon's tioopv 
who were figntiug for his release. However* the king was 
recognised nearly at the first onset by the prince, who 
rushed through the thickest of the battle to the asstslame 
of his Either, and soon placed him in safety. Leioester's 
defeat was complete, and he himself, as well as his son, fell 
in the field of battle. 

The corporation claim prescriptive rights and privilege^ 
but they were all confirmed by charter in the M year o( 
the reign of James I. They had the power of tiytng and 
executing for all capital offences, except high treason ; and 
as late as 1 740 a woman was burnt for petty treason. A 
court of record is held every Tuesday for the recovery uf 
debts to 100/. ; a court of session is also held for the bo^ou^h 
on the Friday after the county quarter-sessions. The bo- 
rough returned two members to parliament in the 23nl of 

• 1 



i^^r^ i/a»*r i. a. ir lu? ^ ii ii*r».. n, t »!• *jiar*«rt 
•:.-' "./» 'a'Ti^ -^^ r-'"*^ n.-fim ir,'i»rr*»rt « m niv>ran^*i*Tir. 
w. '^ iT -••*•■* '•-•' ••^ '-'^^ ,-*..- ^ utrnpnr n \:i* tani^ n 
r. /-i V • •^-4-u.r.*^ ^" 1* irt-aj». .•« n r fU^^r:i I.*- 
tr ««7-*.;;*f lira. «;a.u ii .li» r;iu ^ nu r-»-^ irt Ji» .^*^ H 

t .- im-- »n « u-w^ t*>':^.f u» Vm. *-:.i:n:. :»•'!, i.i'l fiia*. :i* 

*. '-^rui^.i »r ^.' ^ 't\ !*► «;i!i"«»ir -^fi***".*"* '.lar i'ii*i 

9 -^n Wot *r^n *.••! n i:v.' . : .-»^.'it»"' jr**"'?^' -^ ji 

• ...-1 wvi- *!* •n.A. * '» »r' »*i I* '** '.'"1. V:i*.ni«.n'» j 

• •»^ *►' v*^n •*• ;*.-#-* T '.»• *.».'••*•' .f i".***"-.! Tn'aili-iT "tv 
' *► •- '.1 'u\n ;»» «« 1 '-r: .'.- • . . / •' ii-n **#;' ¥•«•: :iar:.rai 
'» -.*•'«••. *r »•■***' v !»•.»>•* .-J* »^ ZuT i:f;mj*»» 17 me 
♦••.«'. u-* .♦•< v ♦«• .' :.•' T : .• • ir» "., •*» \i*r'f\t*fi h« •'« 
;.-• » .!*► !*► 'i *• •/ < i'»-.f^ .LIT •.'.»? ;-.».tf-i n •»!* ta.ue 

.1' 'ii» '^r^riM if t.if.TT-nt --iir* »r r^^te*! by having the 
tK^i 1^ 1 *i*:i ▼'ji txzM 'ViX *ii 'hfTX. Sworn copies art 
.-I.:*-— orj x.v'-it ." ... u :u-.« »"*ii iuth«nticate ihem 
i-j'.a Kft-a. V ien 'Uf* ir-s .i-i*i*»*^ ji erdeik'e. GlLce 
-■nrtu ir» ♦-.• 't*« -»r'.;I«^t ■» w "~ie inii vrunte br an 
iff.i*^ ^-i.-.r^^t" •.iir;-'.-'i '»r Ma: j:.-?* -<s b» »a officvr '»f 
'lie V »i.- .. ¥ i.'-n .1*? r-r* - ia >:• ^4. C>artisn and dL*c4» 
ir» -J-.-**?! "p* •*.:•» Tr- ft.u- n if '::»f .n»«ri'n«»'t aixi pror>f 
:f 't? *-tAr-:- . fi .v •!,• larr m '■;♦• 'lAryM '•ith it; J>ui 
▼ irfT* '.^ 1. ,*•.:! :i»*n: ** p* laa i..*t j*^.-^ il»l, the e\c- 
"I'l.a ii**^ "uir V I'-.'-.^L r':e p*n»t il rile w that the 
v-<»- :a. £tt^ 31 LtT le i^*i u'^i/l. '•: :~e prrn'^ple alrea'l? 
I.. : ii^ ',y .f r4 jteii^ ^« nr^r r"* flt'^*»T»: *:•-.! ihi* is *iiUieoi 

— t W:.ere :: haa been lo-t or 

'^ JI 


m of 

psi.t? M a ,5i^ wu.:* viDm j a s« -i^'i: t. be produrvJ. 

1. iri» T J3. K 'her .f «h:rb cases xw^ 

"se 5. •!.:»! if «ir 1 t. 


.* 4 'A-t*»i fr>m r."U5 


?;•*.* « >-•••*./ I 5*.', ^»» >*»r -^ if'V** f .f r. i-ir. 3e 

4, •'I */ v.'.-n '.w V 


Tr-i-, a -; 



I- » V ;•»* v»-«<.n v.:i'. a v. -.v. .r •» * .*>•••, -v.ien ne h 

.♦ >. •/♦ .*•' i-jr, '^ */.* */^f *-iij>-*»i^ r.. or*'* .■'^?^ l-n]^ii.'*^ri 

• - ■• .♦ v/. f./'*'»*- 'rf, V. '.^ ».".'> r«f/ryi i3 r..<^ ..r.r.^ ihit ill 
^ •- .'>'^A »*. ^.". ^ft '/^ y.7»"i .p^.r. *r.*i fart .n d.-^r .> 

»• •. '. •/* ^-A x^ , kx, f.r ..'.iU.'/'*i, *f Xz.*^T^ arc ♦^i^^ral 

• 1 • • / » ".'.'Tw^r* I// a 'i'^ '/f ot.viT rr,r,:rvi^ iz lA r^A 

*.•-! -m v«\'.v,f. ,, •»%.♦•& j» a t'af;*".t on ria;h of what an 
4-VA- ♦ j^-v.f. L>«< ta/i fe<;<*:*^*...^ a fai.t Xtt be prr.ed, », in 
/'',.«T*I et'. yl^d ftr,*r. ofi *he zr^urA tnat the w;rneM to 

• #^ */- ,*: f4.*t ^^^ Tff^. 'l^*? h.« \u,'%\«:\'^9t upon oath, 
*- < *,«^/ •>»*'a ««e be >« av^.'it fr^m the T''M?i-eiain. nation of 
fr,*r prtf »ry> ^* t/^ f^e aff*'*!*e'l hy wr*at he *Ut/-i. To this 
ft r^/»^r*T, t>*er% are the folliW.riSj eTrep'ion^ :— I. Tnc 
'l/'!«r«V/f,« of ^rvyfM wV> ^rc m dar.zer and 
•*?,'j*'r li,e apf«reNer*4i/in of vakxnt^AUi death, and Wr*o are 
f/,*'r^f'/f* t^^,nA*ifts4 I0 be %\/^)l:ii^ und^r a.4 powerful a 
f*' <.'/ j» iwif#<*)//fi aA the ohLf^ation of an oath ; 2. The de- 
*\it*' 'fU% of d'T'^^.-a^ted perv^n*, and mvle against their 
i;.>f»r«t; a*, for ir.^Unre, char;firijj themv^Uet with the 
r*'*''.j#1 '/f r/ion<^ on a^-^'ount of th.rd p*T»r,r.4, or acknow- 
l^Ij(.f.|f the (/?i)rn«;nt of roon«;y due to lhem^e'.\w; 3. The 
d'j- Uf^iutXi of d^r'-e M^d p*:r*/m* re^p^rcting rig}it<4 of a public 
r»ii« r*", »ijAh a< the Iki lindanes or K'-^'^ral customs of a 
rrnfior 'ft diUnH ; 4. Th»*; de^liratiorift of dect^a^ed peri^ons 
on f\y^*'%tjtu% Iff \i**A\';[T*-e. or fa mil) orrurrcnres of antient 
dit«' licfore the tnt^uiory of livm^^ witn»--M;% «urh aA births, 
dMfh*, Of marriag^M. With r<-^p;rMo tlie two lA>t excep- 
ItofM. hfri0>t:\*rT, evidence of declarati<;n4 of thi^ kind is in- 
adfni**iJil#-, if th«7 ha\e In^m made />'/♦/ lifrfm mot am, that 
1%. afc*^ the matter to which th^-y rilatc has bwome the 
•iiSj«vt of litit('tt|//n. 

in. H'nttfn fVtfUnr^ ennmntn ff recffriU, dorumefits 
utider 9^at, iit rhnrt^m and deedi, and trritmfrjt not under 
f^'iA— Art* of jrtirliamfnt are rciords of the highest nature, 
h'MhK th« m<*rnoriaU of the U^islature; but a diitinrtion is 
tnn'Ui «ith re^jMTt toevid<nre between public and private 
•^. A public statute re'^uires no express proof in 
r/iift* of ju»tir«^ «?\cfy one beinj; presumed to know the law 
nliirh ho H bound to ob-er^e; an to t hem, therefore, the 
ri fall. in of the »tntute itM-lf 1% in all rases sufficient But 
tifiNalc oris of iiarhatneni are ronsidered as doeuments re- 
InimK to individuul«,ttnd must therefore be proved byeopies 
rom[»ari'd with the on^iiml r«»ll of parliament. A* second 
afid jiifrnar ^pe^jei of records is the proceedings of courts 
of ju»lii«, which are prou'd by exemplifications, svorn 

<wTtea"i It* :ne iyi^nenr ziav Se -r^-^^ by a copy, or if n • 
V.':'' *i->*A. Z9 ,ru 'ejjT m- cv I> — ?' artei»ted mu<>t. i . 
j«»r:en^ le 3r-:'"*ft "JV >(ie it jtsA»z f 'ii.* »i.b*cribing wr- 
I'lr ./ :^»» iTTi^r.n^ T.: :e— ses be kid, or are n •: r.i 
■rri sear =. .r 1.-* infimros, or for ; uv 
jf^KT rea^^c ji«»'.'::pK'e^: ';% 'jtt '•; z.'e e'. :dencc, the c\'-'- 
r;*i,»i :f •::e ie^i 31-i ':e *" *'trd "^j pr-* f of the l'.^'. i 
f-r.r.x f 'zii pafT T"-*? rr '.t .f hand- writing. h\ tlv 
laTf .f £'x-i.'.'i- ■* ;•»*••.* ar. T'i*»*'^»'.r:i d> .jf jt-rsjiu ^Kll! • i 
... ha.-'i-Tr.'' zz j* f" i-j •": * -•t»ed, «* rapir^v^n of h.ii. - 
'':e:-z j:,ii:.i.--. > 5 r l:e ^.r:-**" The course ia tin* 1 
wy.^^-^ i**r. *i..i'::-i TT.-h 'ie ir.-i..^z of the individual .. 
• c, ar.'i v:>i h-ii -h^!! '^ -". -vrTre, or who has had a 
vr.**.*'! -tirr-i-ipi.-ien'-e ▼.:*:! him «hill testify to bis h:\ >.: 
izi* 'ijf d c':-i*if.t M be zr • id > ir. his hand-writing. 

F.'-.'-a h-i i.".. ^"i -.-iz-u-i-y f I'.e principal rule* ««f cv. 
d»rr.refT .«^*.-4 Ln *h-? Ei^ -h. Iit it w.Il l>e obser^^ed rl •' 
•he 4.-',r.i ^^ p wdi'tlv c\ 1--L.e. Up n the subje^-t >\ 
ir.*er«5>.»i<i ■jr;Tr.»*^Ae^, 'r.e Ut .i.*-- r. :t rr.ere'.y caution aiid u 
-^Tr.*^ f^t:f 13' :::.: -.f e7«?»t:: ': be grrtrn, bat enlirtdy r»j 
•hea fr.d >- :z h^iiji Trljer«cver a p^rcuniarr interest 
:he r^:^'-!: -.f -he ri^»e, b. TeT^er >mall, is *hown to < .\. '. 
So al*«> v.'h respect M the rx^-fpti <n of secondary and Iv : 
sav rv.-inn-^rf. it -aLCocs no de^iree •■»r kind of testim :n ' 
ieeor.d-har.d 'e\cept m tLe ca.*e^ abo\e enmnermte<lK ^ ' 
e-t'i'-.dr-« it ur.ler a J nne'ies of cinrj in stances. Tha* '' . 
**arer*»ent of an in teres led person is always to be rete: • c2diMjiL. cfien "xith s'.>|.ic; n. and of^en with d.J^^«.[ • 
may be admit*ed : that ir sh«mld be always* percn* >- 
tor/.y rejected as unworthy to be heard is a different t\ 
much more questionable prop«>sit:cn. Again, it is true t. — 
we ought not to attach so much weizht to hearsay eVid.: 
as to direct testim :ny, because it is beyond all doubt t\.' 
the certainty of obtaicing the truih is diminished, and li. : 
the means and cau^e* of erp:fr are multiplied, in prop rt. r. 
as you remove from the actual observer and add hiik> f ' 
the chain of te^tiinvtuv. ' Anv teslimonv,* says Mr. L •£.«.•. 
in his chapter on the Degrees of Assent, 'the further «»ff •: 
is from the being and existence of the thing itself, the I-.~> 
force and proof it has. A credible man vouching hiskiR •• 
ledge of it is a good proof: but if another, equally cred >/ . 
do witness it from his report, the testimony is weaker ; an'j 
a third that attests the hearsay of an hearsay is yet Un« 
consideralde. So that, in traditional truths, each rem %. 
weakens the force of the priwf; and the more hands the ♦: 
dition has necessarily pas>ed throui^li, the less strength i..I 
evidence does it recei\a-froui them.^ Admitting the jb^t- i 
of this objection to the effect of hearsay e\*idence, it n n 
still be questioned whether its absolute and uncondit: . 
rejection for judicial purposes is justifiable. So a1^o v ;, 
resjiert to the Tiiode of provini^ hand- writing, it mt^ht ?♦* 
unsafe wholly to rely upon the evidence of comparLi^ 'ii ; 
hands by persons of experience in that occupation, l* * 
there seems no good reason why such proof should not *« 
admissible in aid of the present vague and unsatisfac 
mode of proof by the general belief of a witness. 

The most plausible reason for the e.xclusiveness of \\ - 
English law of evidence is derived from the nature of .^ 
trial by jury, with reference to which it is contended to U 
safer to withdraw doubtful evidence altogether from tl < . - 
eoukideration, than to leave it to. persons who are often . 
instructed, and incapable of drawing correct distinct! .• 
upon the subject of testimony to form a proper e.<timate ••* 
its credibility. But this reason is fninded upon an as«un >- 
lion not just it: ed by the fact, namely, that the aeftn> t 

E V J 


I V I 

proof «BtiMlly legalised are infallible guides to truth ; 
whereas, the truth is that many of them are quite as liable 
to Usd to a false conclusion a^ those which are excluded. 
In this state of things, therelbre» there seems no good rea- 
son why all practicable means of attaining to truth, however 
various in their dejrrees of effectiveness, should not be com- 
mitled to juries. This seems indeed to be the growing im- 
pression in the profession ; the inclination of the courts of 
late years being to let in as much light to a cause as pos- 
siblei and to regard objections to evidence rather as matters 
ni credibility upon which juries may exercise their judg- 
ment, than of competency to be wholly withdrawn fh)m their 

In the article Equity a reference is made to the present 
licud of EviDSNCB, and we shall accordingly brietly state 
(he manner of ascertaining facts in courts of equity, which 
dillers from the pi^^tice in courts of law, where the witnesses 
are produced and examined orally before the court. 

W ituesses in proceedings in equity are examined upon 
Tfritten in ler rogatories before the examiner of the court or 
before commissioners in the C4>untry, both examiner and 
commissioners being sworn to secrecy. The answers of the 
tritnesses to these written interrogatories, or their deposi- 
tions, as they are called, are taken down in writing, and 
form the only evidence for the plaintiff and defendant (ex- 
cept the defendant's answer, if the plaintiff chooee to a^^ail 
himself of it), which is admitted at the hearing; of a cause.* 
The interrogatories are drawn by counsel, according to the 
instructions which he receives as to the fiicts which a wit- 
ness is considered able to prove ; but it frequently happens 
that the instructions are very defective, ana the counsel is 
obliged to frame his interrogatories as well as he can, in 
order to elicit the proof of facts favourable to the party for 
vhom he is employed. Though each several interrogatory, 
when well drawn, is framed for the purpose of establishing 
some single and distinct fact, written interrogatories cannot 
from their nature be otherwise than long and somewhat 
diHicult to comprehend. In the oral examination of a wit- 
ness, it necessarily happens that several questions must be 
asked consecutively for the purpose of completing the in- 
reitigation into and the establisnment of every important 
fact to which the examination is directed. Written inter- 
rogatories must be framed on the same principle, and there- 
fore every subsequent part of an interrogatory must be 
frjmcd on the supposition of every previous part being an- 
swered in some way ; and consequently, it is hardly possible 
in written interrogatories to avoid what is called making 
ihem leading, and at the same verbose and cumbrous. 
These long interrogatories, it is proved by experienre, are 
ofien imperfectly comprehended by the witnesses, and con- 
&e(|uenily their evidence is to some intents either incom- 
plete or inaccurate, or both. The interrogatories which 
cither party proposes to his witnesses are not known to the 
adrorse party until the examination of all the witnesses on 
both sides is concluded, when publication is passed, as it is 
termed, and copies of all the depositions are delivered to 
the litigating parties under an order of the court 

Under this system, there is of course no cross-examina- 
tion, in the proper sense of the term ; for one party does 
not know what the witnesses examined by the opposite party 
have deposed, and cannot therefore effectually examine 
them, as in a court of common law, where the cross-exami- 
nation of a witness fbllows and is founded upon what the 
witness has stated in his examination in chief. If a party 
to a suit in chancery will cross-examine a witness who is 
produced by his adversary for examination, he must examine 
him on written interrogatories, without knowing what in- 
terrogatories have been proposed to him bv the opposite 
party, and without knowing what he has said in his deposi- 
nous in chief. Such a cross-examination must be in general 
altogether useless, and often danzerous to the interest of 
the party making it ; unless his object is to ascertain that 
the witness is an incomuetent witness, or unless the witness 
is one whom he would himself have examined in chief 
Under the 33nd Order of the 21st of December, 1833. the 
last interrogatory before that date commonly in use is in 
Aiture to be altered as follows : ' Do you know or can you 
■et fiirth any other matter or thing which may be of benefit 
or advantage to the parties at issue in this cause, or either 
of them ?" Sec. A party however is not bound to insert 

* Tht •MeQtbm pf wriUpn inttramfnts, not ^lU, mny be proved at the 
|eafaf Vy *tt •ttetting wltnew ; or where thv iTmmnient i* not att<><ited, the 
SBd-wtittttx of ike fartf mwy 1m* «o proved altu. 

this interrogatory ; an4 indeed no great harm wiH result if 
it is never used. Owing to various causes, such as disincli- 
nation on the part of a witness to eive himself further 
trouble, particular affection to one of the litigating partiee, 
or forgetfulness, it might have been anticipated that thi« 
general interrogatory would fail in its object ; and so fiir ai 
it has been used, such is said to be the case. 

This mode of ascertaining fkcts in suits in equity is evi- 
dently very defective, and has been the subject of consider- 
able complaint and of lengthened inquiry; but hitbertp 
nothing has been done to amend the svstem. 

(See Minutes qf Evidence taken otfore the Chancery 
Commissioners, annexed to their Report (|/* 1826; and a 
recent pamphlet (1837) by W. A. Garratt, entitled Sugges- 
tions/or Reform in Proceedings in Chcpicery.) 

Those who may be inclined to follow this subject further 
will find it discussed at ^reat length and with much acute- 
ness in Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence. The 
full development of the English law of evidence is con- 
tained in the treatises of Mr. Phillipps and Mr. Starkie. 

EVIL EYE. It was an antient "superstition that certain 
persons were endued with the power of iinuring those on 
whom they cast a hostile or envious look. The eyes of such 
persons were supposed to dart noxious rays on every object 
on which they were fixed. This power of injuring with 
the eye was called Bascania (BavKavla) by the Greeks, and 
FascinahQ by the Romans. Several writers who have 
collected the testimonies of the antients concerning it (as 
Potter, Archteologia Gr^cii, lib. il c. xviii., and Alsarius, 
'de Fascino,' Qrmvii Antiq. Rom., torn. xii. p. 885), may be 
consulted for particulars. Those who enjoyed great pros- 
perity, or met with any extraordinary good fortune, and such 
as were too much elated by praise and flattery, were mere 
particularly liable to the eflfects of ' fascination. Hence 
when the Romans praised any thin^ or person, they used 
to add, PraJIscini or Pr^fisdne dtxerim, to avert any 
fascination that might ensue, and to prove that their praise 
was sincere. 

It is remarkable fhat the same superstition prevails to 
the present day in several parts of the world, even in the 
northern part of our island, and in Ireland. In Greece it 
is at present called kako mati {koko ftany, and its effects are 
averted by spitting, in the same manner as was practised 
by the antients a^sainst fascination (Theocr., Idyl. vi. 39) 
and ill omens of every kind. In Italy it is called mal* 
occhio, and among the lower orders of people its effects are 
supposed to be very powerful and fatal When praise is 
bestowed on beauty, riches, or any other advantages, the 
person praised immediately exclaims, 'se mal-occnio non 
vi fosse, from an apprehension that the praise may not be 
sincere, but proceeds solely &om a maUcious intention to 
injure. This exclamation is accompanied with a sipn ol 
the hand, or by holding up pieces of coral, shells, or various 
kinds of stones worn as amulets. 

The belief in fascination is extremely antient, and in the 
opinion of some is connected with the story of Medusa and 
the Gorgons, whose eyes caused immediate destruction. 
From this source the superstition of the evil eye is probably 

Virgil alludes to this superstition in his third Eclogue : — 

' Nescio qoU tenenw ochIii^ mlhl ftuoinat egaoe.' 

Scot, in his ' Discovery of Witchcraft,' has one or two 
passages relating to it He says, p. 35, *The Irishmen 
aflflrm that not only their children, but their oattle are (as 
they call it) eye-bitten when theyfall suddenly sick.' It is 
likewise mentioned in Martin's 'Description of the Western 
Islands of Scotland,' in Heron's * Journey,' vol. ii. p. 228, 
and in several volumes of the ' Statistical Account of Scot* 
land,' as still believed there. 

* Nothing,' says Dallaway, in his 'Account of Constanti- 
nople,' 4to. Lend. 1797, p. 391, ' can exceed the superstition 
of the Turks respecting the Evil Eye of an enemy or 
infidel. Passages from the Koran are painted on the outside 
of the houses, globes of glass are suspended from the 
ceilings, and a part of the superfluous caparison of their 
horses is designed to attract attention, and divert a sinister 

(MiUingen*s Observations on an Antique Bas-reUtf, on 
which the Evil Eye, or Fa^dnum^ %$, represented i 
Archceolog^ vol. xix. p. 70—74; Brands Popidor 
tiquities, 4to. edit. vol. ii. p. 400—4^^3 ) 

EVIL, KING'S. [Scrofula.] 

EVILMERODACH. [Babyloji, Histo»v.) 



E V O 

EVOLUTE. riinroLtrra and Evolutb.] 

EVOLUTION. Pnvolution and Evolution.] 

EVOLUTIONS, MILITARY, are the movements made 
by any body of troops either acting by itself or in conjunc- 
tion with other bodies, for the purpose of arriving at or of 
retiring from a field of battle, or of placing itself in a 
position to act offensively or defensively against an enemy. 

The circumstances attending the great movements of 
armies along their lines of communication, and the dispo- 
sitions of the troops on the field of battle, are developed 
under the words Stratboy and Tactics. The present 
article will therefore comprehend merely a description of 
the manner in which the principal evolutions of a battalion 
of infantry, a regiment of cavalry, and an entire army, are 
performed ; and will conclude with a short account of the 
movements of light troops in the field. 

Evolutions of a Battalion. — When a battalion formed in 
line has to march in that order towards the front or rear, 
in order to ensure exactness in the movement three direct- 
ing Serjeants post themselves a little way in front of the 
centre of the line, and observing some object in the required 
direction, they advance directly towards it, the battalion 
following and keeping itself perpendicular to the line of 
march. While the battalion is thus moving in line, the 
two Hanked companies are wheeled backwards, and made 
to march in files perpendicularly to the line of the bat- 
talion, in order to cover it ; and on a halt being ordered, 
they face towards the enemy. 

This order of march can of course only take place where 
the country is open ; when partial obstacles occur, the troops 
near them necessarily form in file till they have passed them, 
and afterwards they wheel into the line ; but when the 
obstacles are of great extent, and occur frenuently, it is 
evident that the march of the battalion snould be in 

Columns formed for this purpose are designated columns 
of companies, of subdivisions, and of sections, according 
as their breadths, or the extent of their front, is equal to 
that of a whole, a half, or any portion of a company ; and 
they are said to be at open order, at half, or at quarter 
distance, according as the inter^'als between the companies 
cr their divisions are equal to the whole, to one-half, or to 
one-quarter of the breadth of the column. The order is 
said to be close when the several divisions are at the 
distance of one pace only from each other in the length of 
the column. 

The wheel from line into column, and the converse, 
when the battalion is at a halt, must obviously be performed 
by cau.'iing the divisions to describe a quarter of a circle on 
their respective pivots. But when a battalion in column is 
on the march, and it is required to change the route, 
should the divisions be at the full distances from each other, 
that is, at intervals equal to the length of a division, it is 
necessary that the first division, after having described on 
ils pivot an angle equal to that which the new direction is 
to make with the furmer, should march forward as soon as 
the wheeling pivot of the next division has arrived at the 
like pivot of the first division : the second division then 
wheels and marches in like manner, and so on. The same 
rule may be followed when the divisions are at less than 
full distance, provided the anglo which the intended 
direction of march makes with the former is sufficiently 
obtuse to allow the divisions to describe the required angle 
without interfenng with one another, otherwise the wheeUng 
must be made by parts; the first division describing a 
portion of the angle corresponding to the required change of 
direction, then marching forward a few paces, and complet- 
ing the wheel, the other divisions doing the same in pro- 
Sortion as they arrive at the ground where the preceaing 
ivision performed the evolution. The wheelings may be 
made upon either extremity of a company or subdivision, 
and they may take place either forward or backward, ac- 
cording to circumstances ; occasionally also a company is 
required to perform a wheel upon its centre, in which case 
one-half wheels backward, anci the other half forward ; but 
in all eases the wheeling pivots are to remain dressed, or in 
one line. 

When a battalion is formed into a column for the pur- 
poee of an attack, it is called a column of mancBuvre ; and 
when 10 formed in order to move along a road or through a 
defile^ a column of route. In either case the column mry 
be m open order, at half, or at quarter distance, or in dose 
order; and in the flnt formation the column of course 

occupies in lensth an extent of ground ecpudtothat wkieh 
it occupies in line, minus the length of the flnt division. 
Columns at half, or at quarter distanee, or at dose order. 
have the convenience of moving upon Veu space than the 
open column, with equal capacity of forming in any 
manner that may be required for resisting an attack ; and 
their compact order enaoles them to avoid the evils attend- 
ing tlie loss of distances which may occur with an oprn 
column, from the inequalities of the ground. 

The battalion in line may be formed into a tingle or 
double column : the former upon or in rear of either llanl 
company, and the latter upon the two centre companies or 
the two centre subdivisions. In either case the eolnmn u 
equally fit for its purpose, and the preference of one to !{.«- 
other must depend upon the ground or upon the point ru 
which the movement is to be directed : the ainsle columo, 
however, can always be diminished to the smauest degree, 
according to the breadth of the defile ; whereas the double 
column, if much diminished, may be in danger of beeominf 
disordered bv the intermixture of the files. For an attar k. 
the column formed on the centre of a battalion ean be rourr 
rapidly brought to bear upon the required point than t 
column formed on one of the wings, seeing that the dm- 
sions in line have but half the distance to march through 
in order to arrive at their places in the column, and a cor- 
responding advantage is ci^joyed when the battalion has (•• 
deploy from column into line. 

It is to be observed that the front of a column shouM 
never be unnecessarily contracted, and battalions should Im* 
so instructed as to render it indifferent whether the fir>t or 
second rank is in front, or whether the right or leA flat '% 
division (of the line) is at the head of the column ; but 'm-. 
casions may occur in which the order of battle is to b • 
reversed, and then the divisions must necessarily cbanct 
their positions by countermarching. 

A battalion in column at open order is formed in line ) \ 
merely causing the divisions to wheel upon their respect i\r 
pivots ; but a close column of companies, having its head 
already in the aligneraent, is deployed by causing the «v 
veral divisions to move out by files to the right or lefi 
parallel to the alignement ; each division having got beyotnl 
that which was in front of it halts, and then marehea up t<> 
its place in the line. The deployment may take place upon 
any one of the companies, which then remains at reat. 

Echellon movements are performed when it it requirvd 
to advance or retreat obliquely, and when a eliang^ is to be 
made in the position of a line, corresponding to a wiieel vf 
the whole about some given point: the movements are 
made to the front when an enemy's flank is to be turned. 
and to the rear when it is required to cover the flank of the 
line itself. Echellon movements are the safest that can U* 
adopted by troops in presence of the enemy, as they haw 
the nd vantage of preserving a general front durins: th(> 
march. A direct echellon, as it is called, may be formotl 
by the diflVreiit companies or subdivisions marching fron. 
their position in the line towards the front or rear, ketrpmir 
perallel to that position, and halting successively when ar- 
rived at the required distances. The oblique echellon i^ 
formed by causing the different companies or sub(livi$tnr« 
to make a wheel upon their pivots through any an^le I * ^ 
than a right angle, but generally not more tlian one eighth •>: 
It ; the parallelism of the divisions being ensured by cauM*:.:: 
a non-commissioned officer of each division to plaee him^ -if. 
as the case may require, before or behind some gi^en tile. 
suppose the eighth, from the pivot, and to take a given nun 
her of paces on an arc of whicn that pivot is the centre : thv 
division is then to wheel up to the place where he baits. 

An important evolution of a battalion is that of pbr-.n^ 
itself in a square or oblong form, with the men on the fyjr 
sides facing outwanls, so as to be enabled to resiftt aa 
enemy who mav attempt to surround them. This figure i» 
always formed hollow, or so as to enclose a space in which 
baggage or treasure may be placed for security ; if other- 
wise, it is evident that great numbers of the men would b« 
useless, since they could not use their fire-arms. 

When a battalion in line is to form a hollow square. ih» 
manoBuvre may take place upon any given oompanv, cr 
upon one formed of the two contiguous subdivisions as twii 
ooinpanies, which then for the moment remain at i«4 . 
while the other companies break out of the line and nsarrh. 
some to the front and some to the rear of the troope wW 
are stationary, so as to form with them a eolnmn of cefls- 
panies at quarter distance. The second diTision ia tb* 

B V O 


E V O 

floliimn doset up to Uie first, and these two fonn the firont 
of ibe square ; the two rear diviaions then face outwards, 
the last but one cloees up to the last, and these two form 
the rear of the square. The remaining divisions wheel 
outwuds, and eonstitute the two sides of the square or oh- 
long, which is thus formed four deep. If the square is to 
resist an attack of cavalry, the two front ranks kneel and 
slope their firelocks outwards till, at the word of command, 
they fire a ToUey : the men in the two standing ranks fire 
by files, or independently of one another. It is said that 
Bonaparte, while in £g>'pt, fi)rmed his infantry in squares 
whose sides were six ranks deep, in order to resist the 
Msmeluke cavalry. 

When several battalions fonn themselves into squares, 
thev dispose themselves either en echcllon or in two lines, 
each square in the first line being at some distance in front 
of the interval between two squares in the second line ; by 
which means the fire of one square may defend the face of 

Squares mav be reduced to columns, and these to line, 
by reversing the processes above mentioned. One sauare 
consisting of several battalions is not recommended, as 
much time would be spent in its formation, and the safety 
of the troops might be endangered should they be attacked 
while so occupied. 

A battalion in column may be obliged to engage in a 
street or narrow pass where deployment is impossible. In 
this GBse, if the column is advancing, the two front com- 
psnies or dtvisfions fire, the first kneeling and the other 
standing ; after which, on a &vou{able occasion presenting 
itself, the whole column moves forward : if the column is 
to retire, the first division, after firing, faces outwards, half 
to tiie right and half to Jthe left ; these subdivisions file 
sway to the rear, where they re>load ; the second division 
fires, then files to the rear in like manner, and so on. 

Evolutions qf a Regiment of Cavalry, — The movements 
of cavalry on a field of battle, like those of infantry, consist 
of marches to the front or rear, in line or en echellon ; 
deploying from open or close columns into line^ and the 

If it be required to form a line for attack from an open 
column of divisions upon any particular dinsion, those divi- 
sions which are in front make a wheel forward equal to 
three-eighths of a circle, and those which are in rear wheel 
forward one-eighth ; all the divisions being thus parallel to 
each other, they march in this order up to the alignement 
on the division which remained stationary, wheeling into it 
as they arrive. On the contrary, if the column be in retreat, 
snd it be required to form a line on the defensive from an 
open column of divisions, suppose on the first division of 
the first or leading squadron, all the divisions are to make a 
wheel equal to one-eighth of a circle, and in this order 
march up and wheel into the alignement. It must be ob- 
lerved that the line first formed in these cases is to be at 
the distance of two horses' length in rear of the intended 
alignement, in order to allow the oillcers in front of each 
squadron to dress the troops, which they can do more 
correctly than the ofiicers of divisions who are in the line 

To deploy in line to the front from a close column of 
squadrons for an attack, suppose on the second squadron ; 
all the squadrons except this break into divisions by threes, 
IS it is called (that is into divisions consisting of three 
horses in each of the two lines) ; the di\isions of the first 
squadron wheel a quarter circle to the right, and march in 
that order till they get beyond the squadron on which the 
hneis to be formed; the third and fourth squadrons also 
break into divisions in like manner, wheeling to the left, 
aad till they get opposite their respective places 
ia the intended line, which is supposed to be in front of the 
ground occupied by the first squadron, and into this line 
sU the squaorons now march. But if the line be required 
to be formed on the rear of the regiment when in retreat, 
for the purpose of defence, suppose on the fourth squadron, 
this squadron must then change its front by a counter- 
nareh, the others break into divisions, wheel a quarter 
circle, and march to the left till they come opposite their 
proper places in the intended alignement, into which they 
then march as before. 

The evolutions are made as above stated when the regi- 
ment is in column with its right in front; but it is easy to 
apriiy the precepts to the contrary case. 

The reason why the squadrons are mad6 t6 break into 
P. C. No. 608. 

divisions by ttirees is that, since the breadth of three horses 
is about equal to the length of one, each division of three 
can wheel within a space equal to that which it occupies in 
line : the practice however has been objected to on account 
of the extension of the files which is produced when march- 
ing in this order. Movements by the usual divisions or 
sub-divisions have been preferried on this account, but the 
former method prevails. 

Evolutions qf an Army. — ^The general principles upon 
which the evolutions of armies, divisions, or brigades are 
performed, correspond nearly to those of single battalions, 
when a whole line has to advance parallel to itself, one of 
the battalions is considered as the regulator, and all the 
others should conform to its movements. The commander 
of this battalion must therefore devote his whole attention 
to the preservation of the direction which has been indi- 
cated by the general commanding the army, while the 
fiank officers of the other battalions must endeavour to pre- 
serve the regularity of their own battalions by the line of 
the colours. 

Columns of route or manoBUvre are formed of any number 
of battalions, each in column of companies or of sub-divi- 
sions, in rear of one another ; and if the columns are at 
close order, the interval between every two battalions is 
only six paces, or the same as if all the troops were drawn 
up in line. If the distances of the companies are equal to 
one quarter of the length of their front, the intervals be- 
tween the battalions are twelve paces ; but when the co- 
lumns are at open order, the intervals of the battalions 
should be equal to the breadth of the column, together with 
the six paces which should be the intervals between the 
battalions in line. Such columns as the last can instantly 
be thrown into line by each company making simply a 
wheel on its proper pivot. When one general column is 
required to form into what is called a line of columns, the 
heads of all the columns must be placed in one alignement, 
but the distances of the several columns from one another 
in the direction of the line may, according to circumstances, 
be of any extent, from six paces (in which case the columns 
are said to be contiguous), to the proper distance for de- 
ployment, that is, a distance equal to the length of a 

A column whose divisions are either at quarter distance 
from each other, or in close order, can always wheel into a 
line of columns, because each battalion, in performing the 
wheel, leaves room for the wheel of that which is in its rear; 
but a line of contiguous columns, when the depth of each 
battalion exceeds the extent of its fh)nt, cannot for want of 
room be wheeled into a single column. When such a 
manoeuvre becomes necessary, the line of columns must 
open out to the right or left far enough to allow the wheel 
to be performed. When a line of columns is required to be 
changed into one column, for the purpose of performing a 
march towards either fiank, the most convenient disposi- 
tion would be that in which all the columns in the line 
stand with their right wings in f^ont, if it is intended that 
the march should be towards the right ; and the contrary, 
if it is to be towards the left, for then a simple wheel to the 
front brings the divisions into the alignement in their pro- 
per order. 

When a column is on a march, the baggage should be in 
the rear; or if, on any account, it is placed within the line, 
it should be, together with the artillery which accompanies 
the column, in the intervals between brigades, and never 
between the battalions of a brigade. The preservation of 
the original extent of a column in front is of importance, 
and defiling, in order to pass an obstacle, should be avoided 
if possible, on account of the loss of time which it occasions 
in fact, it will frequently happen that, on arriving at a 
stream, a ditch, or a bank, the obstacle will be more con- 
veniently passed by extending than by contracting the 

Echellon movements of an army are almost always those 
which are made when in presence of the enemy, the ine- 
qualities of ground generallv preventing large bodies of 
troops, if it were otherwise adviseable to do so, fixmi acting 
against one another in continuous lines. Like the echelhm 
movements of battalions, those of an army may be eitner 
direct or oblique: the former are executed by advancing 
brigades, battalions, or companies .parallel to and at un- 
equal distances firom tb€fir front ; and this advance may be 
made fVom the centre of the line when it is intended to 
refuse both wings to an enemy, or ftrom one fiank when it 

Vou X. — P 

E V O 



is inf ended to turn that of the enemy. The direct echellon 
may al<o be produced by postinj^ columns in proper situa- 
tions, ready for deployment, parallel to the enemy*s position: 
the dibtances between the battalions in echellon should be 
ttufficient to allow them to form squares checquerwisc, so as 
to flank one another. 

Oblique echellons of an army are formed by wheeling, 
and then marching in the new directions so as to gain 
ground obliquely towards a flank ; each of the several bodies 
performing the mancBuvre should not exceed a company, as 
It might be hazardous to present one flank of a large body 
towards an enemy in position, and thus expose the line to 
be enfiladed. And, as the enemy would enaeavour to coun- 
teract the intended project of outflanking him, should he 
observe it, advantage ought to bo taken of the localities 
to conceal some of the divisions, and to gain points of sup- 
port for the bodies placed in ad\^nce of the rest of tne 
army. When it is intended to refuse one wing, the bat- 
talions of that wing may retreat en echellon as far as ne- 
cessary, and the artillery of that nart of the line which is 
stationary should be ready to enfilade the enemy on his 
advance towards the retiring divisions. Movements of 
attack may be made in columns, which should deploy in 
line at from 1200 to 1400 paces from the enemy; tlie de- 
structive effects of an enfilading fire preventing a nearer 
approach in column. 

Generally speaking, the most convenient order for an 
army, whether on the offensive or defensive, is in column, 
provided the columns can be covered by the ground from 
the enemy's artillery ; since it may be readilv moved up to 
any given point of attack, while tne enemy has few means 
of judging where that point of attack will be. 

Changes in the front of a position, when under fire, are 
best effected by an echellon march of companies ; but when 
the line is extensive, the battalions which are most remote 
from the new alignement, and which may be attacked by 
cavalry during the movement, should be marched up in 
columns of battalions, the divisions being at quarter dis- 
tances from one another. 

The retreat of a line is accomplished by causing each 
alternate battalion to retire, perpendicularly to the front, to 
a certain distance towards the rear, not exceeding 200 
yards, that the divisions may be able to support each other 
by their fires ; the remaining battalions protecting the re- 
treat of the others, and then retiring as far as the intervals 
between the former battalions, who then retreat still f\ir- 
ther, and so on. The intervals in the lines should be occu- 
pied by light infantry; and if the enemy should press 
oloselvi the second line of the army, after the first batta- 
lions have passed through it, must cx>ntribute by its fire to 
the defence of the intervals in the first line. 

This retreat by alternate battalions, or by half-battalions, 
is indispensable when it is made over a plain ; and if the 
retreat is to bo continued, defiles and commanding spots of 
ground must be occupied and defended as long as possible ; 
by decrees the bodies may diminish their fronts and form 
themselves into columns of march. 

If a gradual retreat of the whole line is not intended, on 
a flunk of the army being attacked, that flank only may be 
retired in direct echellon by alternate battalions or half- 
battalions, beginning with that which is at the extremity of 
the flank attacked ; the remaining battalions then retire, 
still en echellon, thus keeping the menaced flank refused 
to the enemy, taking care that the distances between the 
corps are not so great as to render it impossible for them to 
defend each other by their fire. Each body must repel an 
attack, if made upon it by infantry, by a counter-attack ; if 
by cavalry, it may dispose itself in a square; or a new line 
may bo formed in the oblique position, if it be thought best 
thus to resist a general attack of the enemy. 

The movements of the second line of an army should 
correspond exactly to those of the first; the two lines 
always preserving their parallelism and distance. The 
second is however frequently kept in a line of columns of 
battalions, and is made to move in that order even when 
the first line is deployed. 

The most proper stations for cavalry are on the wings of 
an army, because troops of this class are unfit for resisting 
an attack; and should they be compelled to retire when 
placed in the centre, there would be led an interval which 
the enemy might immediately occupy, and fVom thence 
enfilade the wings. This false disposition was made bv the 
French at tlie battles of Hochstet and Minden, ana was 

the csmse of their defeat in those ftctiooi. Catilfy 
generally employed in the operation of turning a lin« ; and 
It is evident that this manoeuvre must be more readily road* 
from the nearest winr than from the centre. 

Mananivre$ qf Light Troopf.— To the light infantry and 
riflemen, or troops acting as such, are entrusted tlie guard 
of the encampments or cantonments. When an army is cm 
the march thev reconnoitre the eountry, repel any parties 
of the enemy which might get between the columns « hile 
advancing ; and they check the pursuit of the enemy in a 

When a battalion is employed as light i'nfiintry, not mors 
than one-third of the men should actually engage as skir> 
mishers ; these extend themselves in line, in two ranks» to 
the right and left, firom some given file, at any distanr^ 
which may be appointed ; or, if no order is given, at the 
regulated distance of six paces. The rest of tne battalion 
is divided into parties, as supports, of which one is usually 
in rear of the centre, and another is towards each flank; 
and when the skirmishers have advanced about one htin* 
dred paces to the front, these supports follow them, and are 
themselves followed by a general reserve. Each of the sup- 
porting bodies and the reserve should be kept in compact 
order ; and when the skirmishers retire upon their support, 
they form in sections in its rear; The skirmishers advanc« 
or retire, as the case may be, in one general line, and they 
should avoid standing exposed if any cover, as that of ■ 
hedge, ditch, or copse, ean be obtained on the ground : tbr 
this reason, when obliged to cross an open plain, their line 
should make a simultaneous rush towards the spots where 
they may fire under cover. On open ground, they fire 
kneeling or lying down, the fVont rank man discharginf; 
his piece first, then retiring in rear of the second rank and 
loading : as soon as he has loaded he gives the word, ready, 
in a low voice, when the second rank man fires and loads, 
care being taken that the muskets of both ranks are not 
unloaded at the same time. 

On the appearance of cavalry the nearest tupporfpri 
and the reserve move towards the threatened part« and 
form squares ; the skirmishers at the same time run to any 
cover from whence they may aid the supports by a crov^ 

When light troops have to advance across a bridge, ur 
through a short defile, on arriving at the bank of the n%iT, 
or at tlie entrance of the defile, the skirmishers lie down m 
line and fire ; the supports, strengthened by the resenr« 
charge the enemy on tne bridge, or in the defile, drive him 
back, and then form an extended Hne as skirmi^heni, whilp 
the former skirmishers pass the bridge or defile, and now 
constitute the supports and reserve. In retreating the sup- 
ports pass first over the bridge or through the defile, covcrAl 
by the skirmishers, and immediately deploy, in order to act 
as skirmishers themselves; the former skirmishers then 
rapidly pass, followed by the supports, and the whole form 
in column in rear of the present skirmishers, who then, by 
their fire, protect the retreat if it is to be continued. 

E'VORA, the principal town of the province of Alentcjo, 
in Portugal, is built upon an eminence in the midst of a 
fine open country, which produces wine, oil, and corn, and 
is south-west of the Serra de Osa, which forms part of the 
range which crosses Alentejo from east to west. Svora 
is an archbishop's see, has a college, two female houses of 
education, several good buildings, and a fine aqueduct, at- 
tributed to Sertorius, who for a time made this town» then 
called Ebora, his residence. Julius Ceesar, after bis Spanuh 
campaign, made Ebora a municipium, with the same nf 
Liberalitas Julia. There is now at Evora a handsome tempk 
of the Roman period, supposed to have been dedicated io 
Diana: the front presents an hexastyle of the Oormthian 
order, the columns remain, and the capitals are of very deli* 
cate workmanship, but the entablature is gone, and has 
been replaced by a rubble work with pinnacles in ihc 
Moorish stylo. (Murphy's JVavels and View qfMt TemfU, 
with Copies of Roman Irufcriptiom found ai Et%ra \ 
Evora has about 12,000 inhabitants, some manuflietwa 
of hats and leather, and a considerable inland tradcu It 
suffered greatly in the French invasion of 1S08, fbr haTiBsr 
attemptea an insurrection against the invaders; many \i 
the inhabitants were put to death. (Southey^s Mistfiry c-f 
the Peninsular fVar.) Evom lies on tho road from Lubao. 
to the Algarve, and is about 80 miles soutb*east of lr>THn^ 
30 miles north of Beja, and 50 miles irest fay touth ^4 

E V R 


E V R 

XVHBMOND, CHARLES da 6i. Denys^ Seigneur 
de St. ETremond, was born April 1. 1613, at StOetiys 
le Guast, near Coutances, in Non&andy. He entered the 
army etriy, and by h» literary talents and sprightly wit, as 
well as bravery, acquired the friendship of Turenne, Conde, 
and other of tlie most distint^ished men of that brilliant 
epoch. Gond6 made him lieutenant of his guards, for the 
sake of his society ; and he fought with that great com- 
mander at the bloody battles of Rocroi and Nordlingen. 
But the prince, though fond of raillery at the expense of 
others, could not bear it levelled against himself; and St. 
Svremond, by an imprudent exercise of his satiric humour, 
lost his patron and his lieutenancy in 1648. In the wars of 
the Fronde he espoused the royal cause, and was rewarded 
\rith promotion and a pension. He incurred a three 
months' imprisonment in the Bastile by making too ttee 
with Cardinal Mazarin ; but found means to reinstate him- 
self in the minister's fevour. Another indiscretion in ridi- 
culing the treaty of the Pyrenees (unless, as has been said, 
there was some secret cause for his disgrace, and this was 
only a pretext), led to a second order for his arrest in 166). 
He received timely notice, and fled, first to Holland, then 
to England, in which two countries the rest of his long life 
vas spent. Louis XIV., though solicited by his most 
(avourite courtiers to pardon St Evremond, remained in- 
flexible till 1689, when he granted the exile a tardy per- 
mission to return. But it was then too late for St Evre- 
nond again to change the scene; and thouj^h in banishment, 
his lifo had all that he required for happmess. He was a 
£tvourite with Charles II., who gave him a pension of 300/., 
and his soeiety was courted by the most distinguished wits 
and beauties of that reign ; nor was he less fortunate in 
possessing the regard of William III., who had known him 
in Holland, and took much pleasure in his company. De- 
voted to the enjoyment of the present, and availbsg himself 
moderately of every source of social pleasure^ he retained 
his faculties, mental and bodily, to the last, and died in his 
Slstyear, September 20th, 1703. 

St. Evremond was one of those who, aiming chiefly at 
success in society, leave no memorials sufficient to sustain 
the reputation which they have enjoyed in life. He pos- 
sessed however extensive reading and an independent and 
acute judgment, as well as wit. His verses are deservedly 
forgotten ; but his treatises on Roman literature and on the 
modern drama are ranked among his best works. His 
letters are amon^ the most brilliant specimens of that style 
of composition in which the French have excelled. He 
appean to have been a disbeliever in revealed religion, but 
he was not a scoffer, and he checked wanton insult to reli- 
gion in others. Neither was he, as has been said, an 
atheist; but some atheistical books were fiilsely published 
under his name long after he was dead. He never derived 
profit from the sale of his works, nor authorized their being 
printed ; so that the earlier editions, which were all pirated, 
contain mu<^ that was foisted in by the booksellers to profit 
by bis popularity. The first corroct edition is that of Des 
Maiieaux, 3 vms. 4to., Lend., 1 705, with a life prefixed, 
ftam manuscripts revised by the author and editor jointly, 
shortly before the death of the former. Des Maiseaux ahio 
translated the whole into English. (Bioff, Um'v. ; see also 
Desif aizeaux's Li>^and Grammont's Memoirs for scattensd 
notices of St Evremond.) 

EVRBUX, a city in France, capital of the department 
of Ettre, on the little river Iton, a feeder of the Eure, 51 
i&iles in a direct line west by north of Paris. 

Evreux is mentioned by Ptolemy and by Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, in the Itinerary of Antoninus and in the Theodo- 
uan Table. It bore the name of Mediolanum, and was the 
capital of the Aulerci Eburovices. The name Eburovices 
was afterwards applied to their chief city, and in the 
middle ages appears under the corrupted Latin forms of 
Ebroicm and Ebroas, from which is derived Evreux. It 
has been matter of dispute whether the old Mediolanum 
^^as on the site of the present city or at a village in the 
neighbourhood known by the name of Old Evreux ; but 
the remains of a theatre and of several antiquities which 
have been discovered may be considered as showing that 
Mediolannm was close to, if not on the site of, the present 
city. Evreux came into the hands of the Normans, but the 
duke of Normandie, Richard I., severed it from the duchy 
and erected it into a distinct county in favour of his second 
son, from whose descendants it afterwards passed to the 
house of McAtfort. In the beginning of the twelfth century 

(in 1119) it was burned by Henry I, king of England; 
and toward the close of the same century (in 1 1 94 and 
1 199) it was twice destroyed by Philippe Auguste, king of 
France, who shortly afterwards acquired permanent pos 
session of it. The county of Evreux was bestowed as an 
apanage on a branch of the royal family of France, which 
subsequently acquired the throne of Navarre ; but on the 
death of Charles le Mauvais, king of Navarre, it reverted to 
the French crown. In the wars of the English in France, 
under Henry V. and VI., Evreux was repeatedly taken 
and retaken: the last time was in 1441, when it was cap- 
tured, after a vigorous resistance, by the French, fh}m whose 
hands it has never since passed away. 

A great proportion of the inhabitants (who in 1832 were 
7988 for the town, or 9963 for the whole commune) are per- 
sons of independent property. The houses are for the most 
part built of wood and clay or plaster. The streets are 
broad and beautifully neat. The city stands in the midst of 
gardens and orchards in a fertile valley watered by the Iton, 
which divides into two branches before reaching the town, 
and flowing on each side, under or near the walls, and after- 
wards reuniting, renders the position of the city insular 
Part of the waters of the Iton are conducted through the 
city by means of a canal. 

The principal edifice is the cathedral, which was rebuilt by 
Henry I. of England, after he had burned the former one 
with the rest of the town : the nave alone retains any ves- 
tiges of early architecture : its massy piers and semicircular 
arches are evidently of Norman origin, and ^e probably 
part of the church erected by Henry. All the rest is com- 
paratively modern. The interior is adorned with some 
elegant carving, both in stone and wood : there are some 
good specimens of painted glass. 

The church of St Taurinus (formerly attached to the 
Benedictine abbey of St Taurinus, founded in the seyenth 
century) eontains some valuable specimens of Norman ar- 
chitecture: the interior has been modernized. A portion of 
the monastic buildings serves as a seminary for the Catholic 
priesthood. The church of St Gilles, now converted into 
a stable, presents some antient features worthy of notice. 

Among the other remarkable buildings are the episcopal 
palace, the hospital, a fine new building, the office of the 
prefect, formerly the hospital, and the prisons. There are 
some handsome public walks. 

The manufactures of E\Teux are woollen cloth, woollen 
and cotton yam, bed-ticking, calico, cotton velvet, hosiery, 
leather, paper, wind musical instruments (flutes, clarinets, 
8cc.), and ivory and box- wood combs. Trade is carried on 
in these articles, and in grain, brandy, cider, perry, and 
linseed oil. There are seven annual fairs; the most im- 
portant, that a{ St Taurin, lasts eight days. There are a 
subordinate court of justice, 'une chambre consultative des 
arts et manufactures;' a central society of agriculture, 
sciences, arts, medicine, surgery, and pharmacy; a high 
school; a public library of 6000 volumes; and a botanic 
gardeU) at which courses of lectures on botany are 

In the neighbourhood of Evreux, about a mile and a half 
from the town, is the Chateau de Navarre. Jeanne, daughter 
of Louis Hutin, king of France and Navarre, in which latter 
kingdom she succeeded her father, married the then count 
of Evreux, and built a chitteau, which she called the 
ChAteau de Navarre: this structure was, in 1686, levelled 
to the ground by its possessor, the duke of Bouillon, who 
erected the present building. Upon the emigration of his 
descendants, it became national property, and was given by 
Napoleon to tlie Empress Josephine, who resided here for a 
time. The house, which is of stone, is formal and ill pro- 
portioned ; but the woods around are beautiful, the avenue 
noble, and the sheets of water extensive. The chdtcau 
is now deserted. Old Evreux appears to have been tlie site 
of a Norman and previously that of a Roman fortress. 
There are some remains of a Roman aqueduct and Roman 
medals in gold, silver, and bronze have been dug up. 

The arrondissement of Evreux contains 11 cantons or 
districts under the charge of a justice of the peace ; two of 
these are in the town of Evreux. It comprehends 287 
communes, and had, in 1632, 118,397 mhabitants. The 
diocese comprehends the department of Euro : the bishop 
is a suiTragan of the archbishop of Rouen. The foundation 
of the see is ascribed to the third century. (Dawson Turner, 
Tour in Normandy ; Dulaure, Histoire des E?wirons de 
Paris; Dictionnaire GSographique Universel, &e.) 

P 2 





BXAMINATION. [Etidbncs] 

EXANTHEIilATA {ExtttMemaiouiditeai9i\ mv^fo, 
an ^we$eence ; a term undtr which are oomprehenaed 
the eruptive fevers, or the diseaies commonly termed 
rashes. Rashes are superficial red patches, variously 
figured, and diffused irregularly over the hody, leaving 
interstices of a natural colour, and terminating in cu- 
ticular exfoliations. Fever is an essential element in 
the definition of an exanthematous disease, as this term 
is usually employed hy nosologists ; hut the writers on 
cutaneous diseases give to it a modified signiftcatbn, and 
comprehend under it only those diseases which are pro* 
perly termed rashes, whether those rashes are attended 
with fever, and whether they are contagious or not. 
Thus Dr. Batcman comprehends under the order Exan- 
themata measles, scarlet fever, nettle-rash, roseola or the 
rose, purpura, and erythema. 

EXARCH was the title of the governor of Italy under 
the Byzantine emperors, estahlished hy Justinian after the 
reconquest of Italy from the Goths in the sixth century. 
The first exarch appointed was Longinus, a.d. 568. The 
residence of the exarch was at Ravenna, then a sea-port 
town, and the great entrep6t between Greece and Italy. 
The exarchs, who were generally chosen among the officers 
and favourites of the Byzantine court, were of course re- 
movable at the pleasure of the emperor, but several of them 
remained in their office to the end of their lives. Their 
administration was often marked hy acts of oppression and 
treachery, the results of Byzantine corruption as well as 
of the peculiar difficulties of their situation. They were 
engaged in frequent hostilities against the Longobards who 
had mvaded tue greater part of Italy, and were also not 
nnfrequently at variance with the popes, and their au- 
thority was often confined within the walls of Ravenna. 
At last, in the year 752, Ravenna being taken by Astulf or 
Astolphus, king of the Longobards, the exarchate, as well 
as all dominion of the Byzantines over North Italy, was at 
an end ; but the Greek emperors still retained possession 
of parts of Apulia and Calabria, where Bari became the 
residence of the catapan or Byzantine governor. (See 
Chronological Seria of the Exarchi in Petau* Eaiionarium 

EXCAVATIONS. [Foundations.] 

EXCBNTRIC. [Ptolxmaic Hypothbsis.] 

EXCENTRICITY, a term applied to tho ratio which 
the distance between the centre and focus of an ellipse or 
hyperbola bears to the whole semiaxis. [Ellifsb ; Hypbr- 
BOLA.] With re^rd to this word,, it should be noted that 
in the older writmgs on conic sections it was not the fxUio 
of these two lines, but the former of them» namely the 
distance between the centre and focus, which was called the 

Let a be the semimiyor axis of an ellipse or hyperbola, 
b the soroimanor axis, and e th<^ eccentricity ; then 

in the ellipse ^ = I — — 



m the hyperbo!.! e* = i + --. 

EXCESS. For a peculiar mathematical use of this 
term, namely, the spherical excess, see Sphxrical Tri- 


EXCHANGE. The term exchange u commonly cm- 
ployed by merchants to designate— first, the written instru- 
ment by which the debts of persons residing in different coun- 
tries or in different parts of the same country are brought 
to a condition for final liquidation ; and, second, the varying 
price of such nej^tiable instruments in the market. 

The first division of the subject is discussed under the 
title Bill op Exchange ; the following article will com- 
prise the second, and will include an investigation of the 
principles on which exchange transactions are based. 
• International, or, as it is commonly called, foreign trade, 
arises out of the unequal or exclusive capacity of different 
countries to produce the various objects of desire. One 
country, for instance, has abundance of coal and iron ; ano- 
ther enjoys a climate especially adapted to ^e culture of 
the vine ; whilst a third possesses some peculiar advantages 
for the growth of wheat. If interchange were not restricted 
by hgidative enactments, if trade were perfectly free, the 
fint country would supply the other two with iron wares, 

taking Dram the seoond wines, and from the third wbMl ; 
whilst the two last would in like manner exchange their 
Tosoective jproduetions with each other. 

Peculiarities of soil and climate, abundanoe and ehe«p- 
noM of land or of labour, the exclusive presence of oertam 
animals, vegetables, or minerals, all give rise to interchange 
between nation and nation. Every country has some pecu- 
liarity which gives it an advantage with respect' to- that 
peculiarilv over all other countries: it is bv means of inter- 
change that such advantages are shared equally among 

In the article Bill of Exchanob, already referred to, 
we have explained how this mode of settling accounts be- 
tween parties in different countries arose ; and tlie various 
legal rights of the parties to a bill of exchange are also in 
that article fiilly explained. 

In investi^ting that part of the subject which belongs to 
the present article it is necessary to bear in mind that dif- 
ferent oountrius make use of different coins— different in 
denomiuation, in weight, and consequently in value. The 
pound, for instance, is the money of England, the franc 
that of France, the dollar that of America. These se\cral 
coins contain very different quantities of the precious metals. 
The dollar, for instance, contains about five times as much 
silver as the franc, whilst the guilder contains only twice as 
much. The value of a currency depends on the (|uantity 
of pure metal contained in the coin which forms its legal 
tender, alloy being left wholly out of the account. 

In the language made use of by merchants, the existence 
of a par qf exckange is usually assumed. Between two 
countries . making use of the same metal a par may 
exist ; but between two countries one of which makes um 
of gold and the other of silver an iuvariidile par cannot 

The following is a statement of the contents, in purs 
silver, of the several coins forming the money of aooount 
of the several countries specified : — 

Franc of France • 
Mark of Hamburg 
Florin of Amsterdam 
Dollar of America 


Hence the mark is worth, in Paris, 1*515 ftiuics; in Am- 
sterdam, 14 stivers 5 pfennings; and in New York, 2S*3 

Gold is now a leeal tender in America, and the sove- 
reign is by law worth 4*87 dollars, making the eagle of 10 
dollars worth 2/. 1«. OK; the dollar (of gold), 4«. l^J.; 
and the 100/. sterling equal to 487 dollars; all of which are 
different expressions for the par between England and the 
United States — both being gold-using countries. 

We have said that a par of exchange cannot exist be- 
tween two countries making use of different metals as the 
standard of their respective currencies ; we shall now ex- 
plain the reason. Gold is the standard in England. The 
silver coin of England possesses a conventional value inde- 
pendent of the market value, and the latter mav fluctuate 
without affecting the former. Foreign coins, the franc or 
the guilder for instance, possess no such conventional value. 
They are merely a commodity liable to fluctuation with the 
varying price o^ silver. 

Within the last ten years the price of silver in the 
London market has juried from 4«. \^\4' to 5#. \d, per 
ounce of 444 grains pure, tlie medium price being 4«. 1 l{cC 
to 5«. The extreme prices give the following results : — 

Price of SUtw p«r oi. 

#. d, 

4 1(1^ 

5 I 

Valua of FruA 







Thus making a fluctuation in the so-called par of exchange 
of rather more than 4) per cent. 

The assumption of a par of exchange where no par can 
exist is likely to lead at times to groat inconvenience. 
Suppose, for instance, that the par between Paris and 
London be assumed at Sd'SSft*., which is about the medium. 
Suppose further that exchange is quoted at 26*30fr. ; what 
would be the inference ? Why that exchange was 2*8 per 
cent, in fovour of England, and (the cost w transmisMon 
being much less than the above diffisrence) that eonse- 
quently bullion was about to pour into London. But sup- 

E X C 



pose that at the same tune the marlcet pnoe of tilTer had 
declined in London to 4«. 1 0^ per ounce, and gold in Paris 
had advanced in a like ratio, what woidd he the effect ? 
Why the supposed premium in fayour of Sno^land would 
vanish, and the par, for the time heing, would he brought 
to coincide >vith the actual rate. 

Though there exists no invariable par of exchange, it is 
exlremely useful to the merchant to know the average value 
of the currency of every country with which he trades, in 
order to ascertain what may he called the approximate par, 
which must be the pivot around which mictuations will 
necessarily turn. This approximate par (a term which we 
make use of for the sake of conforming, as nearly as truth 
will permit, to the language familiar to merchants) should 
be grounded on the average value of a currency taken on a 
period sufficiently long to include fluctuations nom highest 
to lowest. To the approximate par so taken will he the 
tendency of the rate of exchange to conform. 

The approximate par of exchange will be liable to be 
affected by four pairs of circumstances, in addition to a rise 
and fall in the price of the precious metals. These are— 

1. Changes made by the supreme authority in the quan- 
tity of the pure metal contained in the coin by way of in- 
crease or diminution. 

2. Depreciation from the use of paper money, and resto- 

3. Clipping, and restoration. 

4. Wear and tear, and restoration. 

1. Legal Changes in the Coinage, Governments have 
not unfrequently found the diminution of the quantity of 
the metal contained in the current coin an" easy way of 
getting rid of improvidently contracted debts. The English 
pound was once a troy pound of silver ; it is now about four 
ounces. The French livre, once probably the same ouan- 
tity, is now less than a seventieth part of a lb. By wnat a 
succession of frauds must this change have been hroueht 

A government having borrowed so mantf pounds of its 
subjects would find it a very convenient thing, when the 
day of payment should come round, to call ten or fifteen 
shillings * a pound ;' and as it would have all the debtora in 
the kingdom on its side, popularity would be divided on the 
measure. But although creditors at home may be com- 
pelled to submit to this robbery, creditors abroad cannot. 
Their contract is to receive a given sum of the money of 
their own country, and the only effect of any debasement 
will be that the foreign debt will require more of the debased 
money to liquidate it ; in other words, exchange will ikll 
in the ratio of the debasement Thus suppose the sovereign 
to be r^uced in weight 10 per cent., exchange on the Pa- 
risian Bourse, if at 25*58f., would fall to 23f. 2c. If, on 
the other hand, the franc were reduced, exchange would 

We can illustrate this by two historical facts. Formerly the 
Spanish dollar contained as much silver as 4s, Sd. sterling, 
and consequently the average value of 100^. was 444 dollars 
44 cents. The weight of the dollar however has been since 
reduced, and it now contains only as much silver as 4e. 2d, 
sterling, so that that the average value of 100/. sterling is 
now 480 dollars ; the difference being 8 per cent The old 
liuguage of quotation however has never been wholly aban- 
doned by the American merchants. They still assume the 
old par, so thai when exchange is quoted at 10 or U per 
cent premium — a premium which, as we shall presently see, 
could not be maintained for an hour — it is in iact at 2 or 
3 per cent, only (the remaining 8 per cent being nominal) ; 
and when it is quoted at 6 or 7 per cent premium, it is in 
fact at 1 or 2 discount The other fact to which we allude 
n the recent adoption of a gold standard in the United 
States, at a rate, compared with silver, to render the Ame- 
rican currency practically debased. 

Before the introduction of the Gold Bill the average 
value of 100/. sterling, as we have seen, was 480 dollars ; by 
the new stamkrd, the quantity of gold contained in 100/. is 
now coined into. 467 dollars, being a difference of 1*45 or 
nearly 1} per cent Thus the par between England and 
America is now 487 d. = 100/., or adhering to the old (erro- 
neously assumed) par, a nominal premium of 9 '45 pec 

2. Paper Moneif, One of the evils te which paper money 
is liable is depreciation from excess. The market ]^rice of 
money, like that of every thing else, varies in the mverse 
ratio gf its quantiiy. If it be scarce it will be dear; in other 

words, all other tilings will be cheap. If, on the other hand, 
money be in excess, it will be cheap ; in other words, much 
of it will be given in exchange for other things. To say that 
prices are advancing, is equivalent to saying that money is 
getting cheaper and cheaper. The effect of issuing paper 
money in excess iay then, to make money, both metallic and 
paper, cheap. Being eheap, it becomes desirable to export 
it ; but paper money is not available for this purpose, and 
hence metallie money is alone exported. Bullion in the un« 
coined state would» under such circumstances, advance in 
price, but the sovereign would be still a sovereign ; hence 
there would exist a motive to convert coined money into 
bullion, or to export it. Bullion however would not he 
exported, except when it was really cheaper than in other 

During tlie Bank restriction the depreciation reached 
27*9 per cent Gold was then worlh 51, Bs, per ounce, and 
silver Ss, 1 Id. estimated in paper money: But at these no- 
minally high prices the proportion between gold and silver 
was precisely the present average proportion, namely, 1 to 
15*52; or, gold at 3/. 17 s, 10^, and silver at 4s. llj^L The 
Parisian par was then 18*43 f. per 1/. sterling (instead of 
25*58 f.), so that although coin might be sent away as a 
cheaper mode of oonversbn than melting, bullion would not 
necessarily be an article of export, unless when exchange 
was really, and not merely nominally, against us. 

We have seen that the present average value of the dollar 
is 4s, 2d. ; when silver was at 6s, lid, the value would be 
5s. 9f</. in the depreciated English money. Hence a debt 
in London of 100/. could be diwharged with 346 dollars 18 
cents, whereas now it would require 480 dollars. Hie dol- 
lars remained unchanged, but 100/. of 1813 was worth only 
72/. 2s, in gold. 

As the par of 4s, Gd was then, as now, retained, the 
depreciation was met by a heavy nominal discount of 
27Ji, per cent It is unneeeasary to pursue these calcula- 
tions to other countries : the same principles apply to all 

It is scarcely necessary to observe, that in the process of 
restoration the phenomena are reversed. A restoration of 
the Engiish currencjr, for instance, would be similar in its 
effects to a depreciation of the currencies of all other coun- 

3. Clipping the Com. In some countries the practice of 
clipping tne coin still continues, and it is likely to continue 
just so long as people will take clipped coin. If people 
would take shillings clipped into polygons, they would be 
so clipped in less than twenty-lbur hours. 

The effect of clipping on the exchange is preciselv similar 
to the two cases we have already examined. If the silver 
coin of France were clipped to the extent of one-tenth of 
its weight, exchange would be affected to that extent. In- 
stead of requiring only 25' 58 f. to purchase 1/. sterling on 
the Parisian Bourse, it would require 28 ' 14 f. Restoration 
would be equivalent to clipping theix)ins of other countries. 

Some of the continental states in which clipped coin cir- 
culates have adopted an expedient to keep up tne character 
of their money of account This expedient is to transact 
all their dealings with other nations in what they call Baneo^ 
which may be defined money as it ought to be, to distin- 
guish it from the current or clipped money, which may be 
called money as it is. The merchants keep their bank ac- 
counts in money as it aught to be, paying in the clipped 
money, or money as it is. They are charj^ed with the de- 
preciation, which is known by the term4^io. This is purely 
an arrangement of convenience. 

4. Wear qf Coin. The case of a worn coinage is precisely 
similar to that of a clinped coinage, except that the latter is 
sudden in its effects, tne former gradual. Hence deprecia- 
tion frt>m wear is much more likely to deceive than that 
which arises from clipping. Restoration by means of a new 
issue reverses all the effects. 

We have now enumerated the principal drcumstanoes 
affecting the value of a currency. Fluctuations in the rate 
of exchange proceeding from an alteration of Ihe value of 
the medium in which price is quoted are purely nominal; 
and so they are usually designated. They are alterations 
proceeding from the altered quantity of the article pur- 
chased, and are analogous to an alteration of the price of 
wheat from an alteration in the capacity of the imperial 

What is usually called the real exchange is the actual 
market-priee» determined by the same law as the price of 

E X C 



■ugar, corn, or broad-cloth ; namely, the exisiing'proportion 
between supply and demand. 

The demand for biUs of exchange ariaes out of the neces- 
sity of paying for importations. The supply arises out of 
the practice of drawing for the amount of exportations. If 
the supply and demand be equal — if for every pound's 
worth of goods imported there he exactly a pound's worth 
of exported goods to be drawn for — there will be no real 
exchange : tnat is, the real exchange, however much the 
nominal exchange may alter, will be at par. 

When, however, the importations are not precisely equal 
to the exportations. exchange can no longer remain at par. 
An excess of importation would cause exchange to advance 
against the importing country. Let us suppose a case. 
Let us suppose that an actual or anticipated advance in the 
price of wheat causes the transmission of extensive orders 
to the north of Europe. This would produce a sudden de- 
mand for bills of exchange — not perhaps to the extent of 
the orders ; for in all probability goods adapted to the mar- 
kets of the wheat-growing countries would be sent in part 
payment — but, at all events, to a considerable amount. 
There would accordingly be an advance in the rate of ex- 
change, first on the wheat-shipping ports, and next on all 
other countries. Thus, Englana imports wheat from Danzig, 
and exchange on Danzig rises. But exchange on Amster- 
dam is at par, as it is also at Amsterdam on Danzig. Hence 
the wheat-importer would buy a bill on Amsterdam, and 
with the proceeds would there buy a bill on Danzig. But 
the buyer of exchange on Amsterdam cannot go into the 
market without causing an advance in the rate. In thi.s 
way the advance becomes general. 

The real exchange, however, is subject to a limit beyond 
which it cannot advance. This limit is the cost of trans- 
mitting the precious metals. A debtor to a foreign country 
— say the importer of wheat — can liquidate his debt by the 
transmission of bullion as well as of a bill of exchange ; and 
he will be determined in his choice by the comparative cheap- 
ness of either mode. The cost of transmitting specie is, 
let us assume, 2 per cent : so long as exchange continues 
below 2 per cent, the debtor will continue to purchase it ; 
but the moment the dmwer demands more than that rate, 
tlie exportation of bullion will be resorted to, and bills of 
exchange will cease to be demanded. The cost of trans- 
mitting bullion, including the cost of collecting it at the 
port of shipment, is therefore the limit beyond which the 
real exchange cannot advance. 

But an advance in the rate of exchange, even up to this 
point, cannot long be maintained. Tqe tendency in an 
advance in the rate is to check importation and stimulate 
exportation. Articles which would only just pay with ex- 
change at par would pay a profit sufllcient to induce expor- 
tation where the exporter could secure 1 or 2 per cent more 
for his dml\. Thus, by the stimulus to exportation, the supply 
of bills would be increased to meet the demand, and pro 
/a;i/o to check the advancing rate of exchange. On the other 
hand, an iroj)orted article which was only just paying when 
exchange was at par would cease to pay when it should 
cost the importer 2 per cent, more to make his remittance. 
Thus, whilst the cost of exporting the precious metals is 
the immediate check upon an advancing rate of exchange, 
the cficct of the real exchange in stimulating or checking 
importation or exportation, as the case may be, is to work 
its own remedy. The real excliauge is, in fact, continually 
gravitating towards par, though at times superior forces 
may over(X)mc that per|)etual tendency. 

Most of the errors which prevail in relation to the subject 
of exchange arise out of confounding the real with the no- 
minal exchange. For the purposes of general reasoning, it 
is Mcll to know what is the average value of the currencies 
of the several nations with which we have commercial rela- 
tions; but for practical purposes the actual par for the 
moment should be rigidly calculated. Unless this be 
June, the practical merchant will be liable to continual 
error. For farther information on the subject, the reader 
liny consult Mill's Elements of Political Economy ^ cliap. 
iii. hcc. 16, p. 182; Ricardo*s Principles^ chap, vii. 
On Ft>reisn Trade; article Exchange in the Encyclo- 
jircdia liritannica; and Tooke's High and Low Prices, 

EXCriANGE, ROYAL. [Grksham.] 

EXCHEQUER COURT is a superior court of record 
esiabli^lied by William the Conqueror as part of the Aula 
liogis, and reduced to its present order by Edward L 

It it the lowest in rank of the Ibar great courts vhirh s't 
at Westminster Hall, although in ancient times one of the 
first in importance, as all causes relating to the rights o 
the crown were there heard and determined, and tla» 
revenues of the crown were supposed to be received there. 
Perhaps the inferiority in pomt of precedence of ihi* 
court may be attributed to its having been originally erecte<l 
solely for the king's profit, which was considered an objert 
inferior to the general administration of justice tu the 

Etymologists have exhausted much research in a-^rcr- 
taining the origin of the name : some assert that it ii 
derived from the old French word Esdieguier, a kind of 
abacus or table ; or the German, Schatz, * treasure.* The 
Latinized form of the word is Scaccarium, Camden sa\ s 
it was so called from the covering of the table at which the 
barons sat being party-coloured or chequered, and ou 
which, when certain of the king's accounts were made up, 
the sums were marked and scored with counters. 

The judges of the court of exchequer are the chancellor 
of the exchequer for the time being, the chief baron, and 
four other barons, who are created by letters patent, and 
are so called from their having been formerly chosen fwxn 
such as were barons of the kingdom, or pat'liamentary 
barons. (Selden's Titles qf Honour.) 

The court of exchequer was formerly held in the king's 
palace. Its treasury was the great deposit of records fn/ui 
the other courts; writs of summons to assemble the par- 
liaments were issued by its officers ; and its acts and decrees. 
as they related almost entirely to matters connected «uh 
the king's revenue, were not controlled by any other of the 
king's ordinary courts of justice. 

It now consists of two divisions, one of which exercises 
jurisdiction in all raises relating to the customs and excise, 
and over revenue matters generally. The other division is 
subdivided into a court or common law, In which oil ] it- 
sonal actions may be brought and a court of equity, wheic 
suits in equity may be commenced and prosecuted. 

A plain tifii, when bringing an action in this court, pre- 
viously' to the Act for Uniformity of Process in personal actions 
(2 Will. IV. cap. 39), fictitiously alleged himself to bo the 
king's debtor, in order to give the court jurisdiction in ilia 
cause ; but since the passing of that act it is no longer ne- 
cessary to resort to this fiction in order to bring an action 
on the plea side of the court of exchequer, as that statute 
assimilates the practice of all the common law courts, and 
the operation as well as the name of the processes issued 
from them are the same. 

The number of oflicers on the plea side of the court uf 
exchequer, and their several duties, are regulated by the 
2nd and 3rd Will. IV. cao. 110. By 3rd and 4th WilL IV. 
cap. 70, a great number of old offices are abolished. 

When tne court sits in equity the chancellor of the ex- 
checjuer has a voice (although now ver}' rarely exercised) 
in giving judgment The last case in which the chancellor 
was required to sit owing to the barons being equalh' di- 
vided in opinion, was that of Naish against the East India 
Company, Michaelmas Term, 1735, when Sir Robert 
Walpole was chanctellor, and his decision in a question uf 
very considerable difficulty was said to have given great 

An appeal lies from this court by writ of error to the 
justices of the courts of king's bench an^ common pleas 
sitting in the exchequer chamber, who alone have power to 
review the judgments of the barons ; and fix>m their de- 
cision a further appeal may be brought before the house of 

The Court qf Exchequer chamber was first erected in 
England by stat 31 Edward III., to determine causes u|)on 
writs of error from the common law side of the court uf 
exchequer. The judges of the three superior court:* 
occasionally sit here to hear arguments in important m- 
minal cases, and upon causes of great weight and difficulty, 
in which the judges of the court below have not given their 

As a court of error, the court of exchequer chamber 
underwent considerable alterations by the passing of tbe 
11th Geo. IV. and 1st Will. IV. cap. 70., and its constitution 
is now regulated by that statute. [Courts.] 

The Court qf Exchequer in Scotland was established by 

the 6th Ann, cap. 26. The judges are the high treasurer 

of Great Britain, with a chief baron, and four other barons. 

By a recent act (3 and 4 William IV. p. 13) the powers 



E X C 

«ktent to vhi«b this interferenee is iojurious, if we state, 
on the authority of a gentleman oonveraant with all the 
details of the art of calico-printing, that upon the same 
premises, with the same cauital and employing the same 
amount of lahour, double the quantity of cloths are now 
printed which could have been printed previous to the 
repeal of the duty, and to the consequent withdrawal of the 
excise-officers from the works. Another great objection 
that may be urged ai^ainst excise duties is, the facilities 
which they offer for tDe commission of frauds against the 
revenue, an offence which, in the eyes of many persons, is of 
a venial kind, but which too often ultimately demoralizes 
those by whom it is committed. In the Seventeenth Report 
of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the manage- 
ment and collection of tne excise revenue it is stated as a 
striking proof of the extent to which frauds are committed 
by manufacturers of soap, that * there are in England fifty 
that take out licenses, for which they pay 4/. per annum, 
each of which makes, or rather brings to charge, less than 
one ton of soap per annum, from which it is obvious that as 
the profits of such a sale would not pay for the license, the 
entry is made in order to cover smuggling.' With regard 
to malt, another article of great consumption which is sub- 
ject to excise duties, the commissioners state it to be their 
opinion, founded upon the evidence given by several respect- 
able maltsters, ' that malt is sold throughout the season, 
and in large quantities, for a price that is insufficient to pay 
the expense of making it and duty ; and that the duty is 
evaded to a great amount' A strong presumptive evidence 
to this effect is contained in the fact that the average 
number of bushels of malt brought to charge in each of the 
ten years fVom 1725 to 1734 was 26,177.330, while in the 
ten years from 1825 to 1834, that is. after the lapse of a 
century, the number of bushels so brought to charge was 
29,572,380; although during that time the population had 
been more than doubled, and the habits of the people not 
altered in any way that should lead to the supposition of 
any decreased consumption of the products of malt 

Tlie articles now subject to excise duty are : — auctions ; 
bricks ; glass ; hops ; licenses ; malt ; paper ; soap ; spirits 
(British) ; vinegar. 

In addition to the foregoing, excise duties were collected 
in 1797, under the fallowing nineteen heads, viz. ; * starch ; 

• stone bottles ; * sweets and mead ; tea ; * tiles ; * candles ; 

* coaches; cocoa; coffee ;* cider : ♦perry: * hides and 
skins; pem)er; * printed goorls; • salt; spirits (foreign); 
tobacco ana snuff; wine; * wire. 

Of these nineteen articles the duties have been repealed 
upon the twelve to which an asterisk is prefixed ; the col- 
lection of duties on the remaining seven articles has been 
transferred to the Customs department. 

The following table states the amount of payments made 
into the Exchequer on account of excise duties in England, 
the charges of collection and the rate per cent, on tlie col- 
lection calculated on tne gross revenue in each year from 
1797 to 1835. 

K«t ftcedpt 




















































































£ t. 



3 14 



3 10 



3 3 



3 12 



4 9 



3 7 



2 17 



2 13 


2 10 


2 9 



2 14 



2 16 






2 18 


3 3 111 


3 12 



3 5 



3 4 


3 4 



3 13 



4 15 



3 19 



3 19 



3 10 



3 10 



3 10 



3 13 



3 10 



4 1 



4 12 



4 13 



4 4 


4 10 


4 16 



6 11 


5 6 



5 5 



6 1 



6 16 

The gross and net receipt, charges of management and 
the rate per cent for which the gross revenue of excise in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland respectively, were coUerteil. 
for the year 1835, were as follows: — 

H^tt p^r rrat 

l«irmiitct> t-.« 
CharfM of Revenue \ j* 


N*t R#r«ipt. Mattacrmeat. 

£ £ 

10,255,486 738,812 

2,232,961 150,530 

1,906,150 183,049 

The gross receipt, as stated in the foregoing abstract, 
was collected on the different articles subject to excise- 
duties in the following proportions:— 


Groi* Receipt. 
















Unttad RlBfdom. 

£. *. 


£. #. 


£. «. 






215.171 2 

19,766 17 


10,838 U 





Bricks . 

395,080 7 


8,945 11 


. • 




Glass . 

921,544 7 


39,554 4 







Hops • 

333,856 3 


a • 

• • 






847,259 8 


124,564 12 

146,212 17 





Malt . 

4,321,456 14 


548,147 10 


260,294 13 





Paper . 

742,101 13 


126,915 18 


33,321 19 




Soap • 

891,647 6 


82.451 11 


• • 




Spirits . 

2,155,531 9 


1,467,514 15 


1,436,191 7 






59 12 


• • 

• • 






10,849,579 6 


222 15 
2,418,083 17 


408 8 





1,903,897 19 



Late roHector's balances . 



• • 

■ • 

918 12 









876 11 




1.811 11 





Fines and foifeitures 




10,726 4 




4,836 6 


1 7.589 



Produce of stock, 

, &c. 


to the 

• • 

10,861,182 3 

36.379 4 





late Scot 

cU Excise Incorporation 



• • 


*^^Fj*^ • tF ^p 


# V 



S,456,70S 4 


1,9)1,464 8 





The estimated amount of excise duties repealed since | 11,238,300/. The rates of excise duties at present charee- 
'^' '-I 6,782,000/., and the amount of those, the manage- I able in England. Scotland* and Ireland respectively, aie 
^ which has been transferred to the Cttttoms. is I as followi *— 

U \ E 



excommunicato capiendo,' or for seising Uie excommuni- 
cate. But before the writ for taking the cx(H>mmunicated 
person could bo granted the contumacy and contempt of 
the party were to bo certified by the bishop to tho court of 
Chancery by letters under hi& seal ; and by ,') Eliz. c. 23, the 
writ was made returnable into the King's Bench. By the 
statute just cited the cause of excommunication was to be 
stated in the writ, in order that the court might judge as to 
the justice of the case. The sentence of excommunication 
might be revoked by the judge who passed the sentence, or 
upon appeal the party might be absolved. Ab>olution gene- 
rally belonged to the same person who passed the sentence, 
unless in some particular cases, which were referred to the 
pope or a bishop. (Ree\cs* HisL of English Law; Sul- 
livan's Lectures.) 

By a sentence of excommunication, both greater and less, 
those denounced were excluded from the right of Christian 
burial, from bringing or maintaining actions, from becoming 
attoruies or jurymen, and were rendered incapable of becom- 
ing witnesses in any cause. But since the 53rd Geo. 1 1 I.e. 1 27, 
excommunication cannot now bo pronounced in England, ex* 
cept in certain cases (as spiritual censures for offences of eccle- 
siastical cognizance) ; and by the 3rd section of that statute 
* no person who shall bo pronounced or declared excom- 
municate (pursuant to the second clause of this statute) 
shall incur any civil penalty or incapacity, in consequence 
of such excommunication, save such imprisonment, not ex- 
ceeding six months, as the court pronouncing or declaring 
such person excommunicate shall direct.' The proceedings 
in those cases, in which excommunication may still be pro- 
nounced, are the same, as to the issuin|> and return uf the 
writ, as they were before the act of 53 George III. By the 
same act (53 (reorge III. c. 127), in all cases cognizable by 
the laws of England in ecclesiastical courts, when any 
person shall refuse to appear when cited by such court, or 
shall refuse to obey the lawful order or decree of such court, 
no sentence of excommunication, except in the cases above 
alluded to, shall be pronounced ; but a writ ' de contumace 
capiendo' shall issue, which in effect is the same as the old 
writ ' de excommunicato capiendo' was. Thus the various 
difficulties are now obviated which formerly existed in 
courts of law with respect to excommunication. 

EXECCJTION is the eTect given to the judgments and 
other proceedings analogous to judgments of courts of Viw 
and in ci\il suits. This term denotes the process by which a 
party is put into the actual possession of that to which by 
the proceedings of a court he appears to be legally entitled. 

As a judgment of a court of comwon law ascertains that 
the party is entitled to the posse>sion of some subject of a 
real or personal nature ; or to recover damages in respect of 
property withheld or injuries done, so the execution founded 
upon such judgment will be framed with a view to putting 
the party in whose favour the judgment is given either in 
the actual possession of the thing in dispute, or to enable 
him to obtain pecuniary compensation. 

For this purpose a written command issues in the name 
of the king or other lord or owner of the court, to an 
officer of the court : when the judgment is in one of the 
king's superior courts at Westminster, the officer of the 
court for this purpose is the sheriff of the county in which 
the property is situate, or, in the case of pecuniary compen- 
sation, the sheriff of the county in which the party from 
whom such compensation is due is supposed to reside ; 
which, until the contrary is shown, is taken to be the 
county in which the litigation was carried on. 

Wliere lands or other corporeal hereditaments are re- 
covered, the process of execution varies according to the 
nature of the interest recovered. If a right to a freehold 
interest has been established, the writ commands the 
sheriff to give the recoverer seisin of the lands, &c., and is 
called habere facias *ieisinam. [Uablre Facias Sei- 
sin am.] If a chattel interest only is recovered, the writ 
does not affect to authorize the sheriff to intermeddle with 
the freehold, and directs that officer merely to give 
sion of tlie land, &c. This is called an halKTe facias posses- 
sionem. [Habers Facias Possej^sionem.] 

A judgment in tho action of detinue [Detinue] esta- 
blishes the right of the recoverer to the possosion of a 
specific personal chattel, and the writ of execution called a 
distringas ad deliberandum issues, requiring the sheriff to 
coerce the defendant by his distringas (distress) to restore 
battel or its value, 
t for the defendant in replevin [Rbplbyin] 

efttablisb<M bis right ta the posteision of tLtMiKNul chattel 
which formed the subject of the litigation. In the ordinary 
case of an action of replevin af^er a distress, the right of the 
defendant in respect of the chattel distrained ia merely tu 
hold it as a security for the pavinent of the debt or duty, 
tho payment or performance of which is sought to be « n- 
forced by the coercion of a distress. [DiSTRKSS.] Tlic writ 
of execution requires the sheriff to cause the cnattel to be 
restored to the possession of the defendant. This is caildl 
a writ de returno habendo, and in case the sheriff is unable 
to And the chattel, further process issues commanding him 
to take other chattels of the plaintiff as a substitute for ihat 
which is withheld, by a writ called a capias in withernam. 

The most ordinary cases of execution are those in « hirh 
pecuniary compensation is to be obtained, but in these cusv^ 
the sheriff is not authorized directly to take money fium 
the party by whom it is to be paid. Formerly the only 
mode of obtaining this compensation was by process of ihs- 
tringas or distress. And this is still the case in inferi^jr 
courts ; but in the superior courts execution of jud^ment^ 
or other records est||ilishing pecuniary claims ma> be hn'l 
by a writ of fieri Wacias [Fieri Facias] affecting the 
personal property; by writ of elegit [Elegit], affecting 
both real and personal property; and by capias ad i»ati«>fa- 
cicndum [Capias], by which compliance with the pecu- 
niary demand is enforced by detention of the person of ihc 
defaulter in prison until the claim be satisfied, or the ad- 
verse party consents to his discharge. 

A subject is not entitled to pursue all these remedies at 
once; but in the case of the crown, the right to obtain viits- 
faction from the goods, lands, and person of its debtor may 
be enforced simultaneously, by writ of capias, and extendi 
facias, or extent. [Extent.] 

EXECUTION is also the term applied to denote liie 
giving effect to the sentence of a court of criminal juriMlic- 
tion. In this sense it is most commonly used with rder- 
ence to the execution of sentence of death. [Sheriitf ] 

EXECUTOR. An executor is he to whom another man 
commits by will the execution of that his last will and te^- 
tament. He answers in some decree to the fufr^B {it^^tic- 
natus, or iestamentarius, in the civil law, as to the dcb:s, 
goods, and oliattels of his testator ; but the origin of exe- 
cutors seems to be properly traceable to a constitution of 
Manuel Comnenus (Tripi Siouciirwv tuv iio^tiKdv), All yvr* 
sons who are capable of making a will, and some others 
besides, as married women and inftints, are capable of 
being made executors; but infants are by statute rcnden^d 
incapable of a(;ting in the execution of the will .until ihcy 
attain the age of twenty-one. 

An executor can derive his office from a testamentan 
appointment alone, though it is not necessary that he should 
be appointed by express terms ; any words of the te»tator 
indicating an intention to make the appointment are salfi- 
cient : in this case he is usually called * executor accordim: 
to the tenor.* If no executor is appointed bv the will, ad- 
ministration is granted by the ordinary, with the will an- 
nexed, in which case the administrator is bound to uU\v 
the directions given by the will. An executor may renounce 
probate; but having once acted, he cannot divest himself 
of the office or its liabilities ; nor can an adminiairator who 
has accepted the office, get rid of his responsibility. 

An executor may do many acts in execution of the uiH. 
even before probate, as paying and receiving debts. &i.c., 
but he cannot, before probate, sustain actions or suits. An 
administrator can do nothing till the letters of adrainn- 
tration are issued ; for the former derives his power fnmi 
the will, and not from the probate: the latter owc« Imh 
entirely to the appointment of the ordinar)'. If an executor 
die before probate, administration must be taken out to ht4 
testator, with the will annexed; but if an executor, bavmi; 
proved the will, die, his executor will be the executor an<l 
representative of the first testator, unle:»s, before proving the 
will uf the second testator, he expressly renounces the exe- 
cution of the will of the first. If the executor dieft in- 
testate, his administrator is not the representative of the 
testator, but an administrator de bonis non uf the testator 
must be apnointed by the ordinary. If there are several 
executors, the office survives, and is transmitted ultimately 
to the executor of the surviving executor, unless he die» in- 
testate Executors have a joint and entire interest in the 
effects of their testator ; any one of them is capable of act- 
ing by himself; and the receipt of a debt, or the tran&fer 
of property by one, is as ^-alid as if it had been done by all. 

£ X B 



If 4 stranger kkw upon kiniself to aet as exeentor with* 
out any authority, is by intormeddlingwith the goods of the 
deceased, he is called an oxeeutor de wn tori (of his ovn 
vrong), and is liable to all the trouble of an executor with- 
out any of the advantages attached to the office. He is 
cbai^eable with tho dehu of the deceaaed, so far as assets 
come to hia hands ; and is liaUe not only to an action by 
the rightful executor or administrator, but also to be sued 
as executor of the deceased by hia creditors and legateea. 
The only advantage which an executor derives from his 
office is the right to retain any debt due to him from the 
testator, as against creditors of equal degree* and this privi- 
tege is allowed him* because he cannot take any legal steps 
to recover payment. Hiis* though practically a privilege, is 
in reality only a provision of the law that he snail not be 
prejudiced by his appointment; otherwise aa a man cannot 
sue himself, all the other ereditcNns would, by instituting a 
buit a^insl the executor, gain priority over him in respect 
of theu" debts. 

The duties of executors and administrators are in general 
the iiame, the only essential difference^etween them being, 
Ri before mentioned, the mode of their appointment. Their 
duties are to bury the deceased* to prove his will in the 
proper Ecclesiastical Court« to eoUect and get in hie goods 
ami chattels, to pay hia debts in the order appointed by 
law, and also his l^[aeies, if he has bequeathed any, ana 
to dispose of the residue of his goods and chattels in the 
Tiiaiiuer by the will directed, or aeoording to the statutes 
for tiie dutribution of the effeeta of intestates, if there 
should be a total or partial intestacy. Sxaoutors and ad* 
miuifitrators are liable to an aotion at law, and also to a suit 
io equity, for the payment of the debts and liebilitiea of 
their testator or intestate ; and to a suit in eouity and the 
Ecclesiastical Court lor the legacies bequeathea by him, and 
the due administration of his estate : but noaction at law liee 
for a legacy, at least not until after the executor has assented 
to it, as it is called, that is, has aoknowledged the sufficiency 
of the assets after providing for the payment of the debts. 

It appeara to have been a subject of much controversy 
whether the probate of vnlla wa« originally a matter of ex- 
elusive ecdesiastical jurisdiction* but whatever may have 
been the case in earlier times, it is certain thai at this day 
the Ecclesiastical Courts are the only courte in which, eisce^ 
by special nrescription, the validity of wills of personalty 
can be esteblished or disputed. If all the ^oods of the do- 
cea^d lie in the diocese or iiirisdietion within which he 
died, the probate is made before the bishop or ordinary of 
that diocese or jurisdiction ; but if be had bona notabilia 
(that is, goods and chattels to the amount of 5/.) within 
some other diocese or jurisdiction than that in which he 
died, then ^e will must be proved before the archbishop or 
metropoliten of the province by special prerogative ; and if 
there be bona notabiUa in different provinces, there must 
bo two prerogative probates. A will should be proved 
within six months after the death of the testetor, or within 
two months after the termination of any dispute respecting 
the probate. (See 55 Geo. III. c. 164, sea 57.) 

Executors and administraton are treated by the eourts 
of equity as trustees for the creditors, tegatees, and next of 
kin of their testators or intestates. They are bound to 
administer the assete aeoording to their due order of 
priority and to pay the debts of Uie deceased in like man- 
nef ; and though the ecclesiastical courts will entertain 
suits for the payment of debte or legacies and the due ad- 
ministration of the assets, yet, where there is any trost to 
be executed, or any charge on real estete to be established, 
a court of equity will interfere by ii^uuctum or prohibition ; 
for the constitution of the ecclesiastical courts is not 
adapted to the administration of trusts^ and over real estete 
they have no jurisdiction. The probate is exclusive evi- 
dence of a will of personalty; but courte of equity assume 
the jurisdiction of construing the will in order to enforce 
the performance of the truste by the executor: hence 
they are sometimes styled courte of construction, in con- 
tiadistinotion to the ecclesiastical courts, which, although 
they also are courts of construction, are the only courts of 
probate. Formerly, the personal estetea only of persons 
deceased were liable for the payment of their simple con- 
tract debte; but now, since the statute 3 and 4 Wm. IV. 
c. 104, realestetes are liable for the payment of debte of 
that nature ; and it may be broadly stated that all the real 
and personal estetes of the deceased aie aasete for the pay- 

ment of his debte. The personal estate is liable in the first 
instence, unless the testetor direct otherwise. Estetes de- 
scended are applied before estetes devised; and in other 
respects the estates of the deceased are administered in the 
order laid down by the courts. 

The debte are also payable in a certain prescribed order. 
1. The funeral expenses, the expenses of probate, and the 
eoste of a suit for the administration of the estates, if any 
be instituted. 2. Debte due to the crown on record or 
specialty. 3. Certain debte, which by statute are to be 

Preferred to others, as poor-rates, by stet. 17 Geo. II. c. 38, 
Kc. 4. Debte of record, as judgments, stetutes, and recog- 
nizances. 6. Specialty debte, t. e., debte due on bonds or 
instruments unaer seal. 6. Simple contract debts, as upon 
bills of exchange and ordinary verbal engagemente. It 
seems that in this class debts due to the crown and tlie 
wages of domestic servante are entitled to priority. 

A mortgage made by the testator must, if there be no 
specified direction in his will, be paid out of the personal 
assete, if there be sufficient to pay the other creditors and 
legatees ; it is, in fiict, considered as the personal debt of 
the testetor: though, if be did not create the mortgage 
himself, but took the estete subject to the mortgage by 
purchase, inheritence, or devise, the debt, not being his 
personal engagement, must be borne by the estete itself. 
The executor must pay the debts in the order mentioned ; 
for if he apply the assete in payment of those of a lower 
degree, he will be personally answerable, to the extent 
of the assete misapplied, to the creditor of the higher 
degree. He may, however, pay a debt of an inferior degree 
ben>re one of a superior, provided he has no notice of the 
latter and a reasonable time has elapsed after the testator's 
death ; except in the case of debts of record due to the 
crown, of which the executor is bound to take notice. An 
executor or administrator may also retain his own debt as 
against creditors of an equal degree ; and he may pay any 
one or moro debte to creditors of equal degree, although 
thereby he may exhaust the assets, unless a suit or action 
be commenced against him; and even in that case he 
may, by confessing a judgment, enable a creditor to obtain 
priority. But notwithstending an action or suit be com- 
menced, he may pay a creditor of a higher degree than the 
one proceeding agaiast him ; save only where the suit is 
for a general administration of the estate, when the executor 
should not make any farther paymente. 

The debte being all paid, the next- duly of an executor 
or administrator is to pay the legacies, and distribute the 
personal estete to the next of kin of the testator if there be 
any overplus ; but where the testator has made a residuary 
legatee, he is entitled to the surplus. If the assets are not 
sufficient for the payment of the legacies, the executor must 
pay to each legatee an equal proportion of his legacy, unless 
the testator has directed the order of payment, in which case 
the legacies must be paid in full in tne prescribed order, 
and the whole loss must fkll upon the last in order. Spe- 
ciflo legatees, t. e. persons to whom a specific fund or article 
of property is given by the will, are not liable to abatement 
of their legacies, but receive the fimd or article whether the 
assets are or are not sufficient to pay die other legatees ; 
though if the fund is changed, or the article sold, or from 
any other cause is not inexistence at the death of the tes- 
tetor, the legacy fhils, or in technical language, is said to be 
adeemed. Executors and -administrators cannot be com- 
pelled to pay legacies or distribute the personal estate 
before the exjnration of a year after the decease of the 
testetor; and not even then, if notice has been acquired 
or there is reasonable grouna to suspect the existence 
of debts and liabilities. Indeed, unless the assets are of 
ample amount, the executor or administrator should not 
pay within the year, even though the testetor has directed 
it to be done ; for it has been held that such a payment 
afibrds no defence against a creditor, and the testator or 
intestete may be bound by covenants upon which subse- 
quent liabilities may accrue ; or he may have been a trustee, 
and some maladministration of the trust estate may be dis- 
covered after the lapse of many years. In these and many 
other cases, executors and administrators should not part 
with the assets until all chance of liability is at an end, or 
security be given by the parties receiving them to refund 
in case of need. This last course will sometimes be directed 
by a court of equity in a suit for a legacy ; for though au 
executor or administrator may recover from the legateea 
or next of kin to whom he has handed over the assete in 

B X E 



case of subseatiently-dUooTered debtt of the deceased* il is 
obvious tbattnis is a very insufficient and uncertain security. 
Where a legatee is an infant, or the testator has directed 
his executors to invest any portion of his estate in the funds, 
or has provided for some future payment to be made, or 
from any other cause, an investment by the executors 
becomes necessary, they are, in the absence of any express 
direction to the contrary, bound to make such investment 
in the Three per Cent Consols, that fund being considered 
by the Court of Chancery as the most desirable for the pur- 
pose of investment. The rule is inflexible, and an executor 
vvho should disregard it would run great risk of having to 
pay the costs of a suit to compel him to place the money in 
that fund, and to make gooa any loss vrhich might occur 
through the change of securities. 

Full information upon these subjects will be found in 
the works of Williams, and Toller ' On Executors,' and 
Wentworth ' On Administrators.' 

EXE'DRA HlUpa\ a name ^ven to certain open re- 
cesses in the buildings of the antients. There were nume- 
rous exodroB in the baths. Vitruvius says the spacious exe- 
drsB of the Greek pala)stra were furnished with seats. The 
exedroD were placed iu the three porticos of the palcestra. 
(Vitruvius, v. c 9.) Sometimes in houses a covered hall, 
and of a square form, was called excdra. (Vitruvius, vi. 
cap. 5.) In the disposition of the Greek house the exedrss 
were ])lace(i looking to the west. (Vitruv. vi. cap. x.) 

EXERCISE. [Analeptics.] 

EXETER, a city and a county of itself, locally in the 
hundred of Wonford, in the southern division of the county 
of Devon, of which it is the chief town; 44 miles north* 
oast from Plymouth, and 174 west by south from London. 

Exoter is supposed to have been a settlement of the 
Britons before the Roman invasion. It was then called 
•Caer-Isc' and * Caer Rydh,' the former derived from its 
situation on the Ex or Isc, the latter from the red soil on 
which the castle is built. By the Romans it was called 
Isca Dumnoniorum, to distinguish it from the Isca Silurum 
in Wales. From the number of coins, small bronze statues 
(evidently Penates), tesselated pavements, and other Roman 
antiquities discovered near the walls and in the neighbour- 
hood of the city, it must have been a Roman station of some 
importance. It is uncertain how long Exeter retained its 
appellation of Isca Dumnoniorum, but in the reign of Al- 
lied it had acquired that of Exan-Ccstre (castle on the Ex), 
whence its present name. 

In the reign of King Stephen, Baldwin Rivers, eaii of 
Devon, fortified Exeter on behalf of the Empress Maude, 
and did not yield till reduced by famine after a long siege. 
It was besieged in the r2th year of the reign of Henry VII. 
by Perkiu Warbeck, and again by the rabble of Devonshire 
and Cornwall in 1549. 

The city of Exeter was formerly surrounded by walls and 
strongly fortified. Lelaiid, in speaking of it, says, * The 
toune IS a good mile aud more in cumpace, and is i^ght 
strongly wauUid and maintained. Thcr be diverse fare 
towers in the toune waul bytwixt the south and west gate. 
There be four gates in the toune, by names of Est, West, 
North, and South. The Est and the West Gates be now 
the fairc t, and of one fascion of building : the South Grate 
hatli been the strongest.* Situated on a high eminence, 
on the north side of the town, are the ruins of the castle, 
called ' Rougemont' When this castle was first erected is 
unknown ; but it was either rebuilt or much repaired by 
William the Conqueror, who bestowed it on Baldwin de 
Briono, husband of Albrina his niece, in the possession of 
whose descendants it remained till the 14th year of the 
reign of Henry III., who then took it into his own hands. 
It was completely dismantled during the civil war, and has 
never since been rebuilt In the area of the castle>yard a 
session-house has lately been erected, which is a neal-looking 
building, faced with Portland stone, and contains, in addi- 
tion to two good-sized courts, a grand-jury room, magis- 
trates* room, &c. In front is a dne open space, where 
county, election, and other meetings are held. To the 
north of the castle is a delightful walk, shaded by fine old 
elm trees, called Northernay. Nearly in the centre of 
Exeter is the guildhall, where the assizes for the city (which 
is a county of itsclO are held, as well as the sessions, elec- 
tions, and other business relative to the city alone. The 
building contains several valuable portraits, amongst others, 
those of Henrietta Maria, Charles the First's queen, of her 
daughter Henrietta duchess of Orleans, and of General 

Monk. The only other antient building of any imporUnce 
at Exeter is the cathedral. It is uncertain when the pre- 
sent edifice was begun, but probably it was soon after the 
see of Devon was transferred to Exeter from Crediton, which 
was its locality till the year 1049. At all events it was con> 
siderably altered and enlarged by Warlewast, third bishop 
of Exeter, who was a Norman, and came over with the 
(Conqueror. It then assumed its present cruciform shape, 
but underwent numberless alterations and additions dunn;; 
the thirteenth* and fourteenth centuries. It now consists 
of a nave, 76 feet in width and 175 in length, with aisles on 
each side; two short transents, formed by two Norxnnn 
towers 130 feet in heiglit ; a choir of the same width as the 
nave, and 128 feet in length; ten chapels or oratories, and 
a chapter-house. The whole building from east to ^e*l 
(including St Mary's Chapel) is 408 feet in length. The 
western front is highly decorated with a profusion of niches 
and elegantly carved figures, and presents one of the richest 
fa9ades of any building in Europe. The towers are highU 
interesting to the antiquarv as specimens of Norman archi- 
tecture. The interior is also exceedingly fine ; the TBulted 
roof of the nave is sunported by clustered columns, sur- 
mounted by fine pointeu arches; as is also thai of the chotr. 
which is separated from the nave by a screen of exquibite 
workmanship. The chapter-house is a beautifhl edifice, 
with a handsome oak roor : it was used as a stable by Crom- 
well and his soldiers, but has since been thoroughly re- 
paired, as other parts of the building also have lately been. 

In the north aisle are the splendid monuments of Sir 
Richard and Bishop Stapleton. The organ, with the ex- 
ception of the one at Haerlem, is perhaps the large^^t in 
Europe: the large pipes are nearly twenty-three feet in 
height, and four feet in circumference. (For a fiirthcr 
account of this truly magnificent building we must refer 
the reader to Ri$don ; Oliver ; Britton's Cathedral And- 
qutties, &c. &c.) 

The city was antiently held in demesne by the crown : its 
earliest charter was granted by Henry I., and confirmed by 
Henry II. aud Richard I. The governing charter M'a« 
granted by George IH. in 1770. The corporation hold a 
court of quarter-sessions, and the assizes are held by the 
judges of the western circuit twice a year for the county of 
the city at the guildhall, and twice a year for the county at 
the session-house. There is also a countv court, and a court 
of requests for the recovery of debts under 40^., the fbrmer 
held every Tuesday, the latter once a fortnight. Petty 
sessions are held before the magistrates of the county every 
Friday at the session-house ; and some magistrate of the 
city sits every day at the guildhall. Under the Municipal 
Act, Exeter is divided into six wards, with twelve aldermen 
and thirty-six ceuncillors. 

Exeter has returned two members to parliament ever 
since the reign of Edward I. At the first election after the 
passing of the Reform Act, there were 2952 rDgistcn*d 
voters. The population of the city and borough is 28,242, 
of whom 15,559 are females. There are not many manu- 
factories, and the population is chiefly employed in handi- 
craft and the retail trade. 

The city of Exeter comprises the parishes of Allhallows, 
Allhallows on the Walls (the church of which has been de- 
molished), St. Edmund, St. George, St John, St. Kerrian. 
St Lawrence, St Martin, St. Mary Arches, St Mary Ma- 
jor, St. Mary Steps, St. Olave, St Pancras, St. Paul, Si. 
Petrock, St. Sidwell, St. Stephen, and the Holy Trinit>. 
and the parochial chapelries of St. David and St. Sid well, 
and the extra-parochial precincts of the Cathedral Clo^* 
and Bedford Chapel, all in the archdeaconry and diocese of 
Exeter. There are besides these several other chapels, as 
well as places of worship for Baptists, Quakers, Independ- 
ents, Wesleyan and other Methodists, Unitarians, Catholics 
and Jews. 

The town is pleasantly situated on a steep acclivity on 
the river Ex, over which a handsome stone bridge was 
erected in the year 1778, at an expense of about 20,000/., & 
little above the site of an antient bridge originally built in 
1250. The streets, with the exception of the High Street 
and Fore Street are generally narrow, but there are some 
handsome squares and terraces in Northernay, Soutbemay, 
&C., which contain many well-bnilt houses. The town is 
lighted with gas, and well supplied with vrater by water- 
works erected in 1794. The subscription ball-room is one 
of the finest country ball-rooms in England ; it measuTes 
eighty feet by forfy, and is vety handsomely fitted up. There 



B X O 

in paragto . 

Exchequer Domesday, 


poterat ire quo volebat (torn, 
i., fol, 97 6.) 

qvareatena • • 



Exeter Dotnesday, 


poterat sibi eligere domiiium 
BecundumToTuntatem &uMa 
cum terra sua (fol. 3b3). 



gi'iva . • • nemuscuiuiu 

T. R. E. {tempore regit Ed- Pie qua rex Edwardu* fttit 

tain us 

Terra est viii. car. 
Teira Regis 

Tot urn valet xxi. lib. 

vivus et mortuus 


possunt arare viii. caiT. 

Dominicalus Regis, (and in 
one instance) dominicatua 
Regis ad regnum pertinent 

Hsc mans, reddit ad opoa 
abb. X. & viii, lib. et ad 
opus tagnorum iii- lib. 

The utility of tbis record for tbe purpose of oompariaoii 
vilh tbe Excbequer Domesday is obvious. The JExeter 
Domesday was published with several other surveys nearly 
contemporary, by order of the Commissioners upon the 
Public Records, under the direction of Sir Henry Ellis, in 
a volume supplementary to The Great Domesday, folio, 
London, 1816. Our account of this record is chiefly derived 
from the Introduction to that volume. 

EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD, was originally 
founded in 1314, by Walter de Stapledon, bishop of Exeter, 
and some time lord high treasurer of England, and was 
then called Stapledon Hall. The bishop removed hither 
hts scholars from Hart Hall, and made a foundation for a 
rector and twelve fellows. Of these thirteen he directed 
that eight should be elected from the archdeaconries of 
Exeter, Totness, and Barnstaple ; four from the archdea* 
oonry of Cornwall ; and that ona should be nominated by 
the dean and chapter of Exeter, from any place they might 
deem most fit, provided that he was in priest's orders. In 
] 404 Edmund Stafford, bishop of Exeter, added two fellow- 
ships from the diocese of Salisbury, and obtained leave to 
^ve the college its present name. In 1565 Sir William 
Fetrc, knight, secretary of state, and privy counaellor to 
Henry Vlft., Edward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen EHxa- 
beth, added eight fellowships for the counties of Devon, 
Somerset, Dorset, Oxford, Essex, and any others in England 
in which he or his heirs might have lands or possessiona. 
These counties at present are Norfolk, Suffolk, Middlesex, 
Hampshire, and Kent. Charles I., in 1636, annexed one 
fellowship for the islands of Jersey and Guernsey, tlie can- 
didates for which are nominated by the dean and jurats of 
one of these islands alternately. Lastly, Mrs. Shiers, who 
died in 1700, left certain rents, out of which twofellow* 
ships were founded for the counties of Hertford and Surrey, 
to which the five senior fellows alone elect. The candidates 
fbr all fellowships in this college are required by tbe 
statute to be, at least. Generates SojihiHce in the university. 
The day of election is the 30th of June, except for the 
Hertford and Surrey vacancies, when it is on St Stephen's 
day. The present foundation consists of a rector and 
twenty-five fellows, besides whom there are numeroua 
scholarships and exhibitions : and among theee, three Eton 
Collegers, appointed by the provost and fellows of Eton ; 
three from Exeter school, nominated alternately by the 
dean and chapter and chamber of Exeter ; two from Truro 
school, nominated by the trustees of that school; and two 
from Exeter school. Two scholarships have been more 
rec^^ntly founded by a bequest of the late William Giffoid, 
for nntives of the county of Devon, with a preference to 
candidates from the school of Ashburton. 

Among the eminent men who have received their educa- 
tion here may be enumerated John de Trevisa, Sir John 
Fortescuc, Sir John Doddridjije, Sir William Noy, Joseph 
Caryl, Anthonv Ashley Cooper, Ljrd Shaftesbury, Maun- 
drell the traveller, John and Charles Wesley, Toup, Tindal 
the coiitiniiator of Rapin, and Dr. Kennicot. 

The front of the college, which is opposite Jesus Col- 
lege, extends two hundred and twenty feet, with a large 
central gateway, consisting of a rustic basement, from which 
spring four pilasters of the Ionic order, supporting a semi- 
circular pediment, crowned by a balustrade. TYie greater 
of this front was renewed in 1835 with Bath stone, 
hall was erected by Sir John Adand in 1620. The 

chapel, begun in 1622-3, was conip]«t6d by Dr. Ckorgo 
Hakewill, afterwarda rector. The library was erected in 
1 7 78, after a design of the Utte Rev. W. Crowe, public orator. 

On the a 1st December, ltt36, there were 304 memben 
upon the eoUego books. There are twelve benefices in the 
patronage of this sooiety, one of which, the vicarage uf 
Kidlington, in Oxfordshire, is annexed to the reetotBliip. 
Tbe bisnop of Exeter is the visitor of this eoUege. 

(Chalmers's Hist, qf the Colleger and HiaUe qf Oxford. 
ftvo., Oxf., 1810, vol. i., p. 62-76; Oxford Unip,and Ctty 
Guide, 8vo. ; Oc/brrf Univ. Calendar, 1837.) 

EXETER. [New Hampshirb.] 



EXHIBIT, a deed or writhig proved by a witness or ad- 
mitted by the parties in a suit in chancery, in the equity 
side of the Court of Exchequer, or in bankruptcy. 

EXHIBITION. [School.] 

EXILE. [Banisbmbnt.] 

EXMOUTH. [Dbvonshibb.] 

EXOCA'RPEifi, asmall division ofThymelaceens plants. 
fTn V u b lac b jB.l 

E'XODUS, THE BOOK OF, is the second of tbe Penta- 
teuch, or Five Books of Moses, and derives its name from the 
fnncipal event recorded in it, namely the departure of the 
sraelites from the land of Egypt, which, in the Oreek Sop- 
tuagint translation, is expressed by the word 6xodosC£(M*t •. k 
that is, the going out. In the original Hebrew it is namo«l, 
according to the usual Jewish mode, Arom the initial words 
/DDtff rhw uolh ehmut, or, as read with the Ma^uritir 
points, Ve-aleh Shemoth, 'These are the names.' lU* 
book records the slavery and cruelty endured by the d«'- 
scendauts of Israel (Jacob) under the kings of Egypt ; the 
birth, exposure, and preservation of Moses; his ttiKUt lui.i 
Midian ; his divine mission to Pharaoh (at the age of ho : 
7); the miracles performed by him and bis eldtr 



brother, Aaron ; the ten plagues inflicted on the Egyptian^ 
the institution of the Passover ; the departure of the Unt i- 
ites from Egypt ; their miraculous passage across the Ri-^l 
Sea; the destruction of the Egyptian army; the jourm«>- 
ings of the Israelites in the Arabian desert; their murmur- 
ings against God and Moses ; their resumption of the E^> p* 
tian worship of the calf under the direction of Aaron, aix) 
their consequent punishment; the promulgation of the l.i^ 
from Mount Sinai; and the erection of the tabcrnac]i\ or 
portable temple. The king, Pharaoh (a general Ktryptum 
appellation of royalty), for whom the Israelites built ihv 
treasure cities, and by whom their male children wen* 
ordered to be drowned (chap, i.) is usually considered b) t . <• 
commentators to be Ixameses, the eldest son of Scbrvtn- : 
and the Pharaoh whose army perished in the Re<l ^^(a 
(xiv. 27) is supposed to be his son and successor, Amon>> 
phis the Second, of according to others, the Thiid. Le IV iv 
Pezron says he was Pharaoh Alisphragmuthosis, b} bli- 
the Hyksos, or Phoenician Shepherds, were expelled tr- 
Lower E^ypt, whence the Israelites departed. The ham<- 
ehionologist makes the establishment of the Sh(>|>hipl 
dynasty at Heliopolis coincident with the appearancv tht-u* 
of Joseph from Canaan. (See the Dissertation r*/ Pen- 
sonitts on the identity qf the Hyksos and the Hf^brrtr* i 
The Mo&aio exodus is noticed by several anticnt W!it«'«'. 
but with brevity and apparent contempt. The EL'>|t' m 
historians, Manethon ana Chteremon, as cited by Jom'i \ *.^ 
(Against Apion, 1. i., c. 9, ]], 12), state that 2.>c».i«'» 
leprous people, and others atflicted with contagious di<i*a>< -^ 
were banished from Egypt {Exod. xii., 39, 'they wore thru-' 
out of Egypt') by king Amenophis; and that their rt- rf 
was a priest of Heliopolis named Mo^es, ^ho fu^)l^h« J 
them with a system of religion and laws. (See a ^i^1lU^ 
account in Joseph us. Hist., 1. v. c. 34 ; Tacitus, //rW.. 1. ^ 
c. 3; Diodorus Sic. in Photii Biblioth,, 1. xxxiv. ; Ju^n-i. 
1 . xxxvi, c. 2.) 

The period over which the history in the book of K\i«(!".« 
extends consists of 145 years, that is, from the dratb "t 
Joseph (B.C. 1635) to the formation of the tabernacle in th<* 
desert^of Arabia (b.c. 1490), one year after the exodc it. 
the year b.c. 1491. Mr. Home, in his • Introduction to tlu* 
Bible,* adopts the general opinion of commentators that tl'L* 
book was written by Moses, yet he thinks that it cannot U 
determined at what time of his life ; but, as it ia %tatol 
(xvi. 35) that ' the children of Israel did eat manna 4* 
years until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan* 
that isy on the banks of the Jordan» opposite Jerieho, wb«o 

fi X o 


£X O 

and where MuiM died {Gen. xxxiv.)t and, 'as things cannot 
be historically related/ as Mr. Home observes, * until thejr 
have actually taken place/ it is evident that, if Moses is 
the author, he must have written it immediately before his 
death (b.c. 1451). It must be observed however that, among 
biblical critici and chronologistfi a great difference of 
opinion exists as to what date should be assigned to the 
departure of the Jews from Egypt, and as to the book of 
Exodus being written by Moses. In chronological works 
the exodus forms the fourth grand epocha in the antieiit 
history of the world : thus, 1 . The creation of Adam. 2. 
The Deluge of Noah. 3. The call of Abraham (his emi- 
gration from Chaldcea into Canaan). 4. The Departure 
of tile Israelites from Egypt. This last event, according to 
the Hebrew text of the Scriptures, took place B.C. 1491 ; 
but according to the Samaritan text, which is the primitive 
Hebrew (Dr. A. Clarke) it occurred 267 years earlier, that is, 
B.C. 1 758. The learned Pezron (* Canon Chronologique,' 
in liis • Di^'fense de TAntiquit^ des Terns,' 4to, 1691) adopt- 
ing, with improvements, the chronology of the Alexandrine 
ver!)ion, or Greek Septuagint, which adds 1 500 years to the 
Hebrew age of the world, determines the exodus to have 
taken place a.m. 3953, and B.C. 2019. Whiston, Kennioott, 
Jackson, Brett, Hay, Gcddes, and other divines, adopt the 
Greek chronology. Archbishop Usher (* Annalcs Vet. et 
Nov. Test') prefers that of the Hebrew text. Dr. Andrews, 
in his * Heb. Diet, and ChrohoL' 1 823, puts the exodus 
B.C. 1677. (See Dr. H ales's -4wa/ym o/ Chronology ; Sir 
John Marsliam's Chronicon Egyptiarunh Ed. ; Simson's 
Vhronicon Catholicon, Lugd., fbl. 1752; J. G. Frankius^ 
Novum Sysiema Chronol., Gotting., fol. 1778; R. C. Be- 
ningsen, Bibiische Zeitrechnung, Leips., 1763; Walker's 
Analysis of THme, 1796 ; Remarks on the Bible Chronology, 
If'SO ; Criteria for determining the accuracy of Scripitire 
Chronol., by J. CuUimore, 1830, p. 13.) 

Moses, according to St. Justin, Tatian, Clemens Alex- 
andrinus, TertuUian, Julius Africanus, and other Christian 
Fathers, as well as Josephus, Justus, Manethon, Ptolemeaus 
of Mendes, Apion of Alexandria, Porphyry, and others* 
is supposed to have been contemporary with Inachus, whom 
the chronologists place from 270 to 450 years earlier 
than the birth of Moses according to the Hebrew text. 
(Du Pin, Biblioth, Univer. ; Du Fresnoy, ChronoL) In the 
rhronicon of Eusebius, the author of the Pentateuch is 
made contemporaneous with Cecrops, who became king of 
Athens {Arund, Marb.) 11 years before the birth of Moses 
iH»'b. text), and, according to Pezron, 130 years after the 
(!eaih of Moses. (Heb. text.) 

That the Pentateuch is not the production of Moses has 
Icon the opinion of many learned critics, both Christians 
and Jews, as Aben Ezra, Maimonides, Le Clerc, Dr. Mid- 
'lljton, Newton ; and in Germany it is generally prevalent 
anionic the philosophical theologists of the ra^'oyia/ school 
of Eichhorn. Dr. Gexldes, who was deeply imbued with the 
(ierinau rationalism, makes the following statement in the 
preface to his new translatbn of the Bible from the Hebrew 
in i vols. 4to. : — ' From intrinsic evidence three things to me 
S'em indubitable. I. ITie Pentateuch in its present form 
\\^» not written by Moses. 2. It was written in the land of 
Canaan, and most probably at Jerusalem. 3. It oould not 
he written before the reign of David, nor after that of Heze- 
kiah. I would refer it to the reign of Solomon.' That is, about 
Bc. 1000, in or near the age of Homer and 500 years after 
that of Moses. Eichhorn (Einleitung in das kite Test,, 
vol ii. p. 245,) believes the first two chaptero of Exodus 
to have been taken from the historical documents out of^ 
vhich the book of (jenesis apparently was compiled. (See 
Astruc. Conjectures sur les Memoires on'sinaux dont il 
f<armt que Moise s*est servi pour composer la Ginise, 12mo. 
Brussels. 1753.) By the Jews the Book of Exodus is 
divided into 1 1 parasches, or chapters, and 22 siderira, or 
sections. In English Bibles it is comprised in 40 chapters. 
Various passages and expressions in Exodus involve appa- 
rent difficulties which have exercised the critical skill of 
eun-y commentator. All chronologists agree that from the 
time of the immigration into "Rgl^t of Israel and his feraily 
(70 persons, chap, i.) to the exodus, was only 215 years ; the 
430 years mentioned xii. 40 signifying this period and 
a previous one of 215 years to the call of Abrabam. The 
numeral increase of the children of Israel is therefore 
v-onsidered to be very unusual, since, in xii. 37, 38, it 
is ^aid there were 600,000 men on foot, besides children 
and a mixed multitude, the total number, as computed by 

Dr. Adam Clarke in his Commentary, being 3,263,0041 
They are said to have been ^ more and mightier' than 
the Egyptians, ' very migbty' (L 9, 20), to have gone out 
with their 'armies' (xii. 51) 'harnessed,' that is, accoutred 
for battle (xiii. 18); and 'with a high hand' (xiv. 8), 
' with flocks, and herds, and very much cattle' (xii. 38), 
but as they are also said to have been slaves to the Egyp- 
tians, who ' made them serve with rigour and hard bondage, 
in mortar, brick, and all manner of service in the field' 
(i. 14) — to have been led out of their nearest way to 
Canaan, lest, on seeing war with the Philistines, they 
should repent, and return to Egypt (xiii. 17), and to 
have been ' sore afraid' ai the sight of the Egyptians' 
marching after them (xiv. 10), some commentators un- 
derstana the word O^DH pmshim^ to mean not harnessed, 
but slung together five in a string. Clonceming the crimi- 
nality of the Israelite women in borrowing and appropriating 
jewels and raiment of the Egyptians by the divine direc- 
tion (iii. 21, 22, and xi. 2), and God's hardening the 
heart of Pharaoh (iv. 21), see Explanations of Scrip- 
ture Difficulties, compiled by W. C&rpenter, p. 35, &c. 
In xn. 1 5 it is stated that the Israelites, when they first 
saw the manna, said one to another, ' It is manna, for they 
wist not what it was;' and in xxxviii. 8 of the English 
translation, it is said that the laver of brass was 
made of the looking-glasses of the women who assembled 
at the door of the tabernacle. These inconsistencies are 
avoided by Dr. C^eddes; and he observes that the word 
jnK*10* mrath, translated looking-glasses, occurs in a 
hundred other places, but in no instance signifies the 
antient metallic mirrors. The ten miraculous plagues in- 
flicted on the Egyptians are described in the following 
places:—!. Water turned into blood, vii. 14 — 25. 2. 
The land covered with frogs, viii. 1—15. 3. The dust of 
the land turned to lice, viii. 16—19. 4. The swarms of 
flies, viiL 20—32. 5. The murrain and death of all the 
cattle. 6. Ashes produce boils and blains on man and 
beasts, ix. 8—12. 7. The storms of devastating hail* 
rain, and fire. ix. 13—35. 8. All the land covered with 
locusts, X. 1—20. 9. Three days of darkness which 
might be felt, x. 21—27. 10. The death of all the first 
bom of man and beast, xL 5—7 and xii. 29, 30. The 
learned writer in the ' Universal History,' vol. 3, p. 374, 
shows that the Egyptian magicians and sorcerers were per- 
mitted to exhibit the power of the devil for the sake of 
exposing his comparative impotence ; thus, although * they 
did m like manner with their enchantments,' (vii. and viii.) 
in makine their rods become serpents, in turning the Nile 
into blood, and in covering the land with frogs, yet, they 
could not, as Aaron did, turn the dust of the land into 
lice (viii. 18.) Jacob Bryant in his 'Treatise on the 
Ten Plagues,' 8vo., 1810, explains their adaptation to the 
peculiar character, habits, and notions of the Egyptian 
people, so as to cause the greatest possible aggravation of 
suffering and misery. The latter half of the 40 chapters of 
Exodus are occupied in announcing the civil, moral, and 
ceremonial law, and in describing &e numerous articles of 
Aimitiu^ utensils, and sacerdotal raiment, for the celebra- 
tion of sacrificial service in the tabeniacle, or moveable 
teinple, erected as a tent in the desert The value of the 
gold appropriated to the vessels and ornaments of the ady- 
tum, or holy place, is sUted in xxxviii. 24 at 29 talents and 
730 shekels of gold. Each of the former being 5464/. bs, %^ 
and each of the latter 1/. 16«.5i||(l, they amount to 159,793/. 
lU. 3dL, that is, nearly 160,000/. 

Many learned men, in observing the similarity of the 
Mosaic and Egyptian ritual and religious institutions as 
described in various antient writings, have assigned a 
greater antiquity to the latter, and contended that the 
former were a mere imitation. Dr. Geddes asserts that 
Moses made a selection and judicious composition from 
the antient Egyptian institutions. (See especially Spen- 
cer, De Legibus Hebraicorum; Sir John Marsham*s (fhro^ 
nicon Egyjotiacum; Jablonski's Pantheon Mgyptiorum; 
Ikenius, Dissertatio de InstituHs et Ceremoniis Legis.) 
Plutarch iDe Iside) and other antient authors prove 
that Jehovah or Jao was the sacred name of (xod among 
the Egyptian priests; and that it was not known to 
the Israelites before their residence in Egypt is stated 
in Exod, vi. 3. The ' I AM * of chap. iii. 1 4 is compared with 
the Egyptian inscription on the personification of the uni- 
verse, * I am all that is.' (See Plutarch, tripi rov Et Iv AeXipoTg,) 
Aaxon's oracular breast-plate (xxviii. 15-— 30) is thought 

E XO 11 

to be idantieil with thit of the EgrptUn diief jndgs, m de- 
Bcribed bf Diodonu Sir. 1. i. c 3, sec 26. 

The learned Huet, Vouius, knd olhots Kivfl curious pa- 
rallols of the birth, life, uid deeds of Hoees with ibe primitive 
Egypli&n Bacchus, but this ia not more stnnge than the 
t of OriKcn, wbo says in his ' Homily on Exodus' 

(See The Scholia of Dnthe. RosemuHer. Schuls, Bauer, itnd 
Eichhom; Wniet's Hmapla or Sixfold Comment on Exo- 
dut; Tratulatioiu and CommenU. by Ainsworlb, Hopkins, 
and Bishop Kidder; Dr. A. Clarke's BittU; Home's Intro- 
duetion, and list in Watt's BibHol/ieea.) 

G'XOGENS, the Isrjiest primary class in the vegetable 
kingdom, are so named in consequence of their woody 
matter being auj^ented by additions to the outside of that 
which is first formed near the centre. As lon^; as they con- 
tinue to grow they add new wood to the outside of that 
formed in the previous year, in which respect they differ 
essentially from Endogens, whose wood is constructed by 
Buccessive augmentations from the inside, [Ekdoqens.] 
All the trees of cold climates, and the principal part of 
those in hot latitudes, are e.vogcnous. In many cases they 
are easily recoi^ised by the wood of each different year 
forming a distinct lone, so that a section of their wood ex- 
hibits K number of concentric circles ; but there are so 
many exceptions to Ibis rule as to render it necessary to 
consider this character a* by no means essential to them. 

The nature of the exogenous mode of growth will be best 
compared with that of an Endogen, if we pursue the same 
node of illustration as in the article which treats of the 
latter form. We wilt therefore proceed from an explanation 
of the typical mode of growth in a common Exogen to such 
remarks as we may have to offer upon deviations from iL 

Iti an Bxngen of ordinary structure the embryo consists 
of a cellular basis, in which there is usually no trace of 
woody or vascular tissue; but as soon as germination com- 
mences fine ligneous cords are seen proceeding from the 
cotyledons towards the radicles from the opposite sides of 
the young stem, meeting in the centre of the embryo, 
fijrming a thread-like axis for the root.* As the parts grow 
the ligneous cords are increased in thickness and number, 
and having been introduced among the cellular basis of the 
embryo, arc separated from each other by e portion of the 
cellular Euhs'.ance, nhich continues to augment both in 
length and breadth as the woody cords lengthen. By de- 
grees the plumule or rudimentary stem becomes organized, 
and having leugthenod a little, forms upon its surface one, 
two, or moro true leaves, which gradually expand into thin 
plates of cclhilar substance traversed by ligneous cords or 
veins convei^ing at the point of orijrin of the leaves. If at 
that lime the interior of the young plant is again examined, 
it will be found that more ligneous cords have been added 
fh)m the base of the new leaves down to the cot]*ledons, 
where they have formed a junction with the Brst wood, and 
have served to thicken the woody matter dcvelope<l upon 
the first growth. Those ligneous cords which proceed from 
the base of the leaves do not unite in the centre of the new 
stem, there forming a solid axis, but pass down parallel with 
the outside, and leave a small space of cellular tissue in the 
middle ; they themselves being collected into a hollow 

alinder, and not uniting in the middle until they reach 
at point where the woody cords of the cot}'ledons meet to 
form the solid centre of the root Subsequently the stem 
goes on lengthening and forming new leaves : from each 
leaf there may be again (raced a formation of woody matter 
disposed cylindrically as before, and uniting with that pre- 
viously formed, a cylinder of cellular substance being left in 
the middle ; and the solid woody centre of the root pro- 
ceeds in its growth in a corresponding ratio, lengthening a* 
the stem lengthens, and increasing in diameter as the leaves 
unfold and new woody mailer is produced: the result of 
which is, that when the young Exogen has arrived at the 
end of its first year's growth it baa a root with a solid woody 
axis, and a stem with a hollow woodr axis surrounding cel- 
lular tissue, the whole being covered in by a cellular inte- 
gument But as the woody cords are merely plunged into 
a cellular basis, the latter passes between tliem in a radi- 
ating manner, connecting the centre with the circum- 
ference by straight passages, often imperceptible to the 

■ In Ihranlelf Einioam IIh nmiStt It nqsntad to mik* Ihs fellovfai 
»mctlMi la the rul) put of Oil toafh |«™i™phi— lbi(Si,A.ii.39») jt3 

Here wo have the origin of pith in the centisl ullaW 
tissue of the stem, of tcood in the woody axis, of bark in 
the cellular integument, and of medullarj/ proeeue* in the 
radiating passages of cellular tissue connecting the centre 
with the circumrerencB. 

The woody axis is not however aujte homogeneous at thia 
time. That part which is next the centre cantaina great 
numbers of ^-«Bsels of different kinds, particularly dotted 
vessels (vasiform tissue); the part next the circumference 
is altogether destitute of vessels, and consists of woody 
tissue exclusively : of these two parts that with the vewels 
belongs to the wood, properly so called, and serve* as a 
mould on which future wood ig added ; the other belongs Is 
the bark, separates under the form of liber, and in like 
manner serves as a mould upon which future liber is dis- 

At the commencement of a second year's growth the 
liber separates spontaneously from the true wood, a viscid 
substance called cambium is secreted between them, and 
the stem again lengthens, forming new leaver o\'er its 
surface. The ligneous oords in the leaves are ptolonfced 
into the stem, pa.ssing down among the cambium, and 
adhering in part to the wood and in part to tho liber c f 
the previous year, the former again having vessels inter- 
mingled with them, the latter having none. The cel- 
lular tissue that connected the wood and liber is softened 
by the cambium, and grows between them horiionlally while 
they grow perpendicularly, cxlendinq to make room fi>r 
them, and consequently interposed between the wowly 
cords of which ihcy each consist, forming in fact a nea m-i 
of medullary processes terminating on the one hand in 
those of the first year's wood, and on the other in thu~i' of 
the first year's liber. Thia addition of new matlcr lakci 
place equally in the stem and in the root, the latter exlrad- 
ing and dividing at its points.and receiving the ends of ihe 
woody cords as Ibev diverge from the main body. The 
following diagram illustrates this, and shows, when com- 
pared with the last, what difference there is in the appear- 
of the stem of an Exogen one and two years old. 

And thus, year after year, the Exogen goes on, forming 
zone upon zone of wood, which is permanent, and xone 
within Eone of Uber, which perishes as tbe stem incretkcs 
in diameter. [Bark.} 

If this account is compared with that already given of 
Endogeng, it muat be obvious that the stem of iheae two 
great classes is formed from the very beginning in an es>en- 
tially different manner. Endogena have no rylindnnl 
column of piih ; their woody arcs ore never oollecled into s 
cylinder, through the sides of which the cellular tiuin 
passes in the form of medullary processes ; and tbe woody 
matter of their bark, so to call their cortical integument, 
is not parallel with that of Ihe wood and spontaneou^U 
separabletrom it; not to speak of important anatomical dil- 
fereiices, or of the concentric arrangement eventually as- 
sumed by the wood of Exogens. The only points in which 
the growth of tbe stem of Exogens corresponds with thit 
of Endogena are the following: in both cluse* the wood/ 

tMtter tt eoiniMtvd with Uie twves; in both & cellular 
(ubiUDM u the basis of the whole alructuro, and estenda 
boriiontall]' wherever it is nccessaiy to do so ; and in eer- 
Itin Bxogeni woody arcs, stated to be like those of Bado- 
gens. are found in the pith. These cases properly belong 
10 nnatnolous forms, but nevertheless may be noticed here, 
in cansequence of their direct connection with Ibie branch 
of the subject. One case is that of Zamia: but as that 
gnus now belongs to the new class of Gyiunospernis and 
Doi to Exogena proper, it need not be considered here. 
Tbe other cases are Piper, Nyctagineceous plunts, and some 
oibers. Proffessor Schulli stale* (NaiiirlitAes Sytlem del 
PItBtxenrncht, p. 320, &c.) that in Piper, Mirabilis, and 
Boeiliaavia, the central part of the stem consists of cellular 
Uitue, amongst which cords of spiral vessels and woody 
tnsue arc placed either without order, or (in Boerhaa\ia> in 
a cruciate manner as in Iree-fems, and that on the outaide of 
ihis the woody bundles are arranged circularly into a cylin- 
der. A similar statement had long previously been made 
bjMirbel. who ascribes to Mirabilis and some UmboHiferoua 
plants lonntiiditia! vessels in the pilh {Etna, de Physiol. 
Vtsfl. i. 112), and hy Professor Meyer, who flnds the pilh 
of Mirabilis loneiflora and dichotoma, Bcerhaavia scanilens, 
mdOxybaphusCervantesii abounding in many large bundles 
ufaijiral vesKls within the woody radiated tone. {De Houl- 
layaia alque Saururei$, p. 40.) This, if ctjrreclly de- 
wribed, only shows that in certain Kxi^ns a portion of 
Ibe central tissue is placed at lir^t in a confused manner, 
lod ibiit Ibe wood does not assume a definite rircular dis- 
position till afterwards; thai it does assume il eventuutly is 
»'lmiiied. We find in Piper nigrum and Lonchiiis that from 
th« be^nnmg the woody bundle;^ are placed circulatty, but 
iheyareseparalixl by a good deal of cellular li&sue, and do not 
tsiume ill th« first lone the wedge-like or triangular form 
which is most common in Exo|;eiis, and whiub ibey lliem- 
whcs at last lake on. In Boerhaavia repanda, a specimen of 
»hich is now before us, wo find the wood regulai ly disiwsed 
10 two zones, ftnd instead of spiral vessels a very sinjjular 
iirocture in the pilh, which is filled with fistular passages 
of \i\ Boft spheroidal cellular tissue surrounded by smaller, 
harder, and more cubical cellular tissue which passes nlT 
inta ihe medullary processes. It is in such plants as Piper 
incsnum that the orgoniialion of Esogcns most nearly 
spproachea that of Endogens ; but in tlie first place Ihe 
■hole race of Pipers forms a sort of transition from Exogens 
to Araceou.4 Endogens; and leconitly, it is probable that 
when they are most endogenous in appearance they are 
sol really ao in rsgard to the Qnal development of thair 
•oody tissue. 

Let it however be admitted that in certain cases Exi^ens 
■re, in the centre of their stem, organized less regularly 
iliiii usual; this will offer ne argument in favour of their 
uialogy with Endogens. In all such cases it will be found 
that they eventually assume their typical conformation. 
We are acquainted with some striking proofa of this. 
Amon); twining plants of tropicklcountriee, we occaaionaUj 
' ' ' IS like the foUawing — 

Beneath a most irregularljr comprMsed and lobed bark 
Ibtru lies a mass of wuod, apparently so confused and irre- 
;iilar in iu arrangement in the centre, that nothing sym- 
meificol can be made out by the most acute observer ; but 
i< Hill be seen that towards the circumference it distinctly 
ufiumcs the radiated appearance of an Eiogen. In other 
"w^ where the structure is sufficiently regular, this cir- 
ramsiance is itill more dintinctly dlustraled. 

It u howe\er more commonly et the centre that we took 

^r l\pical structure, and at the circumference that we find 

■tr^ulariiy; as if Bxogeasusnaily commenced their growth 

P. C, No. 610. 

es coroinv into operaiion and controlling their develop- 
t afier they have advanced to a certain stage in their 
growth. Thus in the singular instances shown in cula 
D, E, F, and G, the principal part of the stem is so con- 
fused and irregular as to look more like an Bndogen than 
an Exogen, and a fragment might easily be mistaken for 
the former; nevertheless in a young and tolerably regular 
shoot (D) tile radiated appearance is sufficieiilly well 
marked ; and in two others, irregular and distorted as they 
are (E and G). the central pilh is Vl:^ible, although far out 
of the centre; and in the fourth (F) tlia centre has not 
only pilh, but a radiated sinicture that is quite regular. 

By fiir the most singular case of this sort is in an un- 
known twining plant in our possession from the Malayan 
Archipelago, of which the cuts U and I are repreeentatiuns 
In old sleius of this plant a section exhibits a most irregular 
combination of wood, looking like palm wood, broken up 
into lobed cords lying amongst still more irregular oeUulu 

tissue, and melosed in a common bark ; so that we douW 
whether it would be possible to tell to which class it really 
belongs, if it were not for its young shoots and the pilh 
of the old ones. The latter may be seen lying quite out o^ 
~ e centre towards one side (near the bottom of our figuri^ 
little to the right); and in the former (H> the pith is 
found with wood radiating around it, although still with 
sufficient irregularity. 

le cases already given are evidences of exogenous wood 
being sometimes extremely diOorent from the condition in 
which we see it in Europe, and attest the necessity of 
fiirming our ideas of its nature &Dm a more extended ex- 
amination than that which is commonly given to it. Several 
curious cases have been previously pubiislied by the author 
of this article [Introduction to Botany, eAiXiott i, p. 77, &e.), 
and others have been noticed by other writers, but the sub- 
ject has been so liule investigated that we ghidly avaU «ur 
■^ Vol. X.-R 

ti: X o 



selves of the present opportunity of making knovn 

additional facts. 

Irregularity in the structure of exogenous wood is usually 
owing either to a confused disposition of the tissue at some 
particular period of the growth, or to some derangement of 
the medullary processes, or to the absence of concentric 
circles, or to the formation of a deep zone of cellular tissue 
alternately with each zone of wood; or, finally, to the pro- 
duction of wood within the bark instead of beneath it. The 
first cause has been already sufficiently illustrated. 

The sinuosity and partial obliteration of the medullary 
processes is a principal cause of the anomalous appearances 
at figs. D, E, r, G, where they are reduced to fine lines 
only visible beneath a microscope, and not radiating from 
the centre, but disposed in no certain manner, some- 
times even transversely, owing to the excessive disturb- 
ance of the wood itself In fig. I, the sin^^ularity of 
structure is owing in part to the excessive irregularity with 
which the wood has been dcvelupcd, and iu part to the 
loosenf ss and irregular shape of the medullary rays, which 
seem huddled as it were round the woody cords ; the latter 
are moreover extremely variable in size, some of them 
being as much as half an inch in diamcti^r, and others so 
small as to consist of no moro than a single vessel with its 
usual coating of woody tissue. 

The absence of concentric circles is an extremely fre- 
quent occurrence in tlie wood of tropical countries, and it 
IS almost certain that many families of Exogens never form 
them visibly under any circumstances, "We say visibly, be- 
cause in fact they must be annually formed in all cases, 
although we do not see them. The reason why Exogens 
have their wood marked by concentiie circles is, that the 
ligneous tissue formed at the end of a season is more com- 
pact than that formed at the beginning, and hence, as the 
two are in juxtaposition, the ditference in their density dis-. 
tinctly separates the ono from the other. But if, from any 
cause, — whether proper to plants as species or owing to the 
exiernal iiilluenco of an ec{uabiu climate — the tissue of wood 
formed ot all seasons is exactly alike, no zone will be visi- 
ble, although in fact the formation of the wood is exogenous 
in the most rcguhir manner. Such cases are seen ^i figs. 
K, L, S, and elsewhere in the illustrations of the present 

It is not a little remarkable however that while the wood 
in some ca>eA has no trace of zones, the bark should show 
them most distinctly, as in the instance o{fig. K. 

When a deep zone of cellular substance is formed between 
each zone of wiH)d, a curious banded appearance is produced, 
as in the .Mrigular Indian climber marked N M O P Q, where 
extremely excentrical growth is combined with this pecu- 
liarity. At N we have the stem two years old, the second 

lona jMisatng pretty regularly round the flnt and eut oil 
from It by a broad deep band. At M the speoimeii Uof tb« 
same age, but the second zone is formed on one ikU onl>. 

At O the specimen is two years old, with the first zone p. r- 
feet, but the second broken up into a number of uucu 
irregular pieces, and it would seem as if a third growth !i.i : 
commenced on one ^ide (to the left of the cut). At P t Ik- 
growth is of three zones, both the second and third bc>:!$; 
much lobed, and the third only extending three quaru-r^ 
round the second. Finally, at Q, where the irregularity i^ 
the greatest, there is a growth of fbur zones, the fir^t ^\ lu- 
metrical, the second very much deeper on one aide than ti:e 
other, the third but half surrounding the second, and Uit 
fourth formed only along two ridges on the third. 

If it happens that, in addition to the presence of a thu k 
cellular layer between each zone, the medullary proce^^i-^ 
are also very thick, an appearance still difiercnl from the 
last is produced, as tXflg, R. 

That wood is sometimes formed in the hark itself h.i< 
been long since shown byMirbel, inthecaaeof Calycanthu<» 
tloridus, where four additional woody columns appear equi- 
distant in the bark, without any separate pith, hut radiatr*^ 
from their first line of origin. We are now acquainted « itii 
many such cases. In fig. T are the commencement of fuux 
such columns at a on one side; but in thatspceimen t>^ 
further indication of such a structure isA'isible ; hut %ifie> U. 
which is the same plant at a more advanced stage of gTx>wth. 
four such columns on one side and one on the other ha^e 
acquired considerable size, and each radiates towards the 
circumference of the stem. As in the Calycanthas« h> 
iu these and hi all the other instances of the same kind, 
which these cuts represent (see F, K, and 8X the woudv 
columns of the bark are destitute of pith. 

Perhaps what we have called the sepantion ci Mnmm of 

«ood ■ thick layers of cdlular tissue, are 
nthet to be eonndend as other instances of wood funned 
in huk, but ia a r^uUr uul uniform mannor. We are 

1 how this may be, aud prefer allowing 
the statement to stand in its present form until some one 
ibnll have examined such plants in their native forests at 
Bin capo re. 

Jn addition to such anomalouskinds of structure as thoee- 
nov described, Ezogens, hke Biidt^etis, contain species, the 
organization of whose stem ia so imperfect as to be reducihie 
wjihin no certain rules. Not tn speak of Callitriche, Cerato- 
phyllum, or MyriopfayUum, wherein vessels are scarcely de- 
Teluped, and the woody matter merely forms a simple central 
niit of growth, we bare in this cla-ss an exact parallel with 
Lemna among Endogens ; some Podostemacenua plants have 
ilieir leaves and stem completely fused together so as to re- 
semble a Marchantia ih' an Alga. Such plants are to be re- 
corded rather as instances of imperfect organization than as 
deviationsfromatypicalformjandit is by no means a violent 
supposition to conclude (hat if their organization were more 
complete it would then become such as is characteristic of 
[be claw to which they belong. 

From wliat bu now been stated it will be obvious that 
the most essential features of exogenous vegetation are, not 
' ilea in Hie wood, but an eiraairement of the 

a E X o 

woody malter m a circular manner round piih, its aug- 
mentation by external additions, and the universal presence 
of medullary processes which give Ihe wood a radiated cha- 
racter. With endogenous vegetation it agrees principally 
in the existence of two systems of growth; one original, 
cellular, and capable of extending and increasing in all 
directions; the othci perpendicular, capable of augments' 
tkon in a longiludioal direction onlyi and developed subse* 
quent to the first. 

In both Exogeus and Endogens therefore, the one system, 
which we have elsewhere called the fibro-vasculoi, but 
which may also be termed the woody, lies across the other, 
by which it is held together, as the threads of the warp in 
linen are held together by the woof, as Ihe writer of this lias 
long since pointed out in another place. (Introduction to 
Botany, book ii., chap. 3.) Ttiis appears to be the circum- 
stance upon which the real explanation of ail (he pheno- 
mena of growth in stems must necessarily turn. We liiiil 
it i* adopted hy M. Gaudicbaud in his theory of the devu- 
loproent of stems, of which a brief notice has been pub- 
li«hed in tho ' Annales des Sciences,' new series, vol. v.. {i. 
24 ; and Mirbel, the reporter in the place referred to, culi^ 
it ' la pierre angulaire oe la tbtiorie.' Connected with this, 
however, ate two other facts that require also to he rigli. ly 
undentood ; the ono, that buds are emanations of the hon- 
lonial cellular system ; and the other, that roots are eUin- 
gations of the descending woody system. Unless these uic 
coupled with th^ fint-named hct there will be no sulidiiy 
in the theory of growth now about to he explaineil. 

Keeping in view all the jihenomena above referred to. it 
will be obvious that the origin of wood ts to be soui^bt in 
the action of leaves, or of buds which are collections of 
leaves; and the theory of the formation of wood may bo 
thna expressed : — 

1. Wood is a collection of thick-sided tubular tissue, 
united in different wavE in difl'erent species of plants. It is 
usually combined with vascular tissue, but does not neces- 
sarily include Ibal kind of tissue. 

2. It is always mixed with cellular tissue; through which 
it p»sm:5, and which in Exogens is arranged in the form of 
radiating plates. 

3. It proceeds donnwards from the leaves to Ihe roofs; 
either in parallel series, as in Exogens, or in curving and 
intersecting lines, as in Endogens. 

4. U Mas (he power of lengthening at its lower extremity 
■s soon as it has once been generated, without any further 
impulse from the leaf from which it emanated. (This un- 
doubtedly happens by (he formation of new wot.<dj tubes at 
the points of (hose previously created.) 

5. It is, iu fact, the nutrient system of the leaves, and 
may be regarded as their roots. 

6. The quantity of wood in a given plant will therefore 
bear a direct proportion to the quantity of leaves, or to their 
siie and vi^ur. 

7. In general its development takes place henenth the 
bark or cortical integument ; but it may be found within 
the bark itself, in which case it continues to follow the 
order of development proper to it in its ordinary situation. 

The waody part of bark is also derived from the leaves, 
and maf be in hke manner considered a state of their 
root*; but tbe office of its tubes is excrementilions rather 
than nutrient. 

This view of the nature of wood is much the same aa that 
first brought to the notice of modem botanists hy Dii Petit 
Thouars, an ingenious French physiologist, who. during 
many years, sustained the (pinion in opposition to all his 
countrymen. It did not however originate with him. for it 
had been previously taken by others, who did not persevere 
like himaelf in maintaining it against the prejudices of their 
day, and who, moreover, did not possess the skill and exten- 
sive acquaintance with vegetable organization reqiiisile to 
sustain a theory to which so many specious objections could 
readily be offered. The great error committed by Du Pelit 
Thouars, in which it is probable that the slow progress of 
his opinions is really to b« found, was bis mixing up noto- 
rious errors with the truths of his theory. He insisted, for 
example, that tho moment leaves begin to grow, wood is 
tbrtned ' with the rapidity of lightning,* in continuous 
threads passing from the extremities of branches to (be 
roota: this was anatomically untrue, for the woody tissue 
consists of tubes adhering end to end, and not continuous; 
and the rapidity assigned to their development was aUt^e- 
thei imaiuDarv. He next insisted that new roots could not 

E X O i: 

ba developed tilt now leaves made their ap[iearance this 
Tn» disproved by the veil-known fact (hat newly planie'l 
dei-iduoui trees produce roots bcfure Iheir leavei ippeur. It 
mar be doubled moTL-over whclher he ever understood that 
buds origin&te exclusively from cellular li&sue. and roots 
exclusively from flbro- vascular tissue ; a fact, without at- 
tending to wbich, there 1* no possibility of sxplaininz many 
ooaimDn pbeoomena, but about which we conceive there is 
no sort of doubt. 

It is not altogether a matter of theory that wood i« formed 
of the roots of leaves imbedded in ceUulor tissue in a dc- 
Bnite manner, according to the species: oik the contrary, 
there are many curiouii ^cts to corntbomte the supposition. 
The leaves of Ciianthut pwuceui, and many other plants, 
parlieularly GesneracetB, emit roots when cut off the stem 
to which they belong, and completely separated from the 
bud that is axillary to lliem. A knowledge of some such 
lact probably led to the absurd speculation, insisted upon 
by Krodley in the beginning of the last century, of forming 

?lantationa by sticking leaves in the ground. Du Petit 
houars found that the young leaves of Dracceruu in the 
Isle of France root between the rind and old nood, forming 
rays of which the axis of the new shoot is tlic centre. 
The case of Pandanut wo have adverted to cleewhere 
Onlrod. Bot., ed. 2nd, p. 263) ; and in the article Endogens 
of this Cvclopaidia we have given a much more striking; 
instance Bom Barbaceaia. In that plant the cuts (which it 
should have been stated are represent at ions magniSed 
about three limes) show tliat when undoubted routs pro- 
ceeding from leaves aro consolidated by passing down one 
above the other over the surface of the stem, pruciscly the 
appearance of palm-wood is produced. This ne regard as 
conclusive as lo the true nature of endogenous wood : and 
it would be unphilosophical to suppose that the wood of one 
great class of the vegetable kingiloin is furmud utK>n one 
plan, and of another class upon a totally different pl.-in. 
It must bo highly satisfactory to thuse who have embraced 

1 E X O 

the opinions of Du Petit Thonart, a* modifled by tba writer 
of tbis and by others, to And how nearly they •econl vitti 
whatMirbel represents to be the ideas nf Gaudichtuil upun 
the same subject. M. Gaudichaud is one of the very itw 
physiol.OQists who has studied ibis question with rcforenceiu 
tropical fomis of vcgctalion. Must others have drawn tLcir 
ideas exclusively from common European trees: in duin.; 
which, with all renpect be it spoken, they appear to ut i<i 
have begun at the wrong end. This distinguished bulatiiil 
and traveller, in an unpublished memoir for which the 
Montyon prize was awarded by the French Academy in Itiio. 
is represented as having eullectcd a grt-at moss of admirabli' 
observations upon the embryo, the germination, the moiie 
of growth, the stem of a considerable variety of planis. aii>l 
to nave particularly adverted to the important pbenoinei.j 
of barkinjj;, striking from cuttings, gral^inir, pruiiini;. and 
other horticultural operations; from all whicli he hu de 
duced a theory of growth which M. Mirbel states to bir lub- 
Elantially (ho same as that above explained. Among ollicr 
curious facts, he mentions that ho possesses a specimen i.|\i 
cutting of Cittus kydrophnra, with a bud upon it I'ruin 
whoso base proceeds a nooily network which iiartiollv in- 
vests the lower portion of the old wood, and afierwwU 
escapes on all sides as root. {Ann. Sc. N. S. v. a».) 

We have in the first instance slated in what raannci v»<kI 
is formed according to our own views of the subject. It ■• 
now requisite that we should add the views of those nh.i 
differ from us. That wood derives lis origin directly Tnun 
the leaves in anyway whatever, is denied by tome, who be- 
lieve that it is a superficial deposit from the (oeviouily 
formed wood. But as those who entertain this opinion du 
not explain how lhe/r»( woo<l originated, that theory ncpil 
not be discussed. Mirbel seems lo con-idor that both uu.d 
and the woody part of bark are independent fonnaiioit- 
created out of the cambium ; but there is no cambinm when 
ihe^rtl wood of Exogcns is generated, and that subiraii'*r 
nei or makes its appearance at all in Endogens. u hi'li iie- 








Apeiahui ; «nd 4tli, DieHnoui plante. The three ftnt of 
these he again suhdivided according as their tUmens or their 
corolla grew under the ovary (hypogynous), upon the calvx 
(perig)-nous), or upon the ovary (epigynous); then the 
monopetalous epigynous group was sulxlivided into plants 
having united stamens and those haying them distinct ; the 
result being 1 1 classes, which were placed hy Jussieu in the 
following order: — 

f Stamens epifrynous 
1 »» pcrigynous . 
I „ hypogynous . 

I Corolla hypogynous . 
»» perigynous 
fanthers united 
„ epigynous ( 
(anthers distinct 
{Stamens epigynous 
*i hypogynous . 
„ perigynous . . 
Diclinous 11 

This was, however, so artificial a distrihutlon, that hotanists 
soon found it as unsatisfactory as it was simple. Various 
changes have therefore been recommended from time to 
time, some of which are the following : — 

In 1813, De Candolle, droppinff the names of all Jussieu*s 
classes, and abolishing many of them, proposed to arrange 
as follows the 113 orders of Exogens with which he was 
at that time 'acquainted. 


Pol^reulou. {KK ^^rai^l I 

Apetalous • {Monoehlamydea) , 5 

Tlius the classes were reduced from eleven to five, which 
was a defect ; but those which remained were supposed to 
be more natural, which would have been an advantage. 
Five years afterwards, in his ' Regni Vegetabilis Systema 
Naturale,' he added the names inclosed within brackets, 
and he broke up the Thalamiflors into five cohorts, but 
without stating what orders he arranged under them. We 
do not find that he ever pursued the subject farther. Since 
that period this great botanist has occupied himself with 
the special study of the natural orders, and the public has 
derived no advantage firom his general views, which Lb 
much to be regretted. 

In 1825, Professor Agardh of Lund, now bishop of Carsl- 
bad, proposed a great change in the subordination of Exo- 
gens, retaining the principles of primary division recognized 
by Jussieu and De Candolle, but forming them into twenty 
subdivisions, defined by various characters analogous to those 
by which the orders themselves are circumscribed. This, we 
believe, is the first step of anv consequence towards putting 
Exogens into a more natural ^ouping than that of Jus- 
sieu : in many respects the subdivisions are, as far as they go, 
unobjectionable ; but they have excited scarcely any atten- 
tion among systematic botanists. The necessity, however, 
of some better method of subordination than that of Jus- 
sieu and De Candolle has become evident to everybody ; 
and attempts have been made to efiect this by Drs. Bart- 
ling, Schultx, Von Martius, and others on the continent, 
and by the author of the present article ; not to mention 
certain transcendental German writers, whose views, as we 
do not understand them, we will not attempt to explain. 
In our own arrangement the class is first broken into the 
Polypetalous, Monopetalous, and Incomplete stibel<U9e»; 
the latter are next distributed in groups; and finally, the 
grouDs themselves have a subordination of alliances^ be- 
neath which the orders are disposed in numbers vaiying 
from 1 to 8 or more, the general result being 1 7 groups or 
80 alliances. The following table will show upon what prin- 
ciple the groups and alliances have been constructed. It 
will be remarked that the terminations of the names express 
their value; the groups or highest combinations end in 
o$€ei the alliances, or combinations of a lower kind, in 
aUt : the orders in acea ; the suborders in «« . 


Table (if OroupM. 

Subclass I. Polypetalfls. 

Albumen very considerably larger than the Gi«iiv«. • 
minute embz3'o* • • Ai.bvhino9JL 

Albumen absent, or onlv forming a layer be- 
tween the embryo ana the seea-roat 
0\'ary inferior (often with an epigynous 

diA). , . . • Epiotnosjk. 

O^ ary superior. 

Placents parietal. . • pAmiSTOs.e. 

Placenta) in the axis. 
Calyx dislocated. • Caltcos.r. 

Calyx complete ; its parts being all 
on the same plane. 
Carpels united in a solid pistil, 

parallel with each other . Syncarposx. 

Carpels oblique, upon a gynobose. 


Carpels disunited. • ApocAJiFOSiB. 

Subclass 2. Incomplcto) (or Apetalce). 

Calyx altogether absent. . Achlawydos.«. 
Cah*x present. 

Embr}'0 curved round albumen. . Curvembrvos.c 
Embryo straight. 

Stamens monadelphous. • . Coluii nosa. 
Stamens distinct. 
Calyx tubular, often resembling a 

corolla. . . . TuBiFRROsA. 

Calyx very imperfect . . Rxct£mbryos.«. 

Subclass 3. Monopetalo. 

Fmit consisting of but one perfect carpel. Aogrsoos.«. 
Fruit of several carpels. 
Ovary inferior. • . Epigynos.k. 

Ovary superior. 

Car])el9 three or more. . . Polycarpohac. 

Carpels only two. 

Fruit nucamentaceous. . NrcAME?rros«. 

Fruit capsular. . . • Dicarpos.*:. 

The orders are disposed under their several alliances in 
the following sequences. 

Table of Alliancei and Ordm. 

Subclass 1. Pol)'petala>. 

Group 1. Albuminos^. 

Alliance 1 . Ranales. HerhaceouB planU ; either ttith 
the carpels more or less distinct, or, if that is fu>t 
the cave, with parietal placentee, Ranunculaceat. 
PodophyllcBB, Papaverarea). Fumariew, Nymphiea- 
cea», Hydropeltiaese, Nelumbiace®, Cephalotacesc^, 

Alliance 2. Anonales. Woody plants, with distinct 
carpels, which are sometimes confluent. Anther-valres 
openinf^ longitudinally. Myristicacea>, Magnolia- 
cesD, Winteracete, Anonacee, Schizandrea?, DiUe> 

Alliance 3. Umbellales. Ftowers umbellate, Calyr 
superior. Carpels one-seeded. Stem hollow, Api- 
acea^, Araliaceic. 

Alliance 4. Grossales. Ftofcers never in umbels. 
Calyx superior. Carpels many-seeded. Stem solid, 
GrossulacesB, Escalloniaoex, Bruniacen. 

Alliance 5. Berberales. Anthers bursting by recurred 
valves. Berberace®. 

Alliance 6. Pittosporalcs. Cafyx inferior. Carpels 
consolidated; style single. Vitacero, Pittosporacess, 
Olacacfl^, Francoacea;, Sarraoeniaoes. 
Group 2. Epiqynos.«. 

Alliance 1. Onograles. Corolla not valvafe. Plaeeni€B 
central. Typ*> of flowers binary throughout. Herbs, 
Onat^race®, Circt ero, Halorage®, Hydrocaryes. 

Alliance 2. Mj'r tales. Corolla not valvals . PlaeenUt 
central. lype o/ ^flowcrs not binary throughout 
Shrubs or trees. Combretacess, Alangiaoes, Rhixo- 
phoraceee, Memecylacese, Melastoraacen. Myrtace», 
Barringtoniecc, Lerythidaccie, Philadelphaceee. 

Alliance 3. Cornales. Corolla valvate. Hsmame* 
lacesB, ComaceflB, Helwingiacen, Lorantbacess. 

Alliance 4. Cucurbitales. JHarent^e paristaL Caeur- 
bitaoea, Loasacecs, CaotaceiB, Homaltacessw 

Alliance 5. Ficoidales. Petals ind^nite. Mesem* 

Alliance 6. Begoniales. FUnrers umsexuaL Pla^ 
centte central. Begoniaeem. 
Group 3. Parixtosa 




AlUanoe 2. Dipwles. Anthen dt9tinci. Ovary in- 

ferior. Dip^aceflo, Valerianacen. 
Alliances. Brunoniales. Ovary superior. Stigma mth 

an indusium, Brunoniaceas^ 
Alliance 4. Plantales. Ocary superior. Stigma naked. 

Style single, Plantaginaceos, Globulariacew, Sal- 

Alliat\ce 6. Plurobales, Ovary superior. Stigmas 

naked, Stylesfive* Plumbaginacea. 

Group 4. NvCAMKNTOSiS. 

Alliance I. Phaceliales. Fruit capsular. In/hreseence 

gyrate. HydrophyllaceiD. 
Alliance 2. Echiales. Fruit nucamentaceous. InflO' 
rescence gyrate. Flowers symtnetrical, Cordiace», 
KhretiaceiB, BoraginacesD. 
Alliance 3. Labiales. Fruit nucamentaceous. Flowers 
untymmetrical, LamiacecB or Labiatse* Verbenace8D» 
MyoporacesD, Sclaginacese, StilbacecB. 
Group 5. DicARPOSAC. 
Alliance 1. Bienoniale». Flowers didynamous. Seeds 
uinged. Albumen none. Calyx complete. Peda- 
liacecD, Bignoniaceo), CjTtandracesD. 
Alliance 2. AcsLiiihaXes. ' Flowers didynamous. Seeds 
adhering to honks, not winged Albumen none. 
Calyx dislocated. Acautbace». 
Alliance 3. Lentibales. Flowers subdidynamous. Fruit 

trith a free central placenta, LentibulacesB. 
Alliance 4. Scrophulales. Flowers didynamous. Al- 
bumen. Placenta parallel with axis. Gesneracete, 
Orobancbaceso, Scropbulariace». i 

Alliance 5. Solanacen. lowers symmetrical. Albu- 
men, Placenta parallel with the axis. Solanacen, 
Alliance 6. Gentianales. Flowers symmetrical, te- 
trandrous or pentandrous. Placenta perpendicular 
to axis. Seeds qften winged. Leaves opposite. Gen- 
tianacen, Spigeliaceo, Apocynace», AJaclepiadacen. 
Alliance 7. Loganiales. Flowers unsymimetrical. Sta- 
mens never two. Leaves always opposite. Loga- 
niaceie, Potaliaceie. 
Alliance 8. Oleaceao. Flowers regular, unsymmetri- 
eal, diandrous, Oleaceae, Jasminacee. 
We shall not be restrained by false delicacy from criticis- 
ing this arrangemeat freely, with reference to its merits as 
well as its dements. We will therefore at once say» that in 
several respects it is a decided advance in the grouping of 
the orders. Bv abandoning the artificial distinction of pe- 
risynoua and hypo^nous msertion, many orders naturally 
allied are brought into contact. The great mass of Polype- 
talous Exogens is analysed with tolerable precision ; a great 
many of the alliances are, as far as we can discover, unob- 
jectionable ; and we can state, from the experience of four 
years* personal use, that the scheme is of great utility to 
students, in consequence of the power it gives them of com- 
bining the orders. The albuminous group hi particular, 
although incompletely made out, may be regarded as an 
im{)ortant elimination of urdera which often had no obvious 
relation to any with which they were previously associated. 
It cannot be considered otherwise than a striking physio- 
logical peculiarity, that while the greater number of Exo- 
gens have an embryo so robust as to be able to spring at 
once injo existence, and from the very beginning of its life 
capable of trusting to the atmosphere and the earth for its 
support, there should be others, and many of them among 
the most highly organized races, which are so feeble and 
puny in the beginning as to require from nature a large 
and abundant store of nutritive matter upon which they 
may feed until strong enough to contend with the elements 
among which they must eventually live. These latter form 
the albuminous group. Albumen occurs very often in other 
groups ; but in sueh small quantity that it may be regarded 
as a mere residuum of the nutrient mucilage in which the 
embryo was originally developed, rather than a store of food 
provided for the young plant when it enters upon its first 
•tage of growth. Among the former tlie presence or ab- 
sence of albumen is of little or no consequence ; Fabaceas 
for example, and other equally well defined groups, possess 
it in some species, and want it in others. But in the orders 
collected in the albuminous group, its presence and its great 
disproportion to the embryo are identified with the re- 
nroduction of the species, and there is no instance known 
absence, except in Nelumbiacev, in which, if they 
b«laiig to tho group, it may be supposed that the 

I usual function of the albumen is performed bj the exoe*> 
sively thickened cotyledons. 
But, on the other hand, this system has defects in abun- 
dance; so many indeed, that we Aould say they out- 
weighed iU ad^'antages, if they were not fully participated 
in by all other simitar schemes; from a respect for which 
they have indeed been to a great extent produced. Among 
minor blemishes may be named the artificial collocation uf 
the genera in some of the alliances, as, for example, the 
passional, the Silenal, the Buphorbial, and the PrimuUL 
In the next place, the alliances are excessively multiplied ; 
as in the case of the Cinchonal, Caprial, and Stcllal, of the 
Chenopodial, Petiverial, and Scleral, or of the Goran ial and 
the Florkeal ; this however is a fault on the right side. Of 
much more consequence is the indefinite character of the 
Parietous and Gynobaseous groups. The first depends 
upon a distinction which sometimes exists in the fruit and 
not in the ovary of the same plant, and which may be de* 
stroyed by either the contraction or extension, in a sh^cht 
degree, of the dissepiments : moreover, the orders collected 
under it, although to a certain extent naturally combined, 
yet in other instances, as Bixacess, TurneracesD, Morin^- 
acesD, and the whole Crucial alliance, agree less with earh 
other than with other parts of the system. The Gynoba* 
seous group is much more natural ; that indeed is its merit ; 
but the gynobasic character, strongly marked as it is in 
Geraniacen and many of the Rutal alliance, is, it must be 
confessed, too feeble to deserve to be considered of more 
than very subordinate importance ; in fact, many of the 
Syncarpous group are gynobasic— Malva, for example. 
Then, among MouopetalsB, the Dicarpous and Nucamentou» 

groups are not distinguishable, and should have been com* 
inea ; each however is natural as far as it goes. 
The great vice of the arrangement however is that which 
it owes to the adoption of the old practice of considenng 
PoiypetalsD, Monopetalse, and Apetalss, fundamental di\i- 
sions. Every systematical writer at all known, down to the 
present time, has adopted them ; so that their value has be- 
come a matter of prejudice, which it will be no easy task to 
remove from the minds of those who have all their lives been 
accustomed to look at botanical classifications in one and the 
same point of view. We will nevertheless attempt to show, 
firstly, that these divisions are essentially bad; and secondly, 
that a great advanta^e will be derived from their rejection. 
The Monopetalous sub -class depends entirely upon the cu^- 
cumstance of the petals adhering to each otner by their 
edge ; it has no accessory characters whatever to sustain it. 
Now the partial adhesion of contiguous organs is of no 
greater than ordinal importance when it takes place in 
other parts of the fructification, and is often not of so much. 
The sepals adhere or remain separate in the rery same 
natural order, Urticacess and Chenopodiaceas for example. 
The stamens adhere into a tube, and this sometimes gi^es 
a character to certain orders, but more often is a mere dis- 
tinction of genera, as in EuphorbiaceB, Iridace», Aristolo- 
chiaceso, &c. When the carpels unite and form a multiplex 
fruit, the ovaries, style, and stigma, being altogether con- 
solidated, that character becomes of considerable value as 
contrasted ^ith the complete or partial separation of the 
carpels, because it is found constant ; and hence it has been 
empjpyed by us as a distinction of a portion of the group of 
PolypetalsD. But we are persuaded that we have assigned 
it too high a value, and that it is only one degree better 
than an ordinal distinction. It is therefore improbable 
that the adhesion of the petals, organs not even essentul to 
the fructification, but which may oe wholly absent without 
the great functions of impregnation and reproduction bein^ 
interfered with, should be of greater importance. The mono- 
petalous corolla is not considered of any value in Bndogen&w 
even as an ordinal character, and nothing can justify our con- 
sidering it of primary value among Exogens, except the con- 
stant and unvarying existence of that character throughout 
certain natural orders mure nearly related to each other than 
to anything else. It will be found however utton strict in- 
quiry, firstly, that the character is anything but constant, 
except in a portion of the Monopetalous sub-class; and 
secondly, that it combines dissimilar orders, separating them 
widely from their true affinities. 

That the Monopetalous character is not constant hardU 
requires proof, so notorious is its instability. Pyr«>laci* « . 
MonotropaceflD, Ericacess, Myrsinacem, Lobeliaoes, Cam- 
pan ulaccte, PlumbaginaoesD, and01eace», all offer in&canci > 
of the polypetalous structure; and some PrimuUceiD, Ole- 




aeea, an<l MonotroptoMi, are even apetalona ; while on the 
other band Rutace»» AnonaceaD» StackhousiacesD, Fouqui- 
«niceB, CraiRulaoe0» Loranthaceeo, Cucorbitacett, Cactaoen, 
Papayaeitff, and manv other natural orders, 'stationed in 
PoijTpetaler because oi their affinity, are either partially or 
wholly MoDopetalous. The Monopetidous character cannot 
then be defended because of its stability. Moreover, no< 
thing can well be more arbitrary than the language of 
botanists in speaking of the eorolhi. In Delphinium, Tri- 
folium, and manv other plants, the corolla has all its petals 
in a state of adhesion ; the same thing occurs in Loran- 
thaceoB. and yet these are called Polypetalous. Still more 
strange is it that Malvacese, which have the petals ad- 
hering to the tube of the stamens, should be called Poly- 
petalous, while Styraeeae, having precisely the same organ- 
isation, are accounted Monopetalous. 

It will also be found that the Monopetalous character is 
equally objectionable as a means of combining similar 
natural orders. So far is it, except in the case of the 
Dicarpous and Nucamentous groups, from complying with 
the conditions to be recjuired of all characters employed for 
purposes of co-ordination, namely, combining genera more 
nearly allied to each other than to any thing else, that in 
fact it disunites plauts closely akin, and interrupts series 
that would be otherwise as complete as series can be in the 
arrangement of living beings ; as will be apparent from the 
followmg statement. 

Pyrolaceae and Mouotropaces have a minute embryo, a 
lar^e mass of albumen, a tendency to become leafless and 
parasitical, and in all their habits are at variance with the 
rest of Ericales. ^The latter have no direct con- 
nection with any other Monopetalous order, but have all 
their affinities turning towards Rutaces, as is proved by 

Correa, Phebalium, and other genera. Primulacese 

and Myrsinacese, with their large horny albumen, approach 
Cinchonales, and together witn that, the Caprial and the 
Stellal alliances seem rather to belong to the Albuminous 

group. Ebenacese and Aquifoliacese have an affinity 

with Myrsinacese. Dr. Royle nas pointed out a connec- 
tion between Ebenacese and ClusiaceiB ; Adolphe Brongniart 
has shown that Aquifoliaceie must stand near Ebenaceae ; 
and with regard to Styracese, Jussieu actually referred them 
to the pc^lypetalous Meliaces, and De CandoUe considers 
them nearly akin to Temstromiaceg. ■ Whatever 

the affinity of the Nolanal and Volval alliances may be, it 
is clear that in taking away the orders already mentioned, 
they will remain isolated among orders to which they have 
no direct relation. It will be seen that they fall natu- 
nUIy into their places in a re-distribution of Exogens upon 

other principles.—- Columelliaceae must be looked 

upon as a monopetalous form of OnagracesB. and will con- 
nect the Campanal and Groodeuial alliances with the series 

to which Onamces belong. ^The Cinchonal, Caprial, 

and Stellal aSliances, which ought to be combined, are so 
closely united with Apiacea among Albuminoss, that they 
may be naturally transferred to that group. Even De Can- 
dolle has found it necessary to approximate them by sta- 
tioning Apiacesb near the end of his polypetalous sub-class, 
and Cinchonaces near the beginning of his Monopetalae. 
The connection of ApocynacesB with these plants is perhaps 

more apparent than real. Asterales and Dipsales 

necessarily follow the affinity of the Campanal alliance. 

The Brunonial, Plantal, and Plumbal alliances 

may be considered more properly analogous than allied to 
Asterdes, and have no affinity of an obvious kind with any 
other monopetalous orders.— —All the other orders 
aie well combined, with the exception of Orobanchacero ; 
the affinity of that order with Scrophulariacese and the re- 
mainder of the dicarpous group is extremely problematical. 
It has not, so far as we are aware, been before observed that 
the carpels in that order are right and left of the axis, and anterior and posterior ; a very important circumstance, 
which so much weakens its supposed affinity with Scrophu- 
lariacee as to remove many objections to its separation into 
a flistinct part of the system. But if on the other hand we 
look to the aristate base of the anthers in Orobanche, the 
extreme resemblance of that genus to Monotropocese in 
habit, and the remarkable similarity between its plaoen- 
tatioD and that in the upper half of the ovary of Monotropa, 
to sav nothing of its capitate stigma and calyx, the number 
of whose parts is at variance with that of the corolla, we 
incline to think that diese two orders are more closely allied 
tbaa they are naaally supposed to be, 
P C, No. 611. 

With regard to the Apetalous sub-ekfls, it is eTen mon 
ohjeetionable than the Monopetalous. There is no end to 
the instances of Polypetalous orders being Apetalous ; and 
in Thymelacesd, MenispermaceoB, Polygonacess, and a few 
others, the denial of tne presence of petals in particnlar 
genera is a mere arbitrary use of words. Many Apetalss 
appear, in ikct, to be imperfect forms of Polypetalous 
groups, and will naturally arrange themselves in the same 
series with what may be supposed to be their more perfect 
types. Piperales seem a degraded state of Anonales, Pense- 
ales of Onagrales, Daphnales and their allies of Rham- 
nales. But a large proportion of the Apetalous orders un- 
doubtedly require to be located separately. They have dis- 
tinct sexes and a peculiar habit, and must be considered a 
quite distinct group, as Jussieu originally stated them to be. 

Having thus shown how unsatisfactory are the principles 
hitherto employed for classifying Exogens, we next proceed- 
to show in what way it appears to us they may be arranged 
in a more natural and precise manner ; the Polypetalous, 
Monopetalous, and Apetalous sub-classes being altogether 

In the first place, there are the orders whose embryo is, 
as has already been stated, furnished with an excessive 
(quantity of albumen. This, as a great physiological dis- 
tinction, may be considered to supersede all others, and to 

establish an Albuminous group. The remainder consists 

of orders in which some have the sexes in distinct flowers, 
others combined with hermaphrodite ilowers. We know 
of no character intimately connected with the reproduction 
of the species which is upon the whole so important as this; 
indeed, if it were not for the frequent occurrence of polv- 
gamous flowers throughout hermaphrodite orders, we should 
assign it a higher place than even the albuminous character; 
but the constant tendency of hermaphrodite flowers to be- 
come polygamous leads us necessarily to look upon sexuality 
as a secondary character only, especially since, if it were 
taken as a primary one, it would have the unnatural effect of 
separating Myrisiicacese and Schizandrece from Anonales. 
For this reason a Diclinous group may be formed, into 
which nothing should be admitted except plants without any 

tendency to hermaphroditism. ^The hermaphrodite orders 

may be separated into those with the calyx, corolla, and 
stamens confluent at the base with each other and with 
the ovary, that is, having an inferior ovary, and those in 
which those parts are distinct, either altogether or at least 
from each other: the former will constitute an Epigynous 
group. — Finally, the remainder of the orders may be divided 
into tnose with a monopetalous corolla combined with an ovary 
upon a binary plan {Dicarpous), and those which, if mono- 
petalous, have the ovary simple or complex (Polycarpous}. 

The following table will put this in a clearer point of view. 
Albumen extremely abundant ; embryo 

minute . . . . 1. Albuminosjb. 

Albumen absent, or in small quantity. 

Sexes in the same flower. 
Ovary inferior. . . 2. Epioynosa. 

Ovary superior. 

Flowers, if monopetalous, not with 

a bicarpellary ovary . 3, Polycarpos;e. 

Flowers monopetalous^ with a bicar- 
pellary ovary . . 4. Dicarfos;b. 

Sexes in different flowers * . 5. Diclinos.b. 

Each of these groups will form a series by itself, the se- 
quence of which ought to be natural, and to exhibit various 
lateral analogies with other groups. Possibly each group 
will comprehend within itself a maximum, a medium, and 
a minimum type of structure, the second being typical of 
the group, the first an exaggerated form of it, and the last 
a degraded form. This at least may be traced in the classes 
of Exogens, Endogens, and Acrogens ; it frequently occurs 
in natui*al orders, is not uncommon in genera, and therefore 
may be expected in groups. 

It is scarcely possible to undertake a more diAcult task 
than that of disentangling and settling the perplexed and 
complicated web of natimd affinities. Every order may 
be compared with so many other orders in one req^t or 
another, and the value of characters is, as far as we yet 
know, so very unsettled, that the most skilful and expe- 
rienceil botanist is perpetually embarrassed at determining 
the fundamental question of which orders have more rela- 
tion to each other than to anything else. Viewed in one 
direction, the subject has one aspecc, from another position 
it often seems quite changed. We have no certain test by 






which tAni^ and analogy caa be distinguubed ; and 
noreoTer, it is a most difficult thine to divest the mind of 
the prejudices that inevitably result from a long habit of 
thinking erroneously. 

Nevertheless, in spite of all such obstacles. Truth is surely 
to be found ; and wnen found, she will prove most richly 
worth the labour bestowed in searching for her. One great 
and immediate advantage that may be expected from a 
discovery of the true method of arranging exogens ac- 
cording to their real affinities will be a great simplification 
of the subject ; and the extent to which this seems to be 
effected by the plan now proposed is much in favour of its 
being at least an approach to a discovery of the secret we 
are in search of We will not here undertake to re-arrange 
all the orders already named according to the method now 
suggested ; but the following table will serve to show that 
each of the five groups now proposed docs exhibit distinct 
lateral analogies between its own series of orders and those 
of the groups standing next it 








































AuVKivoML intrm^M. Dioabvosx. FoiTeABNix. I3iiet.iirotJB. 

AriatolochtaoMB VakrUDUMi ScUgluoe* Polffcmaw* B««oiitMva 
Pipancea SantalMca Olaaoea Thjm9)mttm Klaairnacea 

ChloraatlMeca HIppuidMi I KjaaOTUcavf S«licaccaL 

Of caune it it to be auppoied that many of the ordem or 
alliances introdueed into tnii table are separated from those 
now placed next th«m by many, sometimes a great number 
of intervening orders, and that in fact what stands on 
paper as a aeries is an intricate combination of crosun^ and 
interfering analogies and affinities, which could only i»i 
expressed correctly by rays diverging from a commttii 
centre and intersecting or striking other rays of other 
centres, the noints of intersection being what we call ana- 
logies. No aiagram can exhibit these otherwise than \*er>' 
imperfectly ; nevertheless, as it does show them better tbuii 
mere lines of words, we have introduced into the followint; 
plan the analogous orders comprehended in the preceding 
table. The orders collected around the centre are all in 
close relation, and exhibit in their own series a degree of 
organisation equivalent to what occurs at the same puint 
in other series; those at the points of the rays of the dia- 
gram correspond in like manner with the other points : 
and the orders stationed along the sides of each ray aie 
places at wliich the rays are laterally analogous; while 
the orders themselves are in direct affinity with each other 
I through other orders not included in the diagram. 

That these groups are all perfect in themselves, or nearly 
aOb is sufficiently proved by Albuminosee, the sequence of 
whose orders may be expressed as follows : the orders in- 
eluded in the diagram being marked with *. 

1 Anonalei. Magnoliacea) Atheros|ierma- 

Winteraceo ceas 

DilleniaceiB Myristicacess 

Berberacen *Schizandra- 

*Anonace8S cess 

Monimiace» .. ^Kanaiew* IlymphnaoeiB 


Banales* Hydropelti- 


— Podophylle« 

— rumariee 

ZPrimulaiei. Primulacese 

£benace« ? 
Aquilbliacov .' 

4 GenHanaUt, Afocynmcem 


5 Logtmialet. Loganiaces 





EXPLANAHIA. [Madrefhylltcba.] 

the algebraical expression a», t is caUed the exponent of 
a. If we were strictly to preserve the most antient ro^&nin^ 
of the term, x would be called the exponent of the whole 
symbol a* : but it is usual to call x the exponent of a, ai'd 
tne logarithm of a'. 

From the time of Descartes it has been usual to employ 
exponents in abbreviation of repeated symbols of multipli- 
eatton : but this was only the beginning of a series of exten- 
sions which have made the theory of exponents a funda- 
mental part of analysis. Beginning with the simple 
substitution of <fi instead of a x a, a» instead of a x a x a, 
and so on, we have a succession of new symbols suggested 
by the processes of algebra, namely, that (v should stand for 

a, (P for unity, a-* for the reciprocal of a*, and a* for the 
nth root of the mth power of a. These conventions being 
made, the common algebraical theory of exponents is com- 
plete ; and the student will find in works on algebra an 
account of the manner in which the necessity for these 
extensions a\>pcarB. The theory of logarithms liows natu- 
rally from this notation and the binomial theorem. 

L.ookin'4 at the notation of exponents in another point of 
view, we see that a\ or a, signirying the performance of a 
certain operation on the unit, a", or aa, signifies the repeti- 
tion of the same operation upon a itself; a» denotes the 
repetition of the same operation upon a", and so oil. Hence 
by analogy, whenever, in the higher parts of analysis, ^.r sig- 
nifies an operation performed upon a?,f*ic signifies the repe- 
tition of the operation upon ^t. Thus if ^x signify 1 + 2x, 


^«j? is 1+2 (If 2^) or 3 + 4x. 

^»x is 1+2 (3 + 4x) or 7 + 8a?. &c 
It appears by reasoning analogous to that which esta- 
blishes vhe meaning of exponents in algebra, that ^^x must 
stand for x itself. Also ^-^jc must signify the operation 
inverse to (or which destroys the effect of)^; thus if fx 

signify a:*, ^-'x must be J x. Also ^* x means that ope- 
ration which performed n times in succession, gives the same 
result as fr performed m times. 

TIic Differential Calculus and the Calculus of Differences 
furnish striking examples of the notation of exponents. As 
soon as the student arrives at the higher parts of these 
subjects, he should pay particular attention to the structure 
of the notation, and in particular to the meaning of those 
theorems in which the symbols of operation are separated 
from those of quantity. 

E X PORTS. [Imports and Exports.] 

EXTENT (Lat. extenla) is a writ of execution (some- 
times called an extendi facias)^ which is directed to the 
she. iff against the body, lands, and goods, or the lands 
only, of a debtor ; and It is also used as signifying the act 
of the sheriff or ofll-er upon the writ itself. 

The king by antient prerogative is entitled to this writ, 
either in chief or in aid for the purpose of obtaining satis- 
faction of debts originally due to him or assigned to the 
crown. The trrit of extent in chitf is an adverse proceed- 
ing by the king for tho recovery of his own debt, and in 
which he is tho real plaintiff.. This writ is issued out of 
the equity side of the (Jourt of Exchequer ; and the sheriff, 
for the purpose of executing it, may break open the de- 
fenrlant*s doors, when purposely closed, either to arrest him 
or to take his goods. If however the defendant cannot be 
found, or is not meant to be arrested, the sheriff impanels 
a jury to inquire as to the debtor's lands and tenements, 
goods and chattels; and after the inqui.^ition is made, the 
lands then become bound to the crown until the debt is 
satisfied. The writ qf extent in aid is also sued out at the 
instance and for the benefit of the crown against the debtor 
of a crown debtor: in this proceeding the king is the 
nominal plaintiff only. This writ is in effect an extent in 
the second degree, and in order to obtain it an extent yro 
formd is sued out against the debtor to the crown, upon 
which an inquisition is taken ; and if it be thereupon found 
that another person is indebted to him, the Court of Ex- 
chequer, on an affidavit to that effect, and also to the effect 
that the crown debt is m danger, will grant a fiat or warrant 
for an immediate extent in aid. Under this writ, the body 
of the defendant may in strictness be taken in e.\ecution as 
veil ■• his Undf, tenementB, goods, and chattels, &c ; but 
wh«re there are effscta tufficienl to Mtisiy th« debt* the 

court seems generally disposed to give the defendant bit 

On the return of the writ of extent in chief or in aid to 
the court fhim whence they are issued, an order is endon^d 
on the back of it, ' that if no one shall appear and claim 
the property of the goods, &c. mentioned in the inquisition, 
on or before that day se'nnight, a writ of venditioni ex- 
ponas shall issue to sell the same.' If the produce of the 
goods sold be not sufficient to pay the debt, the court %% \\\ 
make an order for the sale of the debtor*s lands under the 
25th George III., c. 35. 

There are various means of resisting the execution of the 
above writs, on the ground of informality or want of title 
in the crown ; which may be referred to in the second vo- 
lume of Mr. Tidd's work on the practice of the supcnur 

The writ of extent for the subject is founded upon a re- 
cognizance at ooromon law or by statute, or upon a judg- 
ment in an action of debt against an heir, on the obligation 
of his ancestor. It is very similar in its effects and mode 
of execution to the other writs of extent already a|>ecifiiHL 

When lands are delivered over to a creditor upon an 
extent, a reasonable but not the real value is set upou 
them ; and the effect is the same as if the creditor took a 
lease of the lands until his debt is satisfied. The time 
during which the creditor will hold the lands will of course 
be determined by a comparii^on of the value set on thu 
lands with the amount of the debt. (Coko on LittUtnn ; 
Tidd*s Practice ; Blackstone's Commentaries) 

EXTORTION ; any oppression under colour or preten«o 
of right. In its more common acceptation, oxtoitioii u 
appliiad to the unlawful taking by an officer, under colour 
of his office, of any money or valuable thing where none at 
all is due, or not so much is due, or before it is due. The 
officer is punished by fine and imprisonment, and by rem' •% al 
from office. Where no fee at all is due, the offence i£ mort; 
properly exaction — the distinction is thus made in tho 
Termed de la Ley * * Extortion is where an officer deman«^eth 
and lATesteth a greater sum or reward than his just fee; 
and exaction is where an officer or other man demandeih 
and wresteth a fee or reward where no fee or reward is duo 
at all.' 

EXTRACTION OF ROOTS. [Involutiowako Evo- 

EXTRACTS are medicinal preparations of vezetablc 
principles, obtained in various ways. Sometimes they aie 
merely tho juices expressed from the fi-esh plants, brought 
by careful evaporation to the consistence of non^y, and theu 
more properly denominated inspissated juices ; at other 
times they consist of certain principles of the fresh or drivel 
plant extracted by some menstruum in which they are 
soluble, such as water, proof spirit, or vinegar, and after- 
wards evaporated, as in the former case. According to t h.r 
nature of the menstruum exnployod the extract is called 
watery , alcoholict or acetous. Tlie objects proposed in »ii< h 
proceedings are, to ensure the preservation of the aittive 
principles of the plant by removing the fluid in which they 
are dissolved, or the materials with which they are a5»>- 
ciated, that have a greater tendency to fisrmentatiun or 
putrefaction ; to briug the valuable portion into the smallest 
possible compass; and to facilitate the administration of 
them by thus rendering them capable of being made Uiiu 
pills, &c. 

The preparation of extracts requires the greatest caie. 
The plants must be in every respect of the best quality. .-;^ 
regards the place of their growth, season when collected, 
&c., and the evaporation must be conducted rapidly, yet ai 
a low temperature. Orfila found that the excellence of 
preparations of this kind was always in the reverse lado of 
the temperature employed to form them. Mr. Barry 
effected a great improvement in the mode of prepani.g 
extracts by evaporating in vacuo. During the preparaiioti, 
and especially towards the end of the operation, frequent 
stirring the contents of the evaporating-pan is nece:>»«ry 
to prevent burning or decomposition of any portion of the 
mass. Extracts may also be formed from dried plants* 
barks, roots, &c., by reducing them to fine powder and ma* 
cerating it for 24 or 48 hours in sixteen times its weight of 
water. In general cold water is now employed, but in some 
cases it is proper to employ warm. The extract of cinchona, 
prepared with cold water» is 1ms powerftil than that pM* 
paied with warm. 



E Y C 

Extracts are simple or compound, according as thev are 
prepared from one plant or from several different kinos. 

Th» mode of preparing vegetable principles is generally 
unsuitable where a volatile oil is the active agent, unless 
great care and a very low temperature be used. 

A well-prepared extract should possess in a great degree 
the odour, and especially the taste, of the plant from which it 
is obtained; it should not have either an empyreumatic smell 
or taste, and it should have a proper and uniform consistence. 
It is necessary to preserve extracts in a dry situation : to 
assist in keeping watery extracts, it is customary to sprinkle 
a little alconol over the surface before covering them up ; 
but watery extracts, if made with cold water ana due care, 
rarely require this precaution. It is proper to examine the 
condition of all extracts very firequently, both during very 
warm and very wet weather: any portion which seems 
spoiled should be immediately thrown out. 

Formerly, from the careless or unskilftil mode of their 
preparation, extracts were the most uncertain and useless 
form of vegetable remedies ; but since competent practical 
Slid scientific chemists have given their attention to the 
subject, they are now, in many instances, the most valuable 
contributions which chemistry has made to practical me- 

EXTRAVASATION (extra, without, tw, a vessel), in 
medicine, signifies the escape of any of the fluids frx)m its 
natural reservoir or canal into some neighbouring cavity or 
texture. The term is nearly synonymous with effusion, but 
less comprehensive, as it does not include the case of fluids 
poured out by secretion, such as dropsies, or any of the 
products of inflammation. It is most commonly employed 
in dei<ignating effusions of blood or of urine ; and we shall 
therefore confine what we have to say on the subject to a 
brief notice of tbe principal varieties of these accidents, 
referring the reader for more complete information to other 
parts of the work. 

Extravasations of blood are always serious and often 
fatal when the larger vessels and more important organs are 
concerned in them. Thus if blood escape in consequence of 
the rupture of an aneurism of the aorta into the bag which 
encloses the heart, the circulation is immediately arrested, 
and sudden death ensues. Such an accident is said to be 
' an extravasation of blood into or within the pericardium.' 

Blood is sometimes driven with great force fh)m a rup- 
tured or wounded artery into the loose spongy substance 
consisting of connected cells which surrounas and separates 
the various organs, and is found in great abundance in 
every part of the body. This is called ' extravasation of 
blood into the cellular tissue* of tbe part. In such cases, if 
the vessel be a large one, the extravasation may be so con- 
siderable as to occasion enormous swelling and distension of 
the contiguous parts ; and it may be fetal from the amount 
of the htomorrhage, or from pressure upon some vital organ, 
or from mortification. [H amorrhagb.] This is a frequent 
source of danger in gunshot wounds. Fractures also are 
irenerally followed by considerable effusions of the same 
kind, which however are soon absorbed, and are not often 
attended with serious consequences, except in fractures of 
the skull : in that case they compress the brain, and pro- 
iuce the symptoms of apoplexy. [Head, Injuries of 
TRK.] The thrombus, or swelling beneath the skin, so fre- 
quently observed after bleeding mm the arm, is also formed 
by extravasation of blood into the cellular tissue. It arises 
from the puncture in the skin not corresponding with the 
opening in the vein, or not being sufliciently large. It 
soon disperses, and is of little importance. [Blkedino.I 
Contusions are likewise followed by extravasation of blood 
into the cellular tissue under tbe skin and in the skin itself 
from the rupture of small vessels ; and this is the reason of 
the dark colour assumed by the bruised pai*ts, which often 
extends to a considerable distance from them ; as in the 
fiLtniUar instance of a black eye. This superficial extravasa- 
tion is generally called ecchymtms, a word of the same 

Spontaneous extravasations of blood, allied to those last 
mentioned, frequently take place in the progress of various 
disoLses, of which they may be causes or symptoms. The 
spots which appear under the skin and beneath the mem- 
branes wliicb line the internal cavities and tubes, in 
plague, typhus fever, sea-scurvy, and other complaints, are 
of the symptomatio kind ; and these as well as the disco- 
loratioxu after contusions are included in the general term 

ecch^nums; they are also known by various other names, 
as vtbices (wheals), petechiue, and purpura, Iliey are fre- 
quently attended witn bleeding from the mucous membranes 
of the intestines and bladder, and of the nose ; and thev often 
occur, in the lower extremities especially, i^en the liver is 
enlarged, or otherwise diseased. They are supposed m 
general to indicate a want of tone in the system, and are 
attributed by some to a dissolved and semiputrescent con- 
dition of the blood ; but they arise in some instances firom 
a plethoric habit, and require bleeding for their cure. 

One of the most common causes of apoplexy is an extra- 
vasation of blood in the substance of the brain, or between 
its membranes, from the simultaneous rupture of many 
minute arteries. It happens for the most part suddenly^ 
when the vessels of the head are preternaturally distended, 
but yet not without some premonitory signs ; and as the 
affection occurs most ftequently at an advanced period of 
life, when the arterial system in general is disposed to 
disease, it is probable that the rupture is often preceded by 
some morbid change which renders the capillary vesseU 
more than usually fragile. [Apoplexy.] The term apo- 
piexy has been extended by modern pathologists to similar 
extravasations occurring in the texture of other organs be- 
sides the brain ; it may take place in the liver when the 
venous system of the abdomen is loaded with blood, and 
from other causes ; and it frequently happens in the lungs 
when their circulation is either obstructed or too forcibly 
urged in various diseases of the heart [Heart.] It like* 
wise happens very commonly in the early ^tage of con- 
sumption, when the body is yet full of blocMd, ana the sub- 
stance of the lungs is rendered brittle and inelastic by the 
deposit of tuberciuous matter. [Phthisis.] When it occurs 
in the lungs, the injury is attended with hamopiysis, or 
spitting of blood. In this, as in many extravasations of the 
same kind, it is probable that the blood is effused rather in 
consequence of a rent, or breach of continuity in the struc- 
ture concerned, than from what is implied in the common 
notion of the breaking of a blood-vessel. 

The presence of extravasated blood does not in itself 
produce much irritation, and the ooagulum is soon absorbed 
when the quantity is not very great, and the vital powers 
are not depressed by concomitant causes. Where pressure 
is applicable, the absorption is much quickened by a bandage 
put on after the immediate effects of the injury have sub- 
sided, as in sprains and bruises of the limbs : friction and 
embrocations nave the same effect. 

Extravasations of urine may take place in consequence 
of rupture of the bladder or urinary passages from ulcera- 
tion, mechanical injuries, or any cause that produces dis- 
tension to a great degree. If the fluid escape into the cavity 
of the abdomen, the result is uniformly and speedily fatal. 
If it insinuates itself into the cellular tissue in the neigh- 
bourhood of the neck of the bladder or the urethra, the 
accident is still a very serious one, though it generally 
admits of cure if the nature of it be immediately recognized. 
The fluid, which is highly deleterious, must be promptly 
evacuated by free incisions, and care must be taken to 
prevent further infiltration. If this be neglected, unhealthy 
suppuration is sure to take place, accompanied by fever of 
a ^hoid character, and followed by extensive mortification. 

The most common causes of infiltration of urine are ab- 
scesses of the prostate gland, and neglected or mismanaged 
strictures; and a very freoueirt oonsec^ucnce is the esta- 
blishment of a urinary fistula in the perineum. [Urinary 

It may be remarked that the bile is sometimes extrava- 
sated in the same way from the gall-ducts or bladder. If 
it^cape into the abdomen, it is followed by a similar fatal 
result from inflammation of the peritoneum, [Abdomen ; 
Calculi, Biliary.] 

EXUMA. [Bahamas.] 

EYCK, JOHN VAN, the improver and" supposed in* 
ventor of oil-painting, sometimes called John of Bruges 
from his having settl^ at that place, was bom at Maaseyck 
as is generally said, in 1370, and studied with his eldei 
brother Hubert (bom in I366JL an artist of reputation, but 
now rarely mentioned except in conjunction with himself. 
There are however some reasons for supposing John to 
have been bom much later than 1370. There are very 
contradictor accounts of his merits. Some extol him as a 
various ana expressive designer; others say he had no 
claim to repute, except as a colourist; others again found 
hb whole fame upon his discovery of the art of painting in 




o3; ind it was concluded bymost* till lately, chiefly on 
the authority of Sir Joshua Reynolds, that Raspe the 
antiquary, in a treatise on the question, had deprived him 
even of this last remnant of his renown. Raspie certainly 
proved that he did not make the discovery ; but he sur- 
mised, what Lanzi has since shown to he the probable 
conclusion, that although Van Eyck did not invent, he 
greatly improved the art of oil-painting, and brought it 
into general use. This was effected by his discovering the 
means of giving consistency to colours without drying them 
in the sun, and of adding to them clearness and brilliancy 
by a water-proof varnish. After having long resided in the 
rich and flourishing city of Bruges, the two brothers re- 
moved about 1 420 to Ghent, where their greatest and most 
renowned work, the adoration of the Lamb, was painted 
between the years 1420 and 1432. Some say it was painted 
for lodccus Vyts, a rich citizen of Ghent, while others 
affirm that it was by order of Philip, duke of Burgundy, 
count of Flanders, who came to the government in 1420. 
It is certain however that John Van Eyck was long at- 
tached to the brilliant court of Philip. This often described 
uicturo contains no fewer than 330 figures. It is with 
folding -doors, filling in all twelve panels. It was so highly 
prized that it was shown only on particular occasions. 
Philip II., king of Spain, thought of removing it to Madrid, 
but was prevailed upon to content himself with a copy by 
Michael Coxis of Malines. This copy has in our days 
found its way back to the Netherlands, and thence, as it 
should seem, to Berlin. The fate of the original is remark- 
able, and much to be regretted. It remained entire till 
the French, getting possession of Belgium, of course turned 
their eyes to so rich a prize. The clergy of the cathedral 
of St. Bavon succeeded however in concealing eight of the 
twelve panels, so that only four were taken to Paris, whence 
they were brought back in 1815. The clergy have since 
sold six of the panels which were concealed, and they are 
now in the Royal Museum at Berlin, where they are united 
with a part of the copy made by Coxis for Philip II. Hu- 
bert Van Eyck died in 1426. John is generally said to 
have died in 1441, but the date of hb death is uncertain. 
(Raspe, Descamps, Lanzi, &c.) 

£YE. The organs appropriated to the sense of sight 
are distributed very extensively, yet with that frugality 
which alwavs regulates the operations of nature in the con- 
struction 01 animals. All the active species which live in 
the light arc furnished with them ; the rest are disqualified 
to possess as well as to profit by them, by their limited 
powers of locomotion, or by constant residence in the dark. 
In conformity with this rule, to which there are few, if any, 
exceptions, these organs are occasionally associated with 
tho lowest types of animal development, and are sometimes 
absent in tlie highest. Thus some radiated animals, most 
of the articulated tribes, and many of the mollusca, have 
manifest organs of vision, and some of them are of the most 
curious and artificial construction ; on the other hand, the 
mole and the shrew-mouse*, both vertebrated animals, and 
belonging to the highest order of that class, the mammalia, 
are blind. They have eyes, it is true; but those of the 
mole are not larger than the head of a pin, and are unpro* 
vided with optic nerves ; and the equally imperfect eye of 
the shrew is covered with skin, from whicn hair grows 
as on the rest of the body. Hence, even in the absence 
of further evidence, we might conclude that if these ani- 
mals have any perception of light, it can only be sufficient 
to warn them back to their haunts when by any accident 
they emerge to the day. But it is more probable that 
they do not see at all ; and that these rudimentary organs, 
like I he male nipple, exist only in conformity with the 
general model of vertebrated construction. 

The structural peculiarities of the eye, as well as the pre* 
siMice of that organ, may be inferred with more certainty 
from the circumstances of an animal, than from the place 
it occupies in any zoological scale: in fact, no part has 
a closer relation to the habits and mode of existence. 
The eye may be simple or compound, single or multiplied, 
fixed or moveable : it may be encased in a hard transparent 
shell ; or lie deeply imbedded within the protection of a 
bony socket ; or project from the surfiico of the head at the 

'reroity of a sensitive and retractile horn: it may be 
ted for near or distant, oblique or direct vision; for 
g in a strong or a weak light, in a den^e or in a rare 
um ; or it may be formed so as to accommodate itself 

* Aipaltu zemni. 

to each of theie oonditiont in its turn : and these peeuhari- 
ties will all be found upon examination to be in atriet ae- 
cordanee with the exigencies of the animaL Mete dififer- 
ence in bodily size, and the proportionate reduction cir 
increase in the bulk of the eye, is suffioient to constitute a 
reason for a difference in its structure, and may suggest an 
explanation when such discrepanctes are observed to exut 
in animals otherwise alike. 

Yet with all the varieties in configuration to wh;<h 
we have alluded, it is rather in form than in sub*tar.'«.' 
that the eyes of animals differ firom each other. I'iJt* 
organ has always a common purpose, and is eaaentullv 
the same in all cases: that is, we find an assemblage of 
the same ftindamental parts, generally arranged in th'< 
same order, even when our powers of observation arr 
assisted by the microscope, and until all traces of organiza- 
tion are lost in extreme tenuity of texture and the ttau>f>u- 
rency which results from it And although there are re- 
finements in the structure of the organ of which we do uot 
know the purpose, and certain delicate adtu6tment& iu tii«* 
exercise of the fiiculty of which we do not know the instru- 
ments, yet upon the whole we can deduce the principles 
upon which the eye is constructed, and assign the usch (;f 
its several parts with great certainty from oiur knowl«d|ge uf 
optical and physiological laws. 

Having offered these prefatory remarks on the organ in 
general, we now proceed to the most interesting of its vane- 
ties— the human eye. We propose, in the first plare. to 
describe its anatomical structure at some length, noticing 
as we proceed, or subsequently, some of the most remark- 
able peculiarities in the eyes of other animals. We »ha.l 
then add a few observations on the physiology of vision, and 
complete our aeoount of the organ with an outline of lU 
most important diseases in the human subject. 

The object, or what may be called the general frMt^, 
of the beautiful mechanism we have to consider, is (o o '..- 
bine distinctness and extent of vision with the securit> ar. i 
maintenance of the organ, and the utmost convenience in 
using it. The parts associated for these purposes are \h^ 
orbitSi or sockets, of the eye ; the optic nerve ; the eyri^ , 
or globe, with its contentSt and the external muscles \«hK U 
move and suspend it; the eyelids; the lacrymal apj^ratu* : 
the nerves and vessels which supply these uarts, and the 
mass of fotty and cellular substance which isolates and ^u it- 
ports them. We shall describe these parts nearly in li o 
order in which they have been enumerated. 

Orbite. — The eyes with their appendages axe lodged xu 
two symmetrical roomy cavities in the skull, coropleie<l n. 
front by the eyelids, but elsewhere entirely circumMTibed l>> 
bone, the office of which, it need hardly be said, is to pro. 
tect them fh)m injury, and from any pressure that mutt 
embarrass the perfect freedom and precision of their niuM - 
ments. These cavities are called tne orbits, orbital fo-x.i , 
or sockets of the eye. Seven bones of the cranium or t k^-. 
which we need not enumerate, enter into the compo^t.on • \ 
each. They are separated from each other in tbeu- iiii> .c 
depth, which is about two inches, by the posterior chamU rs 
of the nose. They are conical in shape, or, more stn ..v 
speaking, pyramidaU and obscurely quadrangular, 'lu^- 
apex is directed backwards; the base, about an inch and a 
quarter in width, is directed forwards, with a ooiiside(at>:c 
inclination outwards or towards the temple. The marpn ii 
less prominent at the outer side than elsewhere, so tlpi 
when viewed laterally it presents a wide semicircular nut v.':. 
with the concavi^ forwards. One object of the diver|*e!.:c 
of the orbits, and of this retreating eurvatuxe of the outer 
margin, is obviously to incieaae the extent of visioo. If ti.c 
point of the finger be held before the eye, and carried gra- 
dually back towards the ear, it will he observed thai, iri 
consequence of this arransement, it can be seen long aher 
it has «>t behind a vertical plane touching the front of boih 
eyes, whioh, taken together, are thus enabled to sweep o\er 
an angle of about 22 0^ or 20^ on each side behind tho tan- 
gent plane. Above and below, the edge is undercut as « « . i 
as prominent, and the socket is therefiure a little wnlcr 
within than at the margin itself, so that it slightly overhank.t 
the eyeball at these points. The inner or nasal sides \\a^^ 
directly backwards and are parallel to each other, and U\ 
roof is horizontal; consequently the conical form of tio 
cavity arises from the inclination of the outer side ah'« 
floor. In the angle between these sides* and in that It- 
tween the first and the root there are two long irregular 
sUts. The former opens into the deep hollow between ilie 




templeand the baek of the upper jaw; it is ealled the/ora- 
men iacemm if^fBruu, or ipkenO'tnoxiliaiyJUstire, and gives 
passage to a branch from the fifth pair of nerves, which 
pioreing the bone, passes beneath the floor of the orbit, and 
emerges upon the cheek through a hole just beneath the 
lower edge of the orbit, about a third part from the inner 
angle of the eye. The other slit, which is called the «pA0- 
nmdalfltmre^ of foramen iaeerum ntperiusy opens into the 
cavity of the head, and transmits another branch of the 
fifth pair, whieh passing within the orbit, along the roof, 
comes out through an opposite notch in its upper margin, 
and is distributed upon the forehead and upper lid. Iliese 
branches of the fifth pair, called the supra and i^fra-orbit' 
ary nerves, are the most frequent seats of that excruciating 
affliction the tie-<iouioureux. Through the sphenoidal fis- 
sure are likewise transmitted the ophthalmic veins, and all 
the other nerves excent the optic destined to the eye and its 
appendages. A third opening, which is circular, called the 
foramen optieum, of the size of a large quill, and leading 
also from the cavitv of the skull, gives passage through the 
sphenoid bone to the ophthalmic artery and the optic nerve. 
It is directed obliquely outwards and fbrwards, and is 
situated at the apex or back part of the orbit, in the angle 
between the nasal side and the roof. In the same angle, 
close to the margin, that is just within the comer of the eye 
near the nose, there is a deep groove leading into the lacry- 
mal canal, to which we shall have ooeasien to recur here- 

OpHc f>9rre9.— The optic nmves, arising at the back part 
of the brain, with which they have extensive and important 
connections, not only where they seem to originate^ in the 
corpora quadrifemina^ but Ihroughout the whole of the 
first part of their course within the cranhxm, pass horizon- 
tally forward above the Hoor of that csnty, converging 
towards each other till they meet» when they become closely 
united. It is probable that they not merely meet, but cross 
each other, the ^eater part, if not the whole, of the nerve 
(torn the right side of the brain going to the l^ eye, and 
vice vereeL It has been ingeniously supposed by Dr. Wol- 
laston (PhiL Trans. 1824), in ordsr to account for some 
singular phenomena of disordered and healthy vision, that I 
this decuisation or crossing takes place only with respect I 
to those parts of each nerve which lie towards the other ; 
so that each supplies the outer half of one eye and the 
inner half of the other. This he conceives would explain, 
among other things, the correspondence between the Aomo- 
logons points of the two eyes, which may be defined as 
tlM)se points which see the same object at the same time. 
It is scarcely possible to verify such speoulations by dissec- 
tion, from the softness and apparent homogeneity of the 
parts. In fish* the optic nerves cross each other entirely 
without touching; and in man, when the sight of one eye 
has been lost, the nerve beyond the point of union within 
the cranium has been observed to be wasted or diseased 
on the side opposite to that of the affected eye. [Brain ; 
NtRVE.] Beyond the point of junction the nerves again 
diverge from each other, and passing into the optic foramen^ 
become invested in a tough, flexible, and fibrous sheath, 
which is a tubular production of the strong membrane 
called the dura mater which lines the canty of the skull. 
The outer part of this sheath is reflected off as the nerve 
enters the orbit, and expanding, adheres to the bony surface 
of that cavity throughout, becoming its periosteum. The 
ncrres, continuing to diverse, reach the eye-ball after a 
somewhat tortuous course of an inch in length. The cur- 
^tiire and laxity of the optic never give facility to the 
movements of the globe, and preserve the delicate struc- 
tures within it as well as the nerve itself fh>m the injurious 
effects of tension. Its length is such as to allow the eye- 
hall to project slightly beyond the edge of the socket in 
A^nt and to afford space behind for the action of the 
iQnscles which move it, and a suitable distance between 
their points of attachment Including the thickness of the 
sheath, it is about one-sixth of an inch in diameter. It does 
Dot consist, like other nerves, of a bundle of distinct fibres, 
out of a medullary pulp inclosed in minute transparent 
tubes. The sheath is pierced half an inch fix)m the globe 
^J a vessel called the arteria centralis retinee, which, accom- 
panied by several small veins, reaches the axis of the nerve, 
^^^ passes with it into the interior of the eye. The nerve 



{padKM wirHliHi), D. W. Sotnmflrtiv. ' Sect Hoil* 
49BQI «nw«Mli0lk«»lMii pan to tlM ozbil ( 

does not enter the back of the globe exactly in the axis of 
vision, but about the fifth part of an inch from it, in a hori- 
zontal line, on the inner or nasal side, and subtending an 
angle of about 23** at the centre of the eye. At this point 
the dimensions of the sheath are suddenly contracted, and 
it terminates in a thin cul-de-sac, pierced with minute boles 
or pores, hence called the lamina cribrosa (sieve-like plate;. 
Through these pores the pulp of the nerve, divested of its 
tubular involucra, passes into the interior of the globe in 
divided portions; but immediately reuniting, expands at 
the back of the eye into a delicate cup-shaped membrane, 
with the concavity directed forwards. This expansion of 
the optic nerve is called the retina; it is the most import- 
ant part of the eye, having a peculiar and exclusive sensi- 
bility to the impressions of lignt, of which immediate notice 
is conveyed from it along the collected nen'c to the brain. 
All other parts of the mechanism of %nsion are subordinate 
to this ; and their whole office, independently of the con- 
servation of the organ as a part of a living body, is to regu- 
late the quantity of light admitted into the eye, and to dis- 
tribute it in such a way upon the surface of the retina, that 
tlie impression, which, it' immediately received, would be 
confused and general, may be an exact counterpart of the 
visible surface of the object 

Mechanism of distinct Vision. — ^A specific account of 
the several provisions which conduce to this end will be 
more readily apprehended if the circumstances which make 
each of them necessary be first briefly passed under review, 
and the requisite parts be supposed to be added to the retina 
in succession. 

The m^st elementary fact that we know respecting light 
is, that it proceeds in straight lines or rays from every 
point of a luminous or illuminated body. A sensitive 
surface or retina presented nakedly to such a body would 
therefore intercept innumerable cones or pencils of light, 
each diverging from a different point of the object. But 
each point of the retina must aUo be considered in that 
case as the apex of a cone of rays converging upon it from 
every part of the object ; and it is manifest that the various 
impressions thus receivol upon the same point at the same 
time woidd be undistinguisbable from each other. All 
therefore that we can conceive to be communicated to the 
mind by the sum of such indefinite impressions over the 
whole retina, is a knowledge of the prevailing colour of the 
object, and possibly a general idea of its direction. But if 
there were more objects than one, or that one had ' parts or 
magnitude,' even this inconsiderable addition to the mere 
sense of light and colour would be impossible. The con- 
fusion resulting from the simultaneous impressions of a 
multitude of pencils of light on the same surface would 
be partly removed if the seat of perception were placed at 
the bottom of a cavity capable of being turned to each 
object or each part of the same object in succession, inas- 
much as this would prevent the interference of rays pro- 
ceedino; from parts not actually under contemplation ; but 
an inaistinctness would still remain in proportion to the 
magnitude of the field of view, only I'cmediable by narrow- 
ing the cavity to a mere capillary tube, upon the inconve- 
nience of which we need not enlarge. 

Let us consider what would be the effect of a very simple 
addition to the cavity. We will suppose it to be closed in 
front bya dark screen, perforated with a small central hole 
as in the section represented in^. 1. 

In this case pencils of rays crossmg each other from A 
and B, the top and bottom of an object, would inpinge at 
a and b upon different parts of the retina. By this means 
the advantages of a large and a small field of view would be 
combined, a distributed impression of the object would be 
produced, and its several parts would be seen separately and 
in their proper relative situations. The effect mav be easily 
shown by holding a card, pierced with a smooth circular 
hole, near a taper, and throwing the spectrum upon a wftU 
at a little distance* Such a screen is tenned the iris* 




But ttiH the rays from each point of the object would be 
dilFused over a space^ instead of being collected upon a sepa* 
rate tMint of the surface, and the impressions of contiguous 
pencils would m some degree overlap and oonfiise each 
other. This inconvenience might be lessened by contracting 
the opening, but another cause of indistinctness would 
then be introduced in the diminished admission of light. 

Both evils might be avoided if a lens of a proper con- 
struction were fixed behind the screen (as iny^.2). Pencils 
diverging from sinsle points of the object would thus be 
admitted through the opening, which we will call the pttpH, 
and would be made to converge to single points on the 
surface, and the impression would now be an exact coun- 
terpart of the object, A being distinctly seen in its true 
place and direction from a, and B from b. 

But additional provisions would be necessary to bring 
this arrangement to the requisite degree of perfection. In 
the first place the retina must be adjusted to correspond in 
shape with the focal distance of the lens. This purpose 
mi|!ht be accomplished, if the walls of the cavity were com- 
posed of flexible materials, by interposing a transparent 
fluid between the lens and the retina, which, by its uniform 
distension, would constrain the latter to take and retain the 
form of a portion of a sphere. 

Again, although the diagram has been otherwise drawn 
for an obvious reason, our arrangement hitherto sup- 
poses the object to be very small, and to be seen di- 
rectly in front of the eye ; but if oblique as well as direct 
pencils are to be brought to a focus, that the lateral 
vision may be also cb'eiinct, a second refracting body, of a 
proper form, must be placed in front of the lens. This 
may be done very conveniently, with the further advantage 
of (^mpletinjg; the cavity, by adding a transparent portion 
to its walls in front of the screen, to be likewise distended 
with fluid in order to keep it in the shape of a segment of a 
sphere ijlg. 3.) 

It is also desirable that the back of the screen and the 
interior of the cavitv should be blackened, that the rays 
may be extinguishea after impact upon the retina, lest any 
internal reflection should interfere with the impressions on 
other parts. The expediency of this provision is always 
kept in view in the construction of optical instruments, and 
may be made evident by looking at a bright object through 
a polished metal tube. The colouring matter is called the 
vigmentum nigrum^ or, simply, the pigment. 

The only remaining artifice to secure the perfection of 
the organ that need be mentioned in this synopsis of its 
most essential provisions, is to endow the pupil with the 
faculty of contraction and enlargement according to the 
quantity of light. If it were of a constant size, more light 
would be concentrated upon the retina from a bright or a 
near object than from one comparatively distant or faintly 
illuminated; and as the sensibility of the retina must 
remain the same, the disproportion would occasion dimness 
of sight in one case and aaziling in the other, and might 
even impair the ner\'e. 

We have thua imagined all the parts to be built up in 
succession that are of primary importance (as far as we 
know) in the construction of an organ of dUtinci vision^ 
and the figure to which we have arrived might pass as a 
tolerably correct diagram of the human eye. 
. The laws of light and lensatioa require that there should 

be a general type in the stnietare of these parts, and m no- 
tual relation among them as to density, form, and poaition. 
But this does not preclude much variety ; a difference of 
position, for instance, may be, and frequently is. compen- 
sated by a corresponding difference in form or density 
either of the same or other parts. Hence the problem of 
distinct vision has many solutions, each perfect in its kind. 
In fact nothing can be more diversified in unimportant nar- 
ticulars, or more uniform in those which are essential, than 
the interior constitution of the eye in different animals : it 
is never precisely the same in any two species, however 
closely they may be allied; but we eonstantly find tlie 
retina, the lens, and the pigment, and generally the iris 
enclosed of course in some kind of capsule, transparent wx 
front, and partly occupied by complementary fluids. To 
this there are some exceptions, which however we believe 
to be only apparent Thus the larva; of many insects, the 
cercariie, and other microscopic animalcules, and some o( 
the molluscs, have red or black spots upon their surface, 
which are undoubtedly eyes, and are thought by some to 
be little more than expansions of an optic nerve beneath a 
thin coloured membrane to absorb the light, and in souie 
unknown way to distribute its impressions. But when 
observation fails us. our presumptions with respect to 
natural phenomena should be guided by analogy ana accord 
with known principles ; and as nothing that we know uf 
light enables us to conceive how so inartificial a construc- 
tion as this can account for the acute vision obviously 
enjoyed bv some of these animals, we are disposed to 
adopt anoCner view of such coloured points, and to con&ider 
them a.4 a congeries of extremely minute but perfectly 
formed eyes of the usual construction, of which the pigment 
alone is visible from its opacity and abundance. The my- 
riads of simple eyes observed under the microscope to to 
grouped together in the compound organs of the perfc< t 
insect and other articulated animals, as the scorpion anfl 
crab, afford strong analogical grounds for this opinion. 

We now resume our account of the anatomical structure 
of the human eye. 

SeeUoB of Itie cpherical lurfacM of the ey«. iwtca tlia naturnl six«; ihm 
eirclft coiniil«tifil In dotted Hoe*. 

n. Sclerotin. 6, (^orofa. e. Anterior etirfiiee of lem. d, Poileriar enrfar* 
of lens. €t Ceutiv uf the eyu. /. lutursectiou of the aK» of diieet visioa m .th 
the buck of the eye. g. Entrance of the otitic nerve. 

Globe. — ^The globe, or eyeball, contains the parts imme- 
diately concerned in vision. It consists of very unequal 
portions of two spheres of a different size, which have a 
common circular intersection in a transveise vertical plane, 
much nearer the front than the back of the eye. The iris, or 
coloured screen, perforated centrally by the pupd, nearly 
occupies the situation of this imaginary plane, but is, strictly 
si)eaking, behind it. The |X)sterior and larger portion 
is circumscribed by the sclerotic membrane, tsxcept in front, 
where it may be considered as bounded by the iris : it hi 
rather less than an inch in diameter, and constitutes about 
five-sixths of the surface of the globe. (Fig. 4, a) The in- 
eluded space is occupied by the choroid membrane and re- 
tina, the vitreous and crystalline humours, the ciliary body 
and processes, and a small part of the aqueous humour. Tho 
anterior portion, which forms about a quarter of a sphere, 
thirteen-twentieths of an inch in diameter {F^g. 4, 6x and 
occupies the remaining sixth part of the surfkce of th« 
globe, contains the rest of the aqueous himaour, and is 
bounded in front by the transparent and slightly prominent 
disc set in the sclerotic like a watch-glass in its metaUio 
rim, and known as the cornea from its horny texture Its 
transferee chord, or the diameter of the oircle of union 


fwfcn tlie comei and iderotic is nine-twentieths, or neuljr 
birnn inch in length. 

Tlie globe derircs its firmness to the touch froin tbe dts- 
li'nsinnoflhecontained fluids: i[scapabi1it]itobenrthat<lis- 
iriisioij, which insures the permanenee of ils shape, is <lue to 
:!>' flExibicbut strong aiid inelastic outer eovering or tunic, 
ci^i-i-ling OS ive have said of the sclerolie anil cornea. 

u nr Sumiiiriiif ; a, il 

i> r-ghl tyt lb 


SclfTolie. {Fig. 5, a.) The sclerotie menibciine is so 
mlled from its toughuesa (nXiip^, hard, rigid). It may 
lo considered ns an expanded proloneation of tbe shcatli 
cf the optic nerre, which it resembles in its interwoven 
fibrous texture. Its inner surface is continuous with 
the lamina cribmsa already mentioned. Immediately 
Biound this part it is about an eighth of an inch thick, 
and gradually beeomes thinner as it apjiroachea the cornea, 
■bich it slightly overlapa. The two atructurea are not 
wparaled by an abrupt line, but are blended together, 
ind adhere so closely that they cannot be torn asunder 
vitliout great force. The thin glistening tendons of tbe 
musclee whieh move the globe, or rather their smooth outer 
ttmiuTC, are spread over BJid incorporated with the sclerotic 
in fiunt, approaching eacli other till they unite near its 
jiinrtioi) with the comen. They render it somewhat thicker 
ui this situation than in (he spaces between them or behind 
the tine where they begin to he inserted. This front part 
'>r tbe iiapsulc of the 6)% is called the tunica al/niginea, 
term the whiteness characteristic of all tendinous parts. 

Cimjunetiva. The albuginea is defended from contact 
■itli tbe air by a transparent td\ 
"tlh that which lines the int 
tilled the mnjunetimt rfjiexa 

from the coiijwni*ro prnpria of the lids. It b very loosely 
oHinecled to the sclerolie at Brst to facilitate the movement 
of the EJobe : as it advances forward it becomes more 
cWly aiiaohed to the albuginea ; and henoe extending to 
tbe cornea, adheres intimately to its margin and over its 
■bole surhce. The conjunctiTB is the most sensitiTe ex- 
<«nud part of the body to all painful impressions, except 
<^. especially where it inveati the eomea. The smnlleat 
particle of foreign matter in contact with it gives intole- 
ntie pain, and makes the act of winking to clear it away 
imperative on the will ; and hence its chief and most eseential 
use M part of the delicate organ of wbioh it may be eon- 
Udared as the guardian. If the nerve whieh supplies it 
with KnsibiUtr he divided oi injured, incidental euiHa of 
P. C No. 612. 

IB membrane, 

r of the eye-lids. It is 

7 EVE 

irritation arc suffered to produce their iiyurioQl eRastt 
unheeded, and the eye soon beoomes inflamed, uloeratM, 
and is destroyed. 

Cornp/t. (f)'^. 5, b.) The cornea is (omewbat thicker 
than the sclerotic except at the back of the eye, is equoL'j 
tough though ratlier more Hexible, and of a much okner 
and more even texture. Its inner mrface ia concave, and 
nearly parallel to its enter surbee ; it is however rather 
thirker in the middle than elsewhere, and the general state- 
ment that it bee no share in effecting tbe convergenea of in- 
cident rays on account of the parallelism of its lurfteei is 
therefore not quite eonrecL It is covered externally, as wa 
have already mentioned, by the conjunctiva, and is lined in- 
ternally by a delicate elastic membrane. The bulk of th* 
tunic, or cornea proper, consists of aeveral layen whieh 
slide upon each other when themembrane is rubbed between 
Ilie linger and thumb, and are separated in the natarml state 
bv a limpid fluid contsinnl in a delicate cellular structure, 
Tliis fluid gives plumpness to the outer surface, whieh u 
repreEented by some authorities to bo not cmef^y spherical, 
hut of that kind which would he formed by the revolution 
of an ellipse of small exoentricity about its long axis. 

ThlKlanHic ^U'TimoinLalu] Iha rpiUinud lHEkJilwvlB( Ik CMnU 

Chorioid or Chornid membrane. {Fig S, e. Fig. B.) W« 
nave now to consider the internal tnnjcs of tna ^e, tbe 
Brst of which is the choroid, or, more properly, ehorioid 
membrane, so rolled from some resemblance in the floo- 
culenca of its outer surfbce to tbe cAon'on, or external 
investment of the ovnm. This is a thin soft dark-brown 
structure in contact with or lining nearly tbe whole eon- 
cave surface of tbe aclerotio. It may be said to originate 
around the entrance of the optic nerve, which passes 
through it beforo it expands Into the retina; and it ter- 
minates in the posterior margin of tbe ciliary ligament 
or circle (fig. 3, 0, — a flattened band of grey matter, about 
rentn part of an inch in breadtli, attached to the 
sclerotic internally near its junction with the cornea. 
In these situations the two membranes adbere with some 
flrranesa; they are elsewhere connected by vessels which 
nierce the outer and* ramify upon the inner membrane, and 
oy the filantents of a fine intermediate cellular tisane. 
But the connexion is so slight that it may be readily tsoken 
by gentle inflation with a blow-pipe insinuated through ■ 
puncture in the sclerotic, without injury to the fngile 
textnre of the choroid. The choroid consists almost entirely 
of a multitude of minute vessels, curiously interlaced, and 
communicating freely with each other. It is supplied 
with blood by 15 or SO branches of the ophthalmie artery, 
which pierce the sclerotic round the entrance of the nerve, 
and are at first distributed externally on the posterior 
part of the sphere ; but they Unally paaa inwards, and 
terminate in a close and unifbrm vasenUr expansion 
over the whole concave snrfiice. This ii called the tunie 
of Ruyseh, who erroneously considered it as a distinct 
memhianc. The innumerable vstna of tte cboroid, or 
venee vortioMa, arc arranged with neat elennee and 
regularity in arched and drooping branebea, lite Uw banghs 
of the weeping willow; tb^ are very eontpienons npeo 
the outer surface, above the flnt otterior ramifleationa of 
the arteries. (A^. 6.) They imite in Ibnr or fire eotumoD 
trunks, which emerge through tbe aclerolie at equal in- 
tervals behind tbe middle of the q>e>ball. T1» ontar anr- 
fkce of the ehoroid is aomewbat ronph snd (tocenlent ; the 
inner surface, upon which the retma is expanded, is da- 
licatolT smooth and even. Both are Rbanaantly eovered 
with the pij^ment, wbidb fa swreted hj every part Ot tbe 


cbmiid, andperraudes its loose and poroos texture. 

f.— In man tbismatter iaef adeepbrown ecdour; 




,B to contUt of lieueonil puticlcs uranged 

aide by lids like the rclU of a honeycomb. It tdhercs 
VM]r lotaal)', M that when the surfaces covered with it uc 
dnwn to and fro in walar, it becomes diffu^od, and may bo 
wuhed off. The choroid thuB treated ig found to bo of 
tlw (aiM wbitiih or grey colour which characteriiot the 
cQinr ligament In the natural slate of the parti, not only 
the ODoroid, but the ceUular tissue on its external luifWoe, 
and the iniide of the lolerotic, are deeply itained by the 
pigment, which (hows through, and occasioni the bluiib 
tint ef the white of the eye in penoiu of delicate com- 
plerioB. But on the) inner'aurbce of tlie choroid the pig- 
ment is retained by en expansion finer than a spider's web, 
yet ofcloee texture, which may be called afler its discoverer 
the Membrane of Dalrymple. By this means the transpa- 
rency of the retina is preserved. It is probable that this 
membrane of the pigment is of a terout kind, and that 
it is refleoted at the optic and ciliary margins of the 
choroid, and peases over the whole poilorior surface of 
the retina. — tnua doubly defended from absolute contact 
with the pigment. The choroid is not the only part which 
■ecretes this coloring matter. It is found in equal or greater 
abundance upon the back of the iris, on the surfaces of Ihe 
ciliary processes, and in fact wherever it is wanted to faci- 
litate vision. 

Tapeban Luddum. In many animals, especially the 
nocturnal and camiTDiam tribes, the pigment is deficient at 
the bottoiD of the eye, and the surface of the choroid in that 
situation presents a brilliant colour atid almost metallic 
lustre. This is called the tapettitn (tapestry of divers co 
lours). It is of various shades of blue, green, and yellow 
sometimes changeable like shot silk, and sometimes of e 
silvery whileness. The tint occupies various proportions o 
the surfoce ; it is moat brilliant immediately opposite Ihe 
pupil, and passes gradually into the dark hue of the pig- 
ment. There is no veslige of a tapetum In the human 
eye; the use of it is not well known. It probably causes 
the animal to tee belter in the dusk and less clearly in (he 
day, byreflecling the rays a second time through the 
tina. Tills reflection from a very effective concave mi 
produces a strong convergence of the rays which come back 
through the pupii, and is the cause of the well-kni 
of the eyes of cats and other animals seen in an obscure 
light {raxa that particular distance at which the emerging 
rays are most oompletely brought to a focus upon the eyi 
of the observer. Th* breadth of this luminous appearance 
arisea from the great dilatation of the pupil under the ' 
cumstances in which it is seen. 

Bttina. The optic nerve, having entered the interior of 
the globe through the sclerotic and choroid roembtanes. 
forms a slight prominence at the point of union of its 
several portious, and thence spreads out in the Eirm of a fine 
transparent membrane over the whole concave surface at 
the ohoroid, embracing the translucent body called the 
vitxeous humour. Towards the choroid it appears to consist 
of a mere homogeneous pulp notveri- different fh>m the me- 
dullary mailer of the brain; but it is undoubtedly most 
elaborately and minutely oi^aliiied. Analogy would lead ui 
to suppose it to haveaSbrous arran^mcut, and recent obser- 
vations of great nicety with the mioroaco^ appear to lead 
to Iha same eonolusion.* Towards the vitreous humour it 
has the structure of a most d^oale vaacular web, consisting 
of innumerable ramiflcationB of the central' arteiy (whicb, 
as we have already menlioned, accompanies it into the in- 
terior of the globe) and of its associated veins- Its name 
may have been derived from the net-work formed by the 
visible branches of these vessels; at least it is not other- 

B applitaibie to the slruclure of the membtaue. The 


experiment Hrat 

wall painted of a lead colour, and the other eye closed by 
the band, the flame of a small wax taper is to be slowly 
waved nand and round, so as to be brought al every turn 
at a little distance over the f^ont of Ihe eye. The central 
artery will gradually come into view, at first obscurely, and 
allerwsfds more aleady. The experiment succeeds best 
after the esperienee of several trials on successive nights, 
Tba form is such as might be expected from a branching 
net-work of vesiels: the lines are dark, wilh bright edeos 
Minify illnmiBBted ground. There are otiMr modes 

■ Hilki'i Plijilaloir. 

of making the e^periraen^ irtiA show tb« amearaiMe 
more distinctly, but they are less simple- We shul offer sn 
explanation of this experiment in treating on the pbyaio- 
logy of vision. The retina terminates anteriorly m a thin 
scalloped edge, fltling into corresponding inwulariiii-t 
called the ora terrata in the posterior margin of toe riti^ry 
bodv. {Fig. S, / and 9, d.) Exactly opposite the pupil there 
is a bright yellow spot, &ding gradually off at the eoges, slid 
having a black point in the centre precisely where ihe axi* 
of direct vision intersects the back of the eye. iPig. S, n,) 
This central point was believed by its discoverer, Soem- 
mering, to be an actual deficiency of the substance of \hv 
retina; and it is ^nerally called in consequence the fura- 
men of Soemmering. But it is now known to be merely a 
central absence of the yellow colour of that part of Ibc 
retina rendered conspicuous by the pigment seen throucH 
the ordinary transparent teituro. These appearances are 
lost very shortly aner death, and are replaced by a mtnuii.- 
fold, into which the retina gather* itself, reaching from tlio 
place of the central point to the prominence which mark', 
the union of the divided portions of the nerre.* He aac >.( 
this yellow spot and oentral paint, and of the tendency uf 
the retina to assume a folded shape in this situation, i- 
not understood. It has been su^estad that the grou[' <•■ 
appearances is a rudiment of the ydlew dye of the retina 
and of tbe peclen in birds, of which we shall give some ar- 
count in a future part of the artiole. They are met vtili 
only in the eyes of man, the quadrumaDa, and some liiarrtf 
We have already described sufficiently Ihe aBnns mem- 
brane which lines the posterior surboe of the retina, sup- 
posed to be a reduplication af that wbieli retains the pi.;- 
ment on the onpoaad lutftae of the choroid. WhaicM-r 
may be the truth u to tiiia supposition, tb«re is no duiitii 
of the -' -° ■' ■ ■ ■ 

of the retinal membrBne, which was < 

covered by Dr. Jacob of Dublin, and has been named afuT 

Vitreou* Humour. (Fig. G, e and 7, rf.) The part nc^t :■> 
order to be described is the vitreous hnmoiir, beoind wb>< h 
the retina is disposed. It is a transparent fluid of scmi:,!-- 
latinous consistence and high refractive power, constiiutn..; 
about tlve-sixths of the bulk of the globe. It consists '.r :. 
fluid differing in no great degree from water, conlaiin..! 
in a cellulated structure called the hyaloid membrair 
(UoXo;, glatt\ trvnx its perfect translncency. lite mum-'' 
cells ate connected together; for if the externa] port |..- 
punctured, the fluid eontained in them gradually draiTi. 
away. This cellular structure is so delicate and fisc-'.- 
that it is almost impossible to obtain it eepamirS . 
but the membranous partitions are rendered kI^l'u.ii 
opaline by strong spirit or diluted acids, and may tlni- K' 

ntaSfn*. tarn Oh, work ot Sbd. npnanti tb« titmum k^n* In i< 
hrslald menbtui. Ttw tfutintwldnl id It.uewt larkn. la •uran>..J 
bJLli.cmilofPdll. Timdufc bu.dir Iwyoixl ft Uif pUiWl r>>rtk>D .f <-.> 
byiluid ntiBbru* rillxd lh> nxe .>/ ZAn, •uh>«l><Ui (li>iif(_«i wn '> 
ih> iiKiTT ki^. .hieh In ih> pibinl ■■Hor ihi puto mu ■«« M>t )..' 

made evident. It is condensed into a membtatte of a 
firmer consistence upon the surftu^e, whirh servn t|., 
general purpose of a containing capsule fat the vitr.- 
ous humour, and Is strong enough to cause it to preKnt- 
lis shape in some degree when tlie stranger tnnias of ih. 
ejo are removed. There is a narrow tubuUrdimplear^o-, vr 
depth in tlio vilroouB humour opposite the entrance of it, ■ 
nerve, lined by n trumpet- shaped production into it of lb- 
external membrane, called the hyaloid cattaL {Kg. J i 
It serves to transmit a brsncb of tlie retinal artm and as- 
sociated veins fbr the noutiihment of Ae apsow of th« 

EYE 1 

bu ia Iha ftotM, uid psrhftpg abo of tha hyaloid nwm- 
bmu, and of Uw lubatance of the lens iiatU. There can 
Im no daidit that the vitieous humour is aeoreled by the 
siu&oei at Ihft hyaloid ceUs, but this ftstal artery i* the 
only Tsatigt of a Taieulftr arrangemeat yet diKoverwd in 

lUtUtti Tlnr at tk* l«u, •howiu Iti UmiuM ud ilaqw HtiulBi 

L*n», or Crytt<Mne Himmw. lFig*.S./; 7, a; 8.) The 
ttj'dtalliDO (>f in-oX^, cnislai] is imWded in a deep de- 
preuion in Ihe front of Ibe vitieoui hunour, a tittle 
nearer the nasal than the temporal aide irf the globe. It 
fau the form and fiinotioD of a double convex leiw. The 
turfocea may ba conaidered aa portiims of two unequal 
ipheres, the anterior being GonHiderably flatter than the 
|Mleriar. The diameter orths aphere of which the former 
19 * isgment ii about eigbt-twelttba, of the lalt^ Bve- 
twoifths of an inch. The thicknew of the lens, measured 
In the axis of rison, ia about the lixth part of an inch, and 
iu transTBiM diameter ia about twice that length, {t'ig. 4, 
ee,dd.) In lefraMiTe powar it ia luperior to the other 
iraaiparent anbitanoea oontained in the eye. Its consist- 
ence is gelatinoua, increasing in density from the circum- 
rmnce towards a central nucleus which has the tenacity 
gf soft wax. It ia composed of an infinite socoession of 
Ihln concentrio taminB, arranged with the utmost regularity 
one within another like the coats of an onion ; and every 
lucb Rlratum or elliptic shell ia laade up of a aeries of ex- 
quisitely minute fibres laid aide by side, forming three 
trpta like the cloves of an orange, of which the bounding 
01 cleavage planes diverge from the axis of the lens at angles 
of 12U° in tne manner represented in the annexed Qgnre. 
{Fig. 8.) If the lens be hardened in strong spirit, Ihe result 
or this curious arrangement is, that it partly cleaves into 
three portions made up of layers whieh may be peeled off 
one after another, each further sepaiabte to a certain ex- 
isnt into its component parallel fibres. The spirit not otil* 
hardens the crystalline humour, but renders il opaque ; and 
Ihe same effect is nroduced by plunging il in boiling water, 
u every one must nave observed in the eyes of dressed fish. 
In bet it consists chieOy of the transparent substance called 
^Honen found in eggs, and is coagulated by heat in the 
ume way. The lens is similarly constructed in the eyes 
of other mammalia ; and analo^us, thouf^h not identical, 
urangementa are observed in other classes. In fish the 
Sbres we have spoken of are curiously hooked together by 
Gne t«cth, resembling those of a saw. We chiefly owe the 
iattneey of these facts respecting the intimate structure of 
the lens to the laboois of Leeuwenhoek, Young, and Brew- 
Mer, whose writings may be consulted for much further in- 
loresling information on the subject. The crystalline is en- 
cl'Mcd in a transparent and highly elastic tnembranoui cap- 
'ule, represented in fig. 5 by a white line, to the regulated 
[ireHure of whieh the preeervatioD of its true shape, so im- 
YMkA to tne purposes of vision, is mainly attributable. 
There is lo analogous structure in the body, except the ist^'- 
iil lining of the comaa already mentioned, which closely 
tesembles it in its function with reference to the surface of 
IV ai^aeous humour. When the lens is hardened in spirit 
If bailiae water, this capsule retains its nature; and if 
peeled off, shriviels up end curls upon itself. It may be 
raiily detached with a pin tttiva the hard spherical lens 
^f a boiled fish, and will be found still possessed trf its 
peculiar qualitiea of transparency and elasticity. The cap- 
>Dle is firmly attached to the hyaloid membrane behind, 
(^ which it is not easy to separate it neatly. Whether 
II hu any further connection than that of mere contael 
■ith Its own contents, is not easy to show, or to doubt ; but 
ih« nature of that connection, if any exists, might be ex- 

9 B¥ E 

pected to ba obacuia, conaidnring that both iha parts aia 
diaphanoua, and one of them almost liquid at the surface of 
contact. Indeed it has been supped that a small quan- 
tity of limpid fltiid was actually mtnposad bntwaen the 
lens and its capsule, but thia is nov shown to be the teeult 
of imbibition after death. 

Besides its posterior attachment to the hyaloid membrane 
the lens, or rather its capsule, has connections with other 
parts which adjoin it laterally in front : the nature of theta 
will be best understood if those parts be first briefly de- 
scribecL At present, we shall only remark upon it fuiiher, 
that the gradual inereaae in its density from the circum- 
ference to the centre is a provision for oorrectiag what ii 
called the aberration qf ^ihmeitif, or that impaument at 
focalising power which reaulta from the too fpe»A refraction 
of the lateral rays of a pencil of light in passing throu^ 
a homogeneous nedium, snch as glass, if bounded by sp^ 
rical surfhcea. 

Jgutout AuRonr.— This fluid, in no respect distinguish- 
able from 'vatei except in holding a minute proportion of 
several salin,. ingredients in solution, occupies the space be- 
tween the lens and Ihe cornea. The iris divides this space 
into two unequal portions called the anterior and potleriur 
eJuanbert of tne eye, and so closely approaches the less that 
near Ihe ma^n of the pupil the two iMirfacea aie separated 
by a mere film of aqueous humour. The cavity ia lined 
throughout by a serous membrane which sedetes and limits 
the fluid, and prevents il from acting injuriously upon sub- 
jacent parts of importance. At kast a membrane of this 
kind may be peeled off in some animals ; its existence in 
the human eye is rather a matter of inference than proof. 

Several parts of much interest besidtts those we have 
already noticed are contained in the cavity of Ibe aqueous 
humour, or ttirm part of its boundaries. These are the iris, 
the ci'iary body ai,d processes, the sone ef Zinn, and the 
canal of Petit, , 

Iris. (.Pig. 6, A; 9, 6.) In qwaking of tha ehorotd w* 
have already adverted to the flattened ring celled the 
ciliary ligament (H^. 5, i) which connects il in front with 
the sclerotic The iris arises from the anterior margin of 
this ring, and is extended, as we have seen, acrosa the 
aqueous humour in the form of a thin partition with a 
round aperture, or pupil, of variable size in the cantrv, or a 
little nearer the inner side, the function of which, we need 
hardly repeat, is to regulate the quantity of light admitted 
into the eye, i^ contracting when it is in excess, and dilating 
whan it Mia short of the due amount 


iBDliaa of Iht flobfl, ifaowvc 4« ^huj bsdv 
M« trota batiiatl rlieQ th* laDa Li tvunti. 
tiof Uis iria; c, pTDniHaaaflbl cillHrr bodr i 
, Id whkti ■ h* ihnda of lh> Tuenkr nb of 

The external appearance of the iris is too fiimiliar to need 
particular description. It is covered in front with a glis- 
tening polished membrane. The brilliancy of the eye 
depends in a great measure upon the light reflected by this 
surface, and is lost when its smoothness and transparency 
impaired by inflammation. The posterior surfiice of the 
■ called theucea. {Pig. 9, b.) It is thickly c -"' 

with pigment, which is prevented fhnn diffusing itself in 
'' aqueous humour by a membrane tike that of Dalrymnle 
the choroid. Such a provision is particularly needed 
e on account of the quick movements of the part in a 
watwy AukL The colouring matter of the iris Iwa wueb 
analogy with the pigment. like that mbataDC*. it fbrma 

fc Y E 



no part of tbe toxture it perrades; 'and when the outer 
membranes are removed by maceration in vater, it mav be 
washed away. Both hare a relation in quantity as well as 
in depth of tint to the complexion and colour of the hair. 
In the negro the iris is of so dark a hue that it can scarcely 
be distinguished tttjm the pupil ; while in the white rabbit 
and other albinoes, including the human variety, where tbe 
pigment is entirely wantin{j fW>m some original malforma- 
tion, the substance of the iris is transparent, and reflects 
only the pink colour of the circulating blood. Such eyes 
are dbuzled by a strone light, and probably see better than 
others in the ausk. Ae iris, if minutely injected, appears, 
like the choroid, to be composed almost entirely of vesseU. 
It is principally supplied bv the two long ciliary arteries 
{Fig. 6)^ which pierce the sclerotic about half an inch from 
the optic nerve on either side ; and passing between that 
membrane and the choroid, divide near the edge and in the 
substance of the ciliary ligament, and are wholly distributed 
to the iris. Their branches are disposed in two conspicuous 
circles on the front surface, one near the outer or ciliarv 
margin, the other not far from the pupil. But thou^^n 
the iris resembles the choroid in -vascularity, it differs 
essentially from it in other respects. It is richly supplied 
with nerves, which proceed to tnc iris and are distributed 
upon it much in tne same way as the arteries, and are 
the medium of its sympathy with the retina, and the 
source of its irritabiUty. It also possesses a peculiar con- 
tractile power, thought by some to reside in fibres which 
they represent to bo muscular, and to be disposed circu- 
larly in ftont and at the fore edge, and in a radiated form 
behind. iFig' 9» b,) The farmer of these layers is Bup- 
posed to contract and tho latter to dilate the pupil. But 
this fibrous appearance may bo deceptive, and is attributed 
by others to circular arrangements of the vessels and nerves, 
and to streaks and minute folds in the membrane itself. 

Pupil, (Hg. 9, a.) The \m\,\\ in the human eye is 
hounaed by a sharp well-dollncd circular edge. In other 
animals its shape is subject to many varieties ithich may 
often be explained by a reference lo their habits and cir- 
cumstances. In fish it is generally crescentic or imperfectly 
^ttadrangular. In herbivorous animals, which often con- 
tmue to browse during the night, it is oblong and obliquely 
transverse, as in the horse and sheep. In most serpents 
and many rapacious quadrupeds, both oquatic and terres- 
trial, the pupil, though round and large at night, is a mere 
vertical slit when seen by day, especially in the smaller 
species of each genus, as in the common cat. Ii is curious 
tAat in the larger cats, as the lion and tieer, as well as 
in some of the larger four-footed reptiles, the pupil again 
becomes circular. In all birds, we believe, the pupil is 
round ; and it may be observed that, with few excepiious, 
they all sleep after night-fall. In the few nocturnal species, 
as the owls, the pupil is very large though still round, and 
these birds always shun the day. The long narrow pupil i 
in fact a provision for a greater variation in size than the 
circular form permits, and is generally found in those 
animals which roam at night and also see well by day. 
IVhen absent in such animals the bulk of the organ is 
oommonly sufllcient to secure the admission of a sufficient 

auantity of light after sunset without this provision. In 
to foDtus the pupil is closed by a vascular film called the 
membfwui pupiUari9t one function of which is precisely 
that of the centering of a bridge, to support and extend it 
during the process of its construction. A tubular film of 
the same xind has been lately discovered by Miiller 
stretched between the margin of the pupil and the ciliary 
body. Both these films are absorbed before birth. 

Ciliary body and processes, (Fig, 5, 1; d,d c). Upon the 
compressed anterior surface of the vitreous humour where 
it curves inwards from the sclerotic towards the lens rests 
the ciliary body, a thin, dark, annular band, about the fiAh 
part of an inch in breadth, consisting of a frill of flat con- 
verging plaits, which encircle but do not reach the circum- 
ference of the lens. The posterior aspect is concave, and 
adheres loosely over the loundcd vitreous humour; the 
front is convex, and is firmly attached to the whulo breadih 
of tbe ciliary ligameut, ana to a small ]K>riion of the baL-k 
of tho iris near its junction with the ligament. It appears 
lo be a continuation of the inner byer of tho choroid, or 
tunic of Ruysch, but is rather thicker, and resembles it in 
«xtrem« vascularity. The medullary nuitter of the retina 

*^^^^^^^Oi»*frtmUmim rm«MBto4 la Ike Sgw« by Um middle 

terminates, as we have seen, at the indented poatenor mar- 
gin iora serrala) of this membranous band. The ciliarv- 
body is everywhere thickly coated and pervaded with pi^*- 
ment, except at the extremities of about seventy minute 
unattached points which fringe the inner maigin, and m* 
diate towanis the lens like the florets of a marigold rouitO 
its central disc. These are the ciliary processes. iPtz- ^> 
k ; 9, c.) They arc separated from tlie uvea by the tluui <f 
tho posterior chamber, and are received behind into eoric- 
s]x>uding depressions in the vitreous humour. 

Zone qfZinn.—U the ciliary body be carefhlly peeled off, 
and the thick radiated masses of pigment it leaves behind 
be washed away, a thin, transparent, and puckered mem- 
branous surface is exposed, extending from the indented 
margin of the retina nearly to the capsule of the lens, which 
appears to be something more than the mere external sur- 
face of the hyaloid membrane. This is called the sof^e of 
Zinn, from the anatomist who first drew attention to it. 
Various opinions are entertained of the nature of this zone. 
By some it is supposed to be a continuation of the vascular 
web, which may be called the internal tunic of the retina, 
arching round from the ora serrate, just as the tunic of 
Ruysch is continued into the ciUary body which lies u{>oii 
the zone and corresponds with it in extent. The qucsiion 
is more curious than important in the present state of our 
knowledge of the functions of both of these delicate uud 
elaborately constructed parts of the eye. The same lemaiL 
may be extended to the controversies that subsist \wth 
respect to the pai't we have next to describe. 

Canal of Petit {Fig. 7, b ; 5, m). If the transj.arcnl mem- 
brane between the zone of Zinn and the mm gin of tbe lens 
be slightly punctured, and the ix)int of a small bluw ])i})e be 
gently introduced, a canal may be inflated extending uU 
round the lens in close proximity with the .capsule, re- 
sembling a string of small glass beads laid in a circle. This 
is the canal qf Petit. Whether the byuloid meiubnuic 
separates into two layers, or whether the membrane of the 
aqueous humour lies upon it in this situation for a certam 
space without adhering, or how otherwise this canal is 
formed, it is not easy to say. In the natural state of parts 
it is empty and flaccid. When it is inflated the fine white 
triangular tips of the ciliary processes are seen to be re- 
ceived between its minute protuberances. But the points 
are loose and floating, and are not attached, as was former 1 ? 
supposed, to the capsule of the lens. 

Dr. Brewster has stated an opinion that the ciliary bo<ly 
is a muscular organ calculated to effect certain changes t'f 
curvature in the surfaces of the lens, or in its po»Utca, 
which seem to be required by the laws of refraction to ac- 
count for the adjustment of the eye to different distaiic^.^ 
Dr. Thomas Young was no less confident that tho true so- 
lution of this optical enigma was to be found in the ima- 
{^ined muscularity of the fibrous structure of the lens itself 
Both are high authorities, but neither opinion appeuis to 
KwQ gained any ground. 

Appendages qf the Globe. — ^Tbe eye-ball, of which uc 
have thus oescribed the contents, is lodged in the cavity of 
the orbit, a little nearer the inner than the outer side. ' lu 
front, where the protection of bone is wanting, the Xm^.* 
moveable and muscular eye-lids supply a sufficient defcnri% 
and contribute, by their gentle and constant pressure, .u 
keep the eye in that state of equilibrium between opposite 
forces upon which the steadiness and precision of its rapid 
motions in a great measure depend. The space in the 
socket not occupied by the globe and its appendai^is com- 
pletely filled by a cushion of soft fat contained in cla* .:c 
membranous cells, which permits .the five movement of the 
several parts, while it keeps them separate, and affords them 
all, as well as the globe itself, a suitable and uniform sup- 
port. Varieties in the quantity of this substance, in the ca- 
pacity of the orbit, and in the development of the hds, de- 
termine the different degrees of promiuence and of apparv-ot 
bize observed in the eyes of different persons; for the globe 
itself is nearly of the same size in aU. 

Muscles qf the Eye ball— The movements of tlic trl«»l« 
are effected by six muscles arising fi:om the bony surface of 
the orbit, and inserted into different parts of the sclerotic. 
Four are t:a]led' recti, that is sUaight or direct muscles ; the 
fifth and sixth are the obliqui superior and ir^fefior, so 
called from the obhquity of their insertion, and their rt- 
spective positions above and below the globe. The fifth* ur 
superior oblique, is also called the trochlearis. from the 
trochlea or pulley through which the tendon 

B jr B 

it lb* rertni iniwrter, - . - , 

' tba'upptr Ud; Hit ovuc wrnt. p, Iba nimat 
Glh. and Gtb piiit, milch |i*» '*"■'■"■> ^^* '" 

sf iba lif hi «}(-Wl, Hu btm Ub on 

The recti (Pig. 10, a,b,c,d) are four Ust ribbon-like 
muscles, each abont half an inch broad, which artBe toge- 
ther TOUQd the tdffe of the foramen opticum, and «inbrac« 
Ihe nerve at its exit from the skull. They end in broad, 
lliin, glistening tendoits, attached to the sclerotic at four 
equidjstant pointi, about a quarter of an inch ttom 
th« edge of tlie comoa, above, below, and on either aide. 
Hence they are designated aa the superior, inferior, 
inlernol, and external straight muscles. We have already 
eiplaiued how the outer surfaces of their tendons ore 
blended, and form the tunica alhu^ines. Each turns 
the pupil towards ihe side of its insertion ; and it is easy to 
lae how by their single actions, or by a proper combination 
of two that are contiguous, the pupU may bo turned ' 
required direction. Thi 

IwTlDg bHB iD»li (Itend Is ndw th*a son diMiict) , 

(o bfi amridflrwl odIjt u & dia^mn, thvpropDclkLiiof thi [wU 

IB exiernus, from its position 

not only in common with the rest from the edge of the 
optic foramen, but also from the edge of the sphenoid fls- 
lure, and mrcbei over several nerves which enter the orbit 
by that passage (^i. The superior oblique or trochlearis («) 
is s round tapering muscle, which arises near and on Ihe 
nasal side of the rectus intemus (e), and ends in a smooth 
round tendon. The pulley (k) through whii:h this tendon 
passes is a small loop of cartilage fixed to ihe roof of the 
orbit towards the nasal side, just within the margin. In this 
situation the tejidon is enveloped in a lubricated extensible 
sbealh called buria mueota ; thence spreading into a thin 
fun-like expansion, it is retlecled obliquely backwards and 
outwards between tbo globe and the tendon of Ihe rectus 
superior (a), and is inserted into the back part ofthesclerotio 
U a point (rn), intermediale between the optic netve and the 
insertion (A) of the rectus extemus, and nearer the former. 
lis separate action turns the pupil downwards and out- 
wards. The inferior oblioue (/) arises broad within the lower 
edge of the orbit towards the nasal or inner side, and pass- 
ing obliquely backwards over the tendon of the rectus in- 
ferior (d), is attached to Ihe sclerotic al the outer and back 
part opposite the insertion of the trochlearis. It directs the 

ir lo the temple, the inferior oblique in- 
creases that inclination, being equipoised as to lateral action 
nhen Ihe eye is shghtly turned mwoids, as in reading. But 
its tendency is always to turn the pupil upwards. To a cer- 
tain extent the same remark is applicable (mutalii mutan- 
liis) to Ihe action of the antagonist muscle, the superior ob- 
lique, which if exerted at the same time would counteract 
Ihe tendency upwards, so that both taken together would 
keep the eye in that easy position so often assumed by 
man and animals in lookuig without much effort yet 
neadily at near objects, as in taking food, reading, and moat 
olher quiet occupations. The position we mean is that in 
which the axes of vision are directed slightly towards each 
other and a Utile downwards, and the eye-bolls are gently 
pleased against the lids and by them, and thus are kept in 
t coDvenient and steady equilibrium. When the oblique 
muscles act together with force, they hold the eje-ball 
llnnly against the lids and to the nasal side of the orbit. 
One or both of these muscles, as well as the rectus ex^ 
tfnus, ore supposed to be endowed with certain automatic 
or ioToluntary actions, very usefUl in the economy of vision. 
Their (iinctions in this and other tespeots have given 
Qcowii l« much ouiioQi disquisition. 

Viaw nt ihc Itn lyi^bTDW ord llilhihcuciog Ihrai UmlmiialDi. 
Ih. Jiuil. uf Uu MriW^rnTnUndi (ihcKa on th' uppar lij aii ^nlluj; t, 
Thfl dunldfl line af puinla eitflnitl En lh« tfriboniBfl DrlSoM Eoarkt Iha 

The Eyelid) or Palpebrte. IFfgt. 11, 12, 13.) The 
textures which enter into the composition of the eyelids 
are included between a soft external skin and a moist 
smooth internal surftce, called the conjunctiva paipebralit 
or propria. (Fig. 13, a a.) The latter is a membrane of 
the mucous kind, which, as we have already mentioned, 
after lining the interior of the lids, passes across in a loose 
circular scroll or fold to the sclerotic, and is reflected back 
again over the front of the eye, where it is called the adnata 
or conjunctiva rejlexa. The name is derived from Uie junc- 
tion thus effected between the ocular and palpebral surfaces. 
The outer skin of the eyelids, which is extremely soft and 
delicate, yet capable to a considerable extent of adapting 
itself to different degrees of extension, is loosely connected 
to the subjacent parts, except at the m'argin (where it ad- 
heres more closely), by a moist and abundant cellular tissue, 
entirely devoid of fat. By means of this conneclion, when 
the upper lid is raised and these under-lying parts are re- 
tract^ under the eda;e of the orbit, the superfluous skin is 
gently drawn after tnem, and is disposed of conveniently 
under the brow {ttqmrdlium). The eye-lids meet, when 
closed, by two narrow flat surfaces, accurately applied to 
each other, called their ciiian/ or tars<d margins. These 
epithets are respeclivelv derived ttOTa the tarri or thin 
concave and crescentic shells of smooth and elastic carlilo^ 
wliicb give form to the lids, and firmness and outline to their 
opposed edges (,Plg, 10, t)\ and from Ihe lashes or cilia, 
which grow in several rows at the margins of both lids, from 
their extreme outward verge, and in the direction of the flat 
surfaces. The angles in which the maigins of the eye lid t 
meet towards the nose and temple are called the eanlhi. 
The outer canthus is kept in its place during the motions 
of the part by a tendinous expansion or aponeurotit, which, 
adhering to the thin crescentic edges of both tarsi on 
their outer or convex sarfkce, attaches them, and most 
closely on this (Uie temporal) side, to ihe margin of the 
orbiL It is called the brood ligament of the tarsi. The 
nasal extremities of the tarsi are confined to the side of the 
by two slips which are given off btbind ttom the ten- 
don of the orbicular muscle. 

MiueletoftheEytlidt.—lmmeiiatelj beneath the snb- 
cutaneoos cellular tissue there is a broad layer of mii»- 
culu fibres arranged ellipticBlly round the f 

SMun of tfa« ejelidt, the diipoMtion of whkb U woU 
»hown in the winexed figure. (Pig. 12) The office of 

be ewly Mt if B. I 
when the ey e U di 
upper lid it ^owly raited. 

Meibomian Glaadt. KFig. 13, « ».) Between the taniu 
of either M and the eoiyunrtiTB u« dkpoted iiumeruu* 
verlical rows of ruinute whitiib Kraina, which appear 
through the aemi'traiiiparent mncoui membnne. and 
occupy an elliptic space, taking both hds together, of about 
half an inch in width, exactly in ftvnl of the ^lobe. Tbow 
are called the Meibomiaa glands, fVom their diiooverer. 
They secrete an uncluous niBtt«r which paawa into lubci 
itrally placed in each row, aiid exude* from as many 

jiute unilceson Iho ciliary mort^in of the lid. (.Fig. 1 1, rj 

There are idwut forty of these parallsl oluslera in the upper 
lid : in the lower there are not lo many, nor are they in- 
dividually BO long. We need not dilale upon the use oi 
this secretion, which often colWcls in a sensible quantity 
upon the edges of Ibe lids during sleep, especially wWn 
tlM glandulu aclioo is excited by slight inllanimalory irri- 
' bn of the part. The palp«bsal coniuuctiva, already Av- 

ibed, immediatelv oover* these gfuidular corpuscles. 

The eanitulr, a sroall red pranuoeuca at the inner angle uf 
ive (Fig- 1 1> <" coiuista of a iiunbec of •imilor bodies. 

lis oltlit l*n ijnlM, ul»an>"" 



I .Ighl, V 

this muscle, which is called the orbicuiarit, is to close 
the hds; and it is cafable of acting under certain cir- 
cumstances with great force. It is collected at the inner 
angle or eanlhus of the eye into a round short (endon, 
which is attached in that situation to the bone. Elsewhere 
it is counected with the skin, and aponeurotic expan^iutig 
of the face and furehead. It i» also connerled wiili the 
c-eipito-fronlali* mutcle, which olgvales the eyo- brows, and 
with the coTTvgalor fup^mlr'i, which wrinkles and knits 
them in the act of frowning. A person acquainted uith 
tnechanics will have no didiculty in perceiving the ad- 
vantage derived from the oblique, or, as it might almost be 
called, the incidental action of the orbicularis in closing the 
lids, to the edm of whith its fibres are parallel. * 

re paralli 
wld bav< 

powerful ; but the actual arrongemeBl secures s rapidity 
incomparably more conducive to the fuoctioa of the eye- 
lids, which IS to cleanse and moisten the surface of the eye. 
Levalor PoipebrtB tuperiori: Below the orbicularis, in 
the upper lid, ia the broad tendon of the muscle which 
delates the upper lid. iPigt. t3. d; 10, g.) This muscle 
arises from the edge of the optis foramaD. Just above the 
rectus superior, and passing over it along the roof of the 
orbit, forms the thin tendon we have mentioned, which is 
inserted into the inner sur&cv, or rather the thin upper 
itl^f of the tarsal cartilat,f . There is no such provision for 
dcprt-^sing the lower lid, which is rendered unueccH»ary by 
il^ lureriur extent. Moreuvcr the muscle we have Just dc- 
Hcnbcil sulUcicatly answers the purpose, by (H^asing down 
Um globe aad causing it to slida a liiile furwardii ; as inay 

■.Tin two nnseti Indlns IbIo ibi lunrriul dooi 1 1. Iba Hnwoe nmsn 
eflkH(dDeblntol)>«l>iihiT»l>K; <.ilHh«ti>rAsl«bfTVil*Ki Alta 

■•rrow ponioo oT ih. MO, or BKimtasBWM taehO'"^ »»i^ ?•■•'■< "™»"»"^ 

laehrrnal Apparalui. ll^g*. 13, 14.) At the upptr 
and outer part of the interior of the eyelid are several 
minute orifices (Fig. 13, c), generally seven ia aumber. ar- 
ranged ia a half-circle, which lead into the sacretMV ducts 
of 3ie lachrymal gland. (Fig. 13,4; 14, e.) This is a 
white flattened lobulal«d body, of the siaw of a large benn, 
lodged in a depression just within the margin of the orbit, 
and covered externally by the orbicular muscle. The fiuic- 
tioB of this gland is le secrete the tears ; and is probably 
always going on, although not in a degree aufficient to W 
remarked, except in weeping, or when same foreign body 
or acrid vapour stimulates the surface of the eye, and by 
sympaihy excites the gland to unusual secretion. 

The iiivoluotajy actions of the rectus extemus and In- 
ferior oblique muscles, tu which we have alluded, ore sup- 
posed to nave a rclatiun lo the lachrymal secretion. In 
the act of winking, the eye-ball is thrown up in an outward 
direcliun, as it would b« by the action of thsse Huschn. 
which not ouly brings the cornea into the vicinity of the 
ducts, but makes pressure upon the gland, while it re- 
lAtively increases the rapidity with whicn the Uds, draan 
in winking towank the fixed nasal tendon ore swept over 
the surfece of the ^lobe. That there is such a movement, 
however produced is certain: the motion of the prominent 
cornea mav be felt bf the flngw gently pressed upon tlue 
half-shut lid if it be completely and suddenly dosed. 
The appfoximolioa of the lias towards the nose in winking 
is one of several provisions by which oSending particles or 
superfluous fluids are brought lo the inner canthus of (lia 
eye to be protruded or absorbed. In this situation there i< 
a vacant apace pertly occupied by the caruncle, called Uic 
laeut lachrymaltt iF^g. \i,d); it is a sort of reservoir ur 
rather tinh for the tears. Above and below, at I be en- 
trance to this apace where the ciLary margins tenniimlt.'. 
there is a small prominence on the inner edge of Imili. 
(Fig. It, a; 14, oj I'ctitnlly punctared by small urilicLk 
These arv the punela lachivtnalia. Th«ir inieard aspvct i. 
well shown In Fig. 13. Tno)' are llw enuaoloiiM gf fb* 


surfacB of its b«U-ahDped portion, whore it posses tUrough 
■everal thread-like loops or pullefs vhiRh keep it applied 
to the concavity, and round % honj point which projects 
from the surface, and is attached near the edge of the 
cernea to tbo edge of an elaitic fold (Jig- in,/) of the 
conjunctive which is called the third eyelid or nictitating 
(i.e. in'nAifi;) membrane. It will be easily seen by the 
help of the flgures, from this doscription, that the effect 
of Itie simultaneous contraction of the two muscles will be 
to draw the membrane with great rapidity, makinp; it sweep 
DTer (ho surface of the cornea. It returns by its own elas- 
ticity with nearly equal quickness. A bird may be seen to 
use tbit mechanism twenty times in a minute ; in foct, as 
often as it may be necessary to cleanse the surface of the 
eye. The colour of Ihe membrane is milky ; and it is i 
to pass from the upper and inner to the outer and li 
corner of the eye with the speed for which the oc 
winking is proverbial. There is a rudiment of this third 
eyelid m the human organ. It is a small crescentie fold 
of co^)lUlctiTB situated at the inner canthui behind the 
caruncle. (Fig. 13,/.) The Aocc is also a rudiment of it, 
in the eyes of quadrupeds ; it is occasionally forced out by 
tbo pressure of iho globe against the nasal side of the orbit, 
being unprovided with muscles. 

Seal q/" Fift'on.— The retina in one sense is not the 
neat of vision. It is necessary to the perception that 
the impression of light should ho received on another part 
not endowed with sensibility, namely the surface of the 
I'tioroid; and that the vibralion or other effect thus im- 
pressed should be translurred to the retina in ttoal ot 
that surface ; for where the choroid is deBcient at the 
entrance of the ner^*e, there is no perception of light. This 
may be easily shown by a very common and conclusive ex- 
periment. If two diKcs of white paper be fixed upon a wall 
at tbo distance of two feet from each other, and an observer, 
having closed one eye (the led), continnesto gaze attentively 
at the left-hand disc, at the same time slowly retreating 
from the wall, he will for a lime continue to see them botlii 
the rays from the right-baud object entering of course 
lalerolly, and impinging upon the retina nearer and nearei 
. to the entrance of the nrare as he goes backward. At 
length when ho bus reacbi^d the distance of about 6^ 
feet from the wall, the right-hand object ^ill suddenly dis- 
appear, and remain invisible (the obser\er still retreating) 
till he has coined a distanco of aliuut eight feet During 
this period the spectrum has been passing over the circular 
aperture in the choroid through wliicb the nerve enters. 
The insensible portion of the retina is found to extend 
horixonlally over tve degrees and a half of the nngulor 
ranKe of vision. The eyes are generally unequal in power, 
ana the experiment succeeds beat in the weaker organ, in 
which the obscuration is more sudden and complete. In 
the experiment previously mentioned, showing ^ic distri- 
bution of tbe central artery of the retina, the surface of the 
choroid is htntly illuminated through the transparent ner- 
vous expansion by what is called the ditpertion of part of 
tha light admittea through the pupil ; but the rays thus 
•cattarvd we locally intarcepted by the opaqua blood con- 
tained in tbe minute branchM of the artery ; hence, after 
••veral repetition*, when tbe eye has become accustomed to 
ne^laet Itw taper, and attend to the fainter internal illumi- 
nation, the thadctt of the vuoular Dot-work upon the choroid 
twcwan p«cq>l^U in dark Uoe*. ^ 


Apparent direeiian qf oliieclt teen oWnwIu.— A body in 
motion, as a ball, striking the surface of another, imprcssei 
it in a line perpendicular to the surface at the point of im- 
pact. This rule appears to hold good with respect to the 
action of light uoun the retina. Indeed if impmsions of 
any kind bo mode upon it, the sensation is that of li^ht. 
ana tbe direction su^catcd is that of a line joining the 
centre of the sphere of which tbe retina forms a part with 
tbe point impressed,— in other words, a line peq>endicular 
to it. This may be shown in !e^■cral ways : if we excite the 
3 by pressing fiir hack upon tbe eyeball with tbe fln-rer 
, especially if tbe eye be closed or light otherwise ex- 
cluded, a bright ring appears to be seen in a diamcthcally 
opposite quarter. 

Erect Vitim. — If the sclerotic and choroid be carefully 
remored under water from the back of an eye, on inverted 
picture ofanv object held beforo the cornea is seen upon 
the now milky surface of the retina. Hence the ceichnn-l 
question raised in the ago of philosophical barbarism. Tkiw 
is it that WB see objects erect when the imaf^ on the retmo 
is inverted ? The question is an idle one, which is pcrhnp« 
hardly worth answering. The mind judges of tbe apimrrnt 
place of objects or of parts of an object by the direclinn at 
the impressions made upon tbe retina, not by the pott of it 
which may happen to be affected by these impressions. The 
shadow of the central artery is an example of an impTes<ton 
necessarily received always upon tbe same parts; yet the 
apparent, or in other words the relative, place of the shadow 
will he found to vary with every movement of the eye. 

Single Vition. — Another question, not so trivial as (he 
last, hag been raised with respect to single vision with /ici 
eyes, as the impression must be,twofold. But perhaps it 
will not require an answer if the reader will try to imiginr 
double vision of the same object, or rather of the same 
point, for the question resolves itself into that Let the 
two supposed images approach each other, still remainmc; 
double, till they are in contact. Anotlier step in the ima^i- 
nan' npprbximation, and they are one. Tlie truth is, thai 
both eyes see the object in the same place; and as l«<> 
images, no more than two material substances, can occupy 
the same place at the same time, the impresiioiis coincule 
and are single. 

Diteaeet qf the Eye.—Vfo shall eonlent ounelvei in 
■peaking of the diseases of tbe eye, with a few rcmarki 
which may serve as on index to the separate articles up< n 
tbe most important of those diseases. 

BUndness may be produced in various degrees by injury 
or disease of the retina, as by lightning. Such oBertiuut 
are technically known as amaurotit, but will be mentioned 
under the more familiar title of Gutta Serbka. Tbe si':ht 
may also be lost by anything which destroys tlic Iraii'^^'ar- 
ency of any of the refracting media. (Cataract; Gur- 
COHA ; Lbvcoua.] Closure of the pupil is of course attendrd 
with loss of vision. It arises from diseosos of the iris and ma) 
sometimes be remedied by an operation. Information with 
respect to inflammations and other diseases of the ink. 
sclerotic, and choroid, will be found under Gorr ; Inms; 
Puptr., Akttficial ; Rheumatisu; Syphilis. Inflamma- 
tory and ulcerative afierlions of Ihe conjunctiva, whether ft 
the eye or lid, are called Ophtralhia. The diseases of the 
lachrymoi organs, and a peculiar paralytic affection Oi' ihr 
muscle which elevates the upper eyelid will be mentioned rr- 
speclively under tho beads of Fistdla Lachrvmaxis and 
Ptosis. Almost all affections of the eye, whether they result 
from injury or spontaneously, are liable to be extended from 
one eye to the other, so cloae is the sympathy between llir<<.- 
organs. When the contents of the eyeball hai-« been by 
any means evacuated, which may arise either from accident 
or disease, or o)>erationi which disease somelimea tendon 
necessary, the sclerotic ahrinki into a tubercle at the 
bottom of the eye, which produces of course a very un- 
sightly effect, as well as no little inoonveuienoe. It n 
these caaes to resort to tbe introduction of 

what is called an artiflcial eye, consisting of a smooth shell 
of glass or enamel, suited in sise and shape to tbe cimim- 
stanoes of the cose, and coloured in exact imitation of thu 
remaining organ. It is difficult when this is well made 
to distinguish it from a natural eye, and tbe illusion i< 
much more complete from the circumstance that tb^ 
muscles.stillatlaehed to the shniukscleroticare capable i-f 
moving the artiflcial eye in correspondence with the other to 
an extent which would hardly be believed. ^ 
^ £¥£ (iaOptiM). [Liaar; Opriet.] \ 

£Z E 


£ Z R 

stated, oontain tke piopbat's vUioiift of tike temple end 
citT of Jerasalem"- their dimenMOo^ Btruotuie* enbel- 
lisnments. &c. — the ceremonial anangementa of the hier- 
aichy, and the allotment of the land of Judaa among the 
several tribes on their return from captivitj. The subject 
matter of Ezekiel is, for the most part, identical with that of 
his contemporaiT Jeremiah«and much similarity is ohsemi- 
ble in their declarations. The conquests and devastations 
of Nebuchadnessar form the principal theme of each; but 
Ezekiel views them chieflv as affecting Israel, while Jere- 
miah describes them with especial reference to Judah. 
Both declaim with vehement indignation against the de* 
pravity of the priests, and ag[ainst the * lying divinationa' of 
the prophets who sought to mduoe the oeople to shake off 
their Babylonian slavery. (Compare Jeremiah, chapters 
xxiii., xxvii, xxviii, xziz. with Exekiel, chapters xiii., 
autxiv.) Parts of the book of Revelations may be compared 
with some portions of Ezekiel: Rev. iv. with Ezek. L and 
X., respecting the cherubim with wings ftill of eyes ; and 
Rev. xt, xxi., xxii, with Ezek. xL to xUii., describing the 
New Jerusalem. 

That Ezekiel is a very obscure writer is asserted by all 
who have attempted to explain his prophecies. The antient 
Jews considered them as inexplicable, and the oounoil of 
the Sanhedrim once deliberatea long on the propriety of ex- 
cluding them, on this account, iW>m the canon (Calmet, 
proef. ad Ezech.) ; but to prevent this exclusion Rabbi Ana- 
nias undertook to explain completely the vision of Jeho- 
vah's chariot (i. and x.). His proposal was accepted by 
the council, and in order to enable him to accomplish his 
task without interruption they furnished him with 300 bar- 
rels of oil to supply his lamp during the course of his stu- 
dies. Dr. Adam Clarke related this marvellous anecdote 
in his Comment on the Bible, and in repeating it in his 
* Succession of Sacred Literature,* he says the quantity of 
oil was 300 tons. It was also alleged as a reason for reject- 
ing Ezekiel from the canon that he teaches, in direct eon- 
tr^iction to the Mosaic doctrine^ that children shall not 
suffer punishment for the offences of their parents (xviii., 
2-20). (See Hueti ' Demonstratio Evang., prop. 4, de Pro- 
phet. Ezech.') St Jerome considers Ezekiel's visions and 
expressions very difficult to be understood, and says that no 
one under the age of 30 was permitted to read them. (Hie- 
ron. proem, in lib. Ezech.) It is astonishing, says Dr. 
Clarke, how difficult it is to settle the text by a collation of 
MSS. ; and, in accordance with the opinion of many other 
interpreters, he adds, that much remains to be done to 
restore the original Hebrew text to a state of purity. 
Michael is, Eichnorn, Newcome, and many other com- 
mentators, have written copiously on the peculiarities of 
Ezekiors style. Grotius (Prcef. ad Ezech.) speaks of it 
with the highest admiration, and compares the prophet to 
Homer. Michaehs admits its bold and striking originality, 
but denies that sublimity is any part of its character, though 
the passion of terror is highly excited. Bishop Lowth (Proe- 
lect Heb. Poet.) regards Ezekiel as bold, vehement, tras^i- 
cal ; wholly intent on exaggeration ; in sentiment fervid, 
bitter, indignant ; in imagery magnificent, harsh, and almost 
deformed ; in diction grand, anstere, rough, rude, unculti- 
vated ; abounding in repetitions from indignation and vio- 
lence. This eminent judge of Hebrew literature assigns 
to the poetry of Ezekiel the same rank among the Jewish 
writers as that of ^schylus among the Greeks; and in 
speaking of the great obscurity of Im visions, he believes it 
to consist not so much in the language as in the conception. 
Eichhorn (the peculiar character of whose criticism we 
have noticed under that article) regards the Book of Ezekiel 
as a series of highly-wrought and extremely artificial poetical 
pictures. No other prophet, he says, has dven such n-eedom 
to imagination. • Every thing is dressed m fables, allegories, 
and visionary poetry. He is so used to ecstasies and vision- 
aries that he adopts their appropriate language when he 
has no vision to describe.' In accordance with the doctrines 
of the German rationalism he considers the prophecies as 
nothing mere than the poetical fictions of a heated oriental 
imagination of a similar nature with the poetry of the book 
of Kcvelations. A remarkable characteristic of the poems 
of Ezekiel, observes the same critic, is the painful detail 
and minuteness of his descriptions. He considers the pro- 
phet as a great original poet, but from his turgid and hyper- 
bolical ht)le he assigns him to the iilver age of Hebrew 

^ rude indignation, violent energy, and disregard of de- 

Iwaey and diiynea, the denunmatioiia and deecriptioiw of 
Bsekiel are said by Dr. Clarke to resemble the lalirea of 
Juvenal. The same character of thought and expreestoD 
is exhibited in Uie writings of the two other Greater Pro- 
phets, Isaiah and Jeremiah. (Compare Eaek. xvi. 4 lo 
37 ; xxuL 17-21 ; Isaiah, xxviii. 7, 8 ; xxxvi. 12. Esekier^ 
remarkable prophecy of Gog and Magog, xxxviiL and 
xxxix., has always been a subject of learned controversy, 
and the explanations are nearly as numerous aa the ex* 
positors. However, only two appear to possess any con- 
siderable probability. Gog, according to the first, wan 
Antiochus Epiphanea; according to the second, he was 
Cambysest kmg of Persia. In modem times it has 
been elaborately shown by Mr. Granville Penn that Gog i» 
to be recognized in the person of the Emperor NapolM>D, 
and Magog in the people or nation of Prance. His treatise 
on the subject, entitled *The Prophecy of Baekiel, eon- 
oeming Gogue, the last tymnt of the church,* fltc^ pnh- 
lished in 1815, is a production replete with curious learning 
and argumentative mgenuity. 

iComment^es of Bauer, Doederlein, Heiel, Michaehs ; 
Dathe, Propfietm Majarei, 1785; Dr. Seiler, Ueber die 
fVeiMogungen und ihre Erjuliunff, 1795; Volborth, Eze 
chul aufk nme aus dem Hebraiichen uhersetzt^ 1787; 
Bishop Newoome's Improved Version, Metrical Arrange- 
ment, and Explanation f^ EzekieU 4to., 1 788 ; Venemse 
Leedones Academics ad Ezechielem, 2 vols., 4to., 1791 ; 
RosenmuUer, Scholia in Ezechielem, % vols., 4to., IS^ee; 
Agier, Les Proph^tes nouvellement traduits sur PHebreu^ 
avee des Explications et Notes Critiques, 10 vols., 8\o.. 
1822; No3res, New Translation qf the Prophets in Chro- 
nolofncal Order, 1833, Boston; Keith OnPropheof: Eich 
honrs Einleitunf in das A lie Test., vol. iii. ; 0everie>\ 
Visions qf Ezefnel, 4to. ; Prideaux's Connection, vol. u ; 
Bishop Lowth's Preleciiones ; Dr. Gill's Exposition of the 
Prophets, 2 vols. fbl. 1757; Bishop Lowth's Comment, rm 
the Prophets, 4to. 1822 ; Greenhill's Exposition qf Ezekiel, 
5 vols. 4to. 1649. The most learned and elaborate com- 
mentary on Ezekiel is by two Spanish Jesuits, Pradus and 
Villalpandus, in 3 vols., folio.) 
EZEKIEL. f Dramatic Art and Litxrattrr.] 
EZRA, the Book of, is a canonical book of the Old Testa- 
ment, placed next after the second book of Chronicles an 'I 
before the book of Nehemiah, and, in the English version, 
is divided into ten chapters. By Jews and Christians it has 
generally been attributed to the priest whose name it bears 
chiefly because throughout chapters viii. and ix. the aclic cii 
of Ezra are related in the first person. Ho is suppo«ie<l x^^ 
have written the two books of Chronicles and the book oi' 
Esther. It is remarkable that the first two verses of Ezrx 
and a part of the third form the conclusion of the secor;d 
book of Chronicles. [Chronicles.] Ezra, Esdras, or 
Esdra in the Hebrew is iDTN. azrh, signifying • help* ur 
' succour.' His genealogy up to Aaron is given in chap. > i: 
1-5. In verses 6 and 1! he is said to have been a prir-^t 
and ready scribe of the words of the law of Mo^es; 
he appears to have been an able and important agent -:i 
the principal events of his age and nation. The prophets 
Haggai and Zechariah were conteinporary with Ezra. ( Co;a- 
pare Hagg. i. 12, Zech. iii. 4, and Ezra v.) There are ft»ur 
books of Ezra so called ; namely, the canonical one 
his name, the book of Nehemiah, which by the antient J cv » 
and bv the Greek and Roman churches is con<iidercd as x\ ^ 
second book of Ezra, and two books of Ezra or Esdras m thv 
Apocrypha. The first of the two apocryphal books contain^ 
the substance of the canonical one, with many circumst.i:i- 
tial additions^ and in the Greek church it is read as can>>> 
nical ; but the second exhibits a more decided appearanre 
of fiction, and by no church is regarded as a work of itwyi' 
ration, though it is cited bv several of the antient fathers. 
The first six chapters of tne canonical book are res^anlc^l 
by some biblical critics as improperly ascribed to Ezra, f ^r 
between the event with which the seventh chapter com> 
mences, that is, the commission from Artaxerxca Longi- 
manus, in the seventh year of hi$ reign, to Ezra to go up 
to Jerusalem, b.c. 458, and that which terminates the 
sixth chapter, namely, the completion of the second temple, 
in the sixth year of the reign of Darius Hystaspcs^ b^c. 5 1 6, 
there is a chasm of fifty-eight years. The events reoordt^d 
in the whole ten chapters of the canonical book of Eia 
embrace a period of ninety-one years, that is, from the edict 
of Cyrus issued in the first year of his reign, b.c. 536, for 
the return of the captive Jews to Jertvalcm» to the icnm* 

E Z R 



nation of Ecr&*B government by the tiiuston of Neliettuali 
to Jerusalem frofn Artaxerxes Longimanus, in the twen- 
tieth year of his reign, b.c. 445. As Daniel's sevenbr pro- 
phetic weeks commence at the going fbrth of the eoict of 
Cyrus to Zeruhhabel or of tluit of Artaxerxes to Ecra, 
these events have been the subject of much critical inveeti* 
gation among biblical critics. 

The contents of the first six chapters are briefly as follow. 
Chap. i. gives an account of the proclamation of Gyrus con- 
cernrng his release of the captive Jews, jiermitting them 
to go Som Babylon to Jerusalem to rebmld the temple ; 
of the restoration of their property, sacred vessels and 
utensils ; and of presents made by the Chaldseans of money 
and various provisions. Chap. ii. states the numbers of 
each of the families composing the multitude which re- 
turned to Juds^ with ZerubbaM, and the number of their 
beasts of burden. All this account, excepting some of the 
numbers, is repeated word for word in the seventh chapter 
of Nehemiahy beginning at ver. 6. In ver. 64 and 65 of 
Ezra, the total number of the people is said to have been 
42,360, which appears not to agree with the preceding par- 
ticulars, since the addition of these produces only 29,818, 
that is, a deficiency of 12,542. The numbers given in 
Nehemiah occasionally difibr very widely firom those in 
Ezra : for instance, the children of Azgad are said in Esra 
(JL 12) to have been 1222 ; but in Nehemiah (viL 17) they 
are said to have been 2322, or UOO more. Nehemian 
repeats precisely the total given by Ezra, 42,360 ; but the 
addition of Nehemiah*s particular numbers makes 31,089, 
or a deficiency of 11,271. The numbers of horses, 736, 
mules 245. camels 435, and asses 6»720, exactly agpree in 
the two accounts ; but in Ezra, ver. 69, the chief rathers 
give to the treasury 61,000 drams of gold; in Nehemiah, 
ver. 71, they give only 20,000. Chap. iii. records the events 
of setting up the altar at Jerusalem and re-establishing 
the Jewish sacrificial worship. An account of the in* 
terruption of the building of the Temple by the decree 
of Artaxerxes, and its completion by a subsequent de- 
cree of the same monarch, with transcripts of the docu- 
ments written on these occasions, occupy chapters iv., v., and 
vi. Chapters vii. and viiL contain an account of Ezra's 
commission from Artaxerxes to undertake the government 
of Judsea, his preparations and reception of presents for his 
journey thither, with a multitude of Jews, who it appears 
still remaiaed in Babylon after the return to Judeea of the 
multitude under Zerubbabel ; an enumeration of the people 
and families who returned, and the weight of gold and silver 
contributed by the king, his councillors, and the Israel- 
ites, for the use of the Temple at Jerusalem (viii. 25-28). 
The value of these presents amounts to 803,6 00 A Chapters 
ix. and x. relate the proceedings of Ezra in separating firom 
their wives and chil^en all the Israelites who had married 
vomen from among the surrounding nations, and thus 
* mingled the holy seed with the abommations of the Gen- 
tiles.' Ezra (x. 3, 5, 19, 44) made all the Israelites who 
had 'strange wives and children' swear, and give their 
hands, that they would put them away, which accordingly 
«aa done. The latter half of the last chapter contains a long , 
list of the husbands and fathers who were the subjects of 
this nationfd renovation. The part firom iv. 8 to vii. 27 
is written in the Chaldee idiom, the rest in Hebrew. 
The period to which the four last chapters relate, com- 
prising the Jewish history firom b.c. 458 to B.C. 445, is 
coeval with the age of Pericles. The subject matter of the 
hook of Nehemiah being identical with that of Ezra, the 
collation of the two affords a mutual illustration. Chapter 
riii. of Nehemiah relates circumstantially the foct of Ezra's 
solemn reading and exposition of the law to the assembled 
Israelites, who, according to Dr. Frideaux, were taueht the 
signification of the Hebrew words by means of Chaldaic 
interpreters (8) ; for, since their seven^ years' captivity in 
Babylon, the Chaldee instead of the Hebrew had become 
their vernacular language. (Dean Prideaux's Connection, 
foU p. 263.) The critical arguments adduced in opposition 
to the oninion that the Israelites lost the Hebrew language, 
and unaeratood only the Chaldsean, are well exhibited in 
Dr. Giira learned 'Dissertation on the Antiquity of the 
Hebrew Language,' 8vo., 1767. The two principal under- 
takings of Ezra were — 1. The restoration of the Jewish 
law and ritual, according to the modes observed before 
the captivity; and 2. The collection and rectification of the 
8aerea Scriptures. On account of these important ser- 
rioes the Jews regarded him as a second Moses. It was 

oommonly believed by the antient fkthers of the Christian 
ehurch that all the Sacred Scriptmres of the Jews were en- 
tirely destroyed in the conflagration of the temple and city 
of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon, and that, on the re- 
turn of the Jews finom the C^haldssan captivity, these writings 
were wholly reproduced by a divine inspiration of Ezra. 
(See Irenceus, Adversus H€sre8, 1. iii.- c. 25 ; Tertullian, De 
Habitu Mulierum, c. iii. ; Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom, i ; 
Basil, in Epist. ad ChUonem.) The following passages 
from the second Apocryphal book of Ezra, xiv. 26, 45, 
46, 47, appear to sanction this opinion. ' Behold, Lord,' 
says Ezra, ' I will go as thou hast commanded me, and re- 
prove the people. The world is set in darkness, and they 
that dwell therein are without li^ht, for t?iy law t> burnt; 
therefore no man knoweth the thmgs that are done of thee; 
but if I have found grace before thee, send the Holy Ghost 
into me, and I shall write all things that have been done in 
the world since the beginning, which were written in the 
law; And God said. Go, prepare to write swiftly, and when 
thou hast done, some things shalt thou publish, and some 
things shalt thou show secretly to the wise.' The learned 
Dr. Prideaux (Connection, p. 260, fol.) remarks, that 'in 
the time of king Josiah (b.c. 640), through the impiety of 
the two preceding reigns of Manasaeh and Ammon (a period 
of sixty years), the book of the law was so destroyed and lost; 
that, besides the copy of it which Hilkiah, the high-priest, 
accidentally found in the Temple (2 Kings xxli. 8, &o. ; 
2 Chron.xxxiv. 14, &c.), there was then no other to be had; 
for Hilkiah's surprise in finding it, and Josiah's grief in 
hearing it read, do plainly show that neither of them had 
ever seen it before ; and if this pious king and the high- 
jNriest were without it, it cannot be thought that any one 
else had it.' If this were the authentic copy laid up before 
the Lord in the Temple, it was burned, as believed by all 
Jewish and Christian writers, in the burning of the Temple, 
fifty-two years afterwards, by Nebuchadnezzar. Dr. Pri- 
deaux takes it to be implied in several passages which he 
cites that, from the copy accidentally found by the high- 
priest Hilkiah, some transcriptions were made previous to 
the destruction of the Temple, and that from these scattered 
copies Ezra formed his improved edition of the sacred text. 
In common with most other modem divines, he rejects the 
opinion of the fathers respecting the restoration of the 
Scriptures by a new revelation to Ezra, observing (p. 261) 
that 'it would very much shock the faith of many should 
it be held that the sacred writings owe their present 
being to such a revival ; it being obvious for sceptical per- 
sons to object that he who is said thus to have revived 
them forged the whole.' All, he continues, that Ezra did 
was — *he got together as many copies of the sacred writings 
as he could, and out of them all he set forth a corrected 
edition, in which he took care of the following particulars : 
— 1. He corrected all the errors introduced into these 
copies by the negligence or mistakes of transcribers ; for, 
by comparing them, he found out the true reading, and set 
all to rights. 2. He collected together all the books of 
which the sacred Scriptures did then consist, disposed them 
in proper order, and settled the canon of scripture up to 
that time.' The Jewish writers state that the canon was 
decided by a congress of 120 elders under the presidency of 
Ezra; but since they mention as members of it, not only the 
contemporaries of Ezra, as Daniel, Shadrach, Meschech, 
and Abednego, but the hip:h-priest Simon the Just, who 
lived 250 years later, it is evident that they mean the 
number of those who succeesivehf arranged and rectified the 
canonical books. Ezra divided all the books he collected 
into three parts ; the law, that is, the Pentateuch ; the 
prophets, containing all the historical and prophetical books ; 
and the hagiographa, which comprised all the writings not 
included in Uie two other divisions. (Josephus, advers. 
Avion.) He divided the Pentateuch into 54 sections, one 
of which was read every Sabbath ; and, according to the 
Jewish authorities, he was also the author of the smaller 
divisions called Pesukim, or verses, and of the various 
readings and suggested corrections inserted in the margins 
of the Hebrew copies. These, called Keri Cetib (that which 
is read and that which is written), appear however in the 
books attributed to Ezra himself. (On these particulars 
see the remarks of Prideaux; Buxtorf, Vindicits Vert' 
tails Hebraicis, par. ii. o. 4; Walton's Pro^^fom., viii. $ 18 ; 
and Dr. Gill's Diseertation on the Hebrew Language.) 
Most biblical critics state that Ezra changed the antient 
names of plaoes for those by which these places were known 



in his time, and some say that he wrote out all the Scrip- 
tures in the Chaldee character, which alone was used and 
understood hy tlie Jews after the ChaldsDan captivity. 
"Whether Ezra added the vowel-points, and whether they 
were invented hy the Masorite grammarians at a ^riod 
far posterior to the rise of Cnristianity, are suDjects 
of great controversy among Hebrew critics. A concise 
and able view of this dispute is contained in Houbi- 
gant's 'Racines Hebraiques,* 1732. The Jewish com- 
mciitators assert that all the rules and observances 
preserved by tradition from the time anterior to the cap- 
tivity were carefully collected by E«ra, and that having 
reviewed them, those which he sanctioned b^ his au- 
thority hcncefurth constituted the oral law, m contra- 
distinction to that which is written ; the church of Jeru- 
salem, like the chunh of Rome, regarding Scripture and 

tradition of equal authority, and believing the latter to be 
highly necessary for clearing the obscurities, 8uppl)ing the 
defects, and solving the difficulties of the former. (Sw tho 
Rabbinical authorities cited bv I^. Prideaux.) It is a theory 
suggested by this learned divine, and since adoptctl by 
many others, that all the numerous passages of the Hebrew 
Scriptures which involve cluronological inconsistencies were 
interpolations made by Exra, and that this is the only 
possible way to solve the difficulties which arise from con 
sidering the several books as the productions of the periioiis 
to whom they are commonly ascribed. The Book of Ezra, 
with the two Books of Chronicles, Nehemiah, Esther, and 
Malachi, are supposed by Dr. Prideaux to have been addM 
to the sacred canon by the high-priest Shnon the Just, in 
the year b.c 150. 


E, pa{C^ 235 

E, in music, 235 

Kadmer, or Kdiner,235 

£af;le [Falconidn] 

¥j»^\e (constttllatioD) [Aquila] 

Eagle (coin) [Money] 

Eagle (Roman standard), 235 

Ku(;le-wood, 23o 

KaKrc [Bore] 

Ear, 230 

Ear-riiijj, 241 

Earl, 2 12 

Eail Marshal of England, 242 

Ear^hcll | Haliotidce] 

Earth (Astronomy), '242 

Earth, Controversy on tho Mo- 
tion of the [Motion of the 

Eartl), Density of the [Weight 
of the Earth] 

Earth, Figure of the [Gvo* 

Earth (in cheralstr}), LMJ 

Kaith-iiuts, 242 

Earthi'uware, 242 

Earthquiikes, 245 

Earwij^ [Forticulidaj] 

Easel, 246 

Easement, 246 

East, 246 

East India Company, 246 

East Indies, 252 

KuKter, 252 

Easter (Method of fiadiag)| 252 

Easter Inland, 253 

Eiives [House] 

Ebb [Tides] 

Ebol, John Gottfried, 253 

Ebelinj^, Christopher Dao., 253 

Kbenficea?, 254 


Ebionites, 'J54 

Eboe, 254 
El)i)ny, 254 

Ebio, Il>i'rus 255 
Ebullition [ Boilinj^ of Fluids] 
Eburiia [Entomostomata] 
Eclatauii, 235 
Eccksiiutcs, 256 
Eccloiusticus, 256 
Eccremocarpus Scaber, 25"' 
Echard, Lawrence, 257 
E'chevin, 257 
Echidna, 257 
Echinades [Achelous] 
Echi jiastra'a [ MadrephylHoial 
Echfuid.i', 2'.8 
EcbinobrissuH fEchinidap, p. 

Echniocart'is, 2C2 
KcMu'cidaris, [Echiuids, n. 

Ect.ini>clv'i»cus [Echinids, p. 
259] ' 

JCi'hinnconus f Echinidff, p. 261 ] 
Jtcbinocorys [Echiiiid», p. 259] 

Echinocy'amus [EchinidsB^ p. 

£chiQod4nnata, 262 
Echinodiscus [KchinidB,p.260] 
Kchinolainpas [Echinidv. p. 

Echinometra [Echinida, p. 26 1 ] 
Echlnoneus (JBchinidv, p. 260] 
Kchiii6pora [Madie^hyllioeaJ 
Echinorodon [Echinid»,p.260] 
Echinus [Kchinida, p. 261] 
Echites, 263 
Echium, 263 
Echo, 263 
Ecija, 264 

Eckhe), Joseph Hilary, 264 
Eckmiihl, or Eggmilhl, 264 
Eclectics, 264 
Eclipse, 265 

Ecliptic [Equator and Ecliptic] 
Eclo{;ue [Bucolics] 

Ecoiiumistes [Political Econo- 
my J 

Ecphimotcs, 265 

Ectopistes [Columbida, vol. vii., 
p. 373] 

Ectopistfnaa [Columbids, vol. 
▼ii., p. 373] 

Ecuador, 265 

Edda, 268 

Eddoes, 268 

Eddy, 268 

Eddystone or Edystone Light- 
house, 268 

Edelinck, Gerard, 269 

Eden [Cumberland] 

Edeut&ta, 269 

Edessa [Orfa] 

Edfu, 269 

Edgar, 270 

Edgar AtheUng, 271 

Edge [Arris] 

EdgehiU [Charles L of Eng- 

Edgeworth, Richard Lorell, 272 

Edicts, Edicta, 273 

Edinburgh County, or Mid-Lo- 
thian, 273 

Edinburgh City, 273 

Edingtonite, 278 

Edmund I., 278 

Edmund II., 278 

Edolius [Laniada] 

Edom [Idiunsa] 

Edred, 279 

Edriophthalma, 279 

Edrisi, 279 

Education, 280 

Edward I. (the Elder), 284 

Edward II. (the Martyr), 284 

Edward III. (the Confessor), 

Edward I., 286 

Edward II., 288 

Edward III., 290 

Edward IV., 294 

Edward V., 297 
Edward VI., 297 
Edward the Black Prince [Ed- 
ward IIL] 
Edwards, Jonathan, 300 
SdwarSIs, Bryan, 301 
Edwin, 301 
Edwy, 302 

Eeckhout, Gerbrant Vander,302 
Eeckhout, Anthony Vander, 302 
Eecloo, 202 
Eel [Murnnids] 
Eflvndi, 302 
Effervescence, 303 
Efflorescence, 303 
Egbert, 303 
Egeon, 303 
£ger(rirer), 304 
Eger (town), 304 
Egeria, 304 
Egerton, Francis f Bridgewater, 

Duke of] 
Egg Plant, 304 
Egham [Surrey] 
Eginhardt, 305 
EgUintine, 305 
Egmont, 305 
Egremont [Cumberland] 
Egripos [Euboea] 
Egypt and Egyptians, 306 
Egyptian Architecture, 313 
Egyptian Bean, 313 
Ehrenbreitstein, 318 
Ehreti&cesB, 318 
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried, 31 8 
EichstXtt (bailiwick), 319 
Eichstiltt (town\ 319 
Eider [Denmark] 
Eider-Duck [Fuligultns] 
Eighth (in music), 320 
Eikon Basflike [Charles I. of 

Eilenburg, 320 
Eimbeck, or Einbeck, 320 
Eir^ne [Medusa] 
Eisenacn (principality), 320 
Eisenach (town), 320 
Eisenburg, 321 
Eisenstadt, 321 
Eisleben, 321 
Eisteddfod, 321 
Ekatarinburg, or Tekatarin- 

burg, 322 
Ekatarinoslaf (province), 322 
Ekatarinoslaf (town), 323 
EloBagn&ceB, 323 
Elais, 324 
Elaocarpicf IS. 325 
Ela^b&lus.or Ueliogab&la8,32S 
Elaidine, 325 
Elain roiein] 
Elam rElymais] 
Elaps [Viperidae] 
Eiasmotherium [Pachyder- 

Elasticity, 326 

Elatna [Phodsl 

Elat6ridsi, 328 

£lat6rium [Momordica] 

Elatma, or zelatma, 329 

Elba, 329 

Elbe, 330 

Xlberfeld (circle), 330 

Elberfeld (town), 331 

Eibing (circle), 331 

Elbing (town), 331 

ElboBuf, 331 

Elborus, Elburs, or Elbruoa, 

[Caucasus, p. 382] 
Ekaja, 331 

Elden Hole TDerbyshire] 
Elder Tree [Sambucus] 
El Dor&do, 332 
Eleatic Philosophy, 332 
Elecampane, 332 
Election, 332 
Election (law), 334 
Elector [Boroughs of England ; 

Commons, House of ] 
Electra [Cellariva, vol. ^t , p. 


Electricity, 334 

Electricity (Latent) [Molccula^ 

Electricity (medical appHcatiua 

of), 339 
Electro-Chemistry, 339 
Electro- Dynamics, 340 
ElectrO'Magnetism, 342 
Electr6meter, 343 
Electnim, 344 
Electuary, 344 
Eleddne [Cephalopoda; Svpa 

EUgit, 344 
Elegy, 344 
Elemi, 344 

Elementary Organs, 344 
Elenchus, 345 
Elephant, 345 
El<iphanta, 354 
Elephantiasis, 364 
Elephantine [Egjptl 
Elett&ria, 355 
Elevation, Angle of Elevation 

Elivation (Architecture) [Dc* 

sign, Architectural] 
Eleusis, 355 
Kleuslnia, 355 
Elginshire, 356 
Elgin, 358 
Elgin Marbles, 359 
Elimination (algebra), 369 
Eliot, John, 360 
Bliott, George Augustus, 361 
Eltquation, 361 
Ehxirof Vitriol [SulphuricAcui 1 
Elisabeth, 362 



K«chwrKe [HetM, Lover] 

E%cu.if;r, or Scut4g«y 11 

Kscula^iiitt [ifiacuUpiui] 

Ktculic Acid, 1 1 

K^urial, or Bscorial, 11 

K»cutch«oii, or BfCochooiif 1 1 


Kvotvne [Kxoterici 

K»fialicr, 1 1 

£«}>alioD, 12 

KA^iiritu Santo [Bratil, p. 336 ; 

( uba, p. 2UM 
K^pnt, Saiot [BayonneJ 
y%\ Uaa(Je» 1*2 
Kv|ui.iiie Hill [Room] 
Kxiuimaux, H 
Ksqu re, \'I 
K««Aynt«, British, 13 
KvM^k. 13 
K»»en, 13 
Ksscnco, 13 
K<«vaM [HeflMoei] 
K%^«^()uibo [GuiAOA, Britiih] 
K%»«x, 14 
R«*ex, Karis of, 34 
K««lin{;eD, 37 
K«tliit^vn, or Essliog. 37 
K«iMj gn«, 37 
K»tate, 37 
£«t**. Hotiie of, 38 
Kttella [Nararrp) 
Ruther, B<H>k of. 40 
Ktthonia, or Reval, 41 
RttioBQo \ Strpbooa | 
R«topiwl, 42 
K«tuvcrt, 42 
E»Uay, 42 
RftTvat, 42 
R>tr«lU [Portui^l] 
K«tr«tiuuiura (^Spain), 42 
R»tr«mad6ra (Portugal), 43 
Rttrvmoa, 45 
Rfttuary [iAtuaiy] 
Rtv'rio, 45 
R^ampe*, 45 
RtA««h, 45 
Etching^ ^Eograviog] 
RthaU 45 
RthelUld, 45 

RUielbvrt, king of Krnl, 45 
RtheltKit king oi Weawx, 46 
Rthelivd I., 46 
Kthelred II., 47 
Rtht Iwiiir. 4H 
Rth«r«^'e, 46 
Kthrteum, 49 
Kihrria, 49 
Rlhoria*. 50 

£tbcn>- Sulphuric acid-^XlhuH 
Bic Aodf 50 

Sthid, 50 

R'thicui, oc AhieiM, 50 
Rthi6pia, 50 

Rthiopian LftagoafM^ 52 
Ethiopt, 53 
Rthul« [Ethfftnml 
Sth6ta. 53 
Etienno [Stophan] 
Etienne, St., 53 
Etlsus, 54 
Etna f >Ctna] 
Eton [ Buckinghamahito] 
Etruria, 54 

Etruscan Architectural 67 
Etru&cans [ Etruria] 
Euch [Adige] 
Etymolo^ I Languaga] 
Et) molo^icum Magnum^ 57 
I Riib(pa, oii 
Eucaljr'ptiis, 60 
Kficharis, 6) 
Euchanit, 61 
EucUm*, 61 

Euclid [Geometry of tha6r«eka] 
Euclid of liegara,61 
EucaliuniCsiMilogy) [Sjrnoicoin] 
Eucratea [Cellarisa, rol. ri^ p. 

Eutlea [SpOD^idip] 
Eudiometer, ol 
Eud6cia, G4 

Eud6cta the Toniiger» 64 
Eud<$ra [Medusa] 
Eudoxus of Cnidot, 64 
Eudotus of Cyiicua, 64 
Eudyalite, 64 

Eudy'iiamya [CueuUdv, Caco- 

linie, Yol. viiL, pp. '206 and 211] 

Eu'dytrs [Divert, vwL a«y pp. 

'206 and 211] 
Eugene,, 64 
Kup((Miia« f}5 

Eu^caiacriiiitr«' jitr»,vol. 

w.. p. 3*1.1 J 
Eup-nic, 66 

Eu^i- .ma I., II., III^ IV^ 66 
Euk^inte* 66 

KuiAi«» toology) [Rollers] 
Eulaiia ri)orsi(>ranchtata] 
Eulen-Siiiirgvl [ English Drama, 

vol. IS., p. 423] 
Euler, Leonard, 67 
Eultma, 67 
Eulimene [Braachiopoda, vol. 

v.. p. 3431 
Euly mcne [Meduaa] 
EttmMonus, 68 
Efimenes, 6H 
Eun^nides, 68 

Eu nMilpus»Eu]Dolpid»[KleQBtt] 
Bumorphua, 69 
Kua^mia [UiUaporida] 

Eonteias, 69 

Eunuch, 69 

Eiiomphalui [Troeliida] 

Eupatoria [Cninea] 

EupatonkciMa, 70 

Etii>en (circle \ 70 

Eupen (chief town), 70 

Eapheus [Isopoda] 

Euph6rbia, 70 

Euphorbikcesr, 70 

£uph6rbiuin, 70 

Etiphrktes [Tigris] 

Eu|iion, 71 

Eupolis, 71 

Euro (rirer\ 71 

Eure (departmeot), 71 

Euro et Luir, 75 

Eur{bia [Thecuaomataj 

Euripides, 77 

Europe, 79 

KaiD|ie, Zoology of, 90 

Europe, Botany of, 94 

Euryale [Stellerideaiia ; Me- 

Bury'biA [Medusa] 
Eury dice(sooloi^) [Isopoda] 
Eur)'latmuB [Musctcapids] 
Eur)'me<lon [Anatolia, vol. L, 

p. 494] 
Eury'noiue, 94 
EurvpMiuB [Leptopodiida ) 

Eurjit^midB [Rollars] 
Euftcbius Painphili, 95 
Eustachian Tube [Bar] 
Enst&chius, 95 
Eu«tathius, 95 

Eustktitis, or Eostatia, 8t, 96 
Eustyle [Civil Ardutaetiira] 
Eutorius, 96 
Eutr^piua, Flaviua^ 96 
Eutychians, 96 
Euxiue [ BUck Sea] 
Vss :'i^ura [ Medusa] 
E\i|(ritis, 97 
Evahl, Johannes, 97 
Evangelist, 97 
Kvapuration [Heat] 
Evrction [ Lunar llieory] 
Evelyn, John, 98 
Evergem, 98 
Evergrecna, 98 
EverUstiog Flowers, 100 
Errshan, 100 
Evidence, 101 
Evil Eye, 103 
Evil King's [Scfofula] 
Evilmerodach [Babyloo, Hia- 

Evolute [Involula and Erolote] 
Evolutiin [Involutioii and BrO' 

Bvolutioos, Military, 104 
K'vora, 106 

Brremood, Cbarlaa da 8t Donya. 

Rvmix, 107 (li>; 

Ex [IXcvonihirc] 

SxamioAtion [Evidence] 

Esaoth6mdta, 108 

Kxarch, IU8 

EtCiivatioos [Foandati«>n%] 

Excentnc [Ptolemaic IIy|«th«*- 

Excentricitv, 108 sia] 

Excess, IU8 

Exchan«^, 104 

Exchange, Koyol [Or^shaa! 

Exchequer Court, 1 10 

Xxchequer Bdia, 111 

Exciss Duties, 111 

Excitants [StiaralaDtsI 

Excommumcatioo, llJ 

Execution tj*v), 114 

Execution, 114 

Executor, 114 

Bx^Jra, 116 

Exercise f Analeptics] 

Exeter, 116 

Exeter, or Exoo Doncaday . 1 1 7 

Exeter CoUege, Osfcrd. lis 

Exeter [New itampsliire) 

Exhaustions, Method of |Oea 

metry of the Oraeka] 
Exhibit, 118 
Exhibition [School! 
Exile [BonishmcBt] 
Exmouth [DeroBshirs] 
Exoc&ri>e«, 118 
E'xudus, the BookoC 118 
E'xogens, 1-20 
Exorcism, 131 
Exorhiis [Exogern] 
Exoteric and Esotene, 131 
>lxpankiun [Heat] 
Expectation of LUe, 131 
Expectoranta, 131 
Explon&ha [MadrephylU^a] 
Ex|jouent ; Expooaots^ NoUtiaa 

of, 132 
Ex|«rts [Impofta aad Exports] 
Extent, 132 
Extortion, 132 
Extnction of Roots [lavolvtiDsi 

and Evolution] 
Extracts, 132 
Estmvasatioii, 133 
Exuma [ Bohaaaa] 
Eyck, Jobs Vas, 133 
Eye, 134 

Eye Hn optics), 144 
Eye (in horticultufv), 145 
E)emouth [Berwickaktrt] 
K)Uu, 146 
Eyre, 145 

Eiekiel, the Book of, 145 
Eaekiel [Dramatic Aft Ba4 s^ 

teratiire* p. 135] 
Eva, the Bock of, 14i 

P A B 


P A B 

FATOUS PICTOR, the historian, wa» dMoenOed from 
Marcus Fabios Ambustus^ the consul. Caius Fabius» one 
of the sons of Ambustus, was called Pictor, because abont 
B.C. 304 he painted the temple of the goddess of health, 
which painting existed till the reign of Claudius, when the 
temple was burnt (Pliny, xxxv. c 4.) The surname of 
Pictor was continued to his children* one of whom, Caius 
Fabius Pictor, was consul with Ogulnius Callus B.a 271, 
and was the father of the historian. Ouintus Fabius Pictor, 
the historian, lived in the time of the second Punic war, 
according to the testimony of Livy (xxL), who says, in speak- 
ing of the battle of the Thrasymene lake, that he followed 
in his narrative the authority of Fabius Pictor, who was 
contemporary with that memorable event. Fabius appears, 
from the testimony of Dionysius and Cicero, to have written 
both in Greek and in Latin. Of the extracts from or refer- 
ences to his * Annals,* which have been transmitted to us, 
some concern the antiquities of Italy, and the beginning of 
Rome, others the subsequent fasti, or history of the Romans. 
He was the first who compiled a history of his country 
from the records of the pontiffs, and f^om popular tradition. 
He is spoken of with praise by Livy, who evidently bor- 
rowed largely from him, and by Cioero, Pliny, Appian, and 
others. Polybins however censures his obvious partiality 
for the Romans, and his unfairness towards the Carthagi- 
nians, in his account of the second Punic war. His 
Annals are lost, with the exception of some fingments, which 
have been preserved by subsequent writers, and are printed 
in the collections of Antonius Augustinus, Antwerp, 1695, 
Antonius Riccobonus, Venice, 1568, and others. The well- 
known impostor, Annio da Vitcrbo, published a small work 
on the origin of Rome, under the name of Fabius Pictor, 
but the fraud was discovered. Quintus Fabius Pictor was 
sent by the senate to Delphi after the battle of Cannn, 
to consult the Oracle about the ultimate result of the war. 
He must not be confounded with Servius Fabius Pictor, 
who lived in the time of Cato the Elder, and who is praised 
by Cicero for his knowledge of jurisprudence, Uterature, 
and antiquity. (Vossius, De Hhtoricii LatinU; Fabricius, 
Bibliotheca Latino.) 

FABLE, F&bula in Latin, in its general sense means a 
fictitious narrative, but it also means more particularly a 
species of didactic composition, consisting of a short ficti- 
tious tale inculcating a moral truth or precept As such it 
is divided into two sorts, the parable and the apologue. 
The former narrates some incident, which, although it may 
not have happened exactly as the narrator supposes, yet 
could have happened at any time, there being nothing im- 
possible or improbable in it. Of this description are many 
of the parables contained in the Scriptures, and especially 
in the New Testament, it being a favourite mode with our 
Saviour of illustrating his precepts by similitudes. When, 
for instance, he spoke of the master who, before setting out 
on a long journey, intrusted certain talents or sums of money 
to each of his three servants, he did not mean that such a 
fact had occurred at any particular time, though it might 
have occurred, but he chose this figure as presenting the 
ways of Cod with regard to the mental or spiritual talents 
he has gifted men with, and which he expects them to cul- 
tivate and render useful in proportion to. their capacities. 
The second species of moral fable, called apologiie, relates 
facts which are evidently untrue, and cannot have hap- 
pened ; such as animals, or even inanimate things, speak- 
ing, but which serve as comparisons for the actions of 
men. Such was the well-known apologue of Menenius 
Agrippa, addressed to the plebs of Rome, who had revolted 
againHt the patricians, in which he told them of the various 
limbs of the human body having once revolted against the 
belly. (Livy, ii. 32.) Most of the fables which are called 
ifisopian are apologues, although some are of the parable 
kind ; for example, that of iEsop and the villain who threw 
a stone at him. (Phfledrus, iii. 5.) 

The apologue is one of the oldest forms of compo- 
sition, being well calculated to strike the minds of men 
in a rude state. Homer's War of the Mice and the 
Frogs is a composition of the nature of the anologue ; only 
being extended to a considerable length, and including a 
succession of incidents, it is classed among the heroico- 
comio poems, whilst the apologue, or fable properly so called, 
points out only one particular incident from which it draws 
- -**nral. In the same manner, in modern times, the * Ani- 
Parlanti,* or * Court and Parliament of Beasts' of Casti 
b9 classed among the mock epic poems» although it 

may be said to consist of a series of apologues, each point 
ing to some particular error, or abuse, in the state of s.»- 
ciety, and in the conduct of men. It is probable that the 
older and simpler mythological fables of the gods and bcrij*'« 
among the antients were originally intendra by the early 
patriarchs or priests to illustrate by allegory the attribut'*» 
of the Creator, the phenomena of nature, and the progre«^ 
of social life; but that in course of time people lost sight of 
the moral, and bdieved the fiction in its literal sense. 

The oldest collection of fables in any European lanffuacr 
is in Greek prose: the fables are attributed to ^sop, 
but much doubt exists as to the real author or authors cif 
them, [ifiiop.] Babrias wrote a metrical version of JE^^ 

fnan fables, only a few of which have come down to u<* 
Babrias.] The fables called the fables of Bidpai [Bii>p^ i ' 
are derived from a collection in the Sanscrit language, an*! 
Lokman is said to have written fables in Arabic ; but sever \ I 
of the fables attributed to the latter appear to be the saun' 
as some of those attributed to iEsop, and it has been su^^ 
posed that Lokman and iEsop were one and the same {Kt- 
sonage. [Lokican.] 

Among the Latins, Phssdrus, who lived tmder Tibcrii:?. 
is the most celebrated: he professes to have taken his sub- 
jects from iEsop. The MS. of Phoedrus was not discovered 
before the end of the sixteenth century. Avianus, or A\ le- 
nus, who (supposing the two names to mean the same ini}.- 
vidual) lived under the elder Theodosius, wrote a collection 
of fables in Latin verso. {Edition qfAviemu, Leyden, 1731, 
with a Dissertation on the Identity qfAvianut and Avien wt . > 
Faerno of Cremona, who lived about the middle of the six- 
teenth century, made a collection of Asopian fables, wlrrh 
be turned into Latin verse, and which were published at 
Rome after his death in 1564. He was accused of pli- 
giarism, as having found a MS.of iPlusdrus in some librar\ , 
and borrowed his subjects from it 

In the modem languages, among the original writers of 
fables or apologues. La Fontaine has been generally con- 
sidereil as rivalling or suroassing Phsedrus in tliis kind ff 
composition ; and indeed he may be fiiirlv placed above ail 
writers of this class. Among the Englisn, Gay and Monre: 
have written fables. The Germans have had Lessing. Of)- 
lert, and others ; and the Spaniards have Yriarte and 8 j- 
maniego. Amon^ tlie Italians, Firenzuola, Crudeli, Baii-u 
Capaccio, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, wri>Ut 
chiefly translations or paraphrases from the Greek ari<l 
Latin &bulists. In the eighteenth century Pignotti. a 
native of Tuscany, wrote original fables in verse, wh;rh 
were published at Pisa in 1782, and have been ofleu re- 
printed since. Bertola also wrote fables (Pavia, 1 788), yk ir it 
an essay on fables. Luigi Fiacchi published, under the 
name of ' Clasi o,' a collection of fables (Florence, 1807). 

FABRETTI, RAFFAELE, bom at Urbino in ]t>i9. 
was secretary of Pope Alexander VIII., and perfect of ti.c 
papal archives in the castle St Angelo under Inno- 
cent XII. Fabretti spent most of his time in searchn;^ 
the ruins which are scattered about Rome and its neigh- 
bourhood, and digging fur those which were under groiiu L 
He explored catacombs, columbaria, sepulchres, and oii.i r 
subterraneous receptacles; and he gathered an abuiuUnt 
harvest of antiquities, and chiefly of inscriptions, which he 
ranged in a collection at his house at Urbino^ which oi- 
lection has been since transferred to the Ancwl palace ol 
the same town. It is related that the horse upon which Ic 
rode for many years in his perambulations through th - 
Campagna, and which his friends had nicknamed Man-o 
Polo, became so accustomed to his master's hunting ai; r 
inscriptions that he used to stop of himself whenever ti-* 
met with any. Fabretti wrote, l^ *Inscriptionum Anti 
quamm Explicatio,' fol., 1699; 2°, <De Columni Tr v 
jani,' fol., 1683, an elaborate work, in which he illu&tritv i 
with much erudition and judgment the sculptuii's of ili •; 
celebrated monument. He added to it an explanation .>i 
the Iliac table which is in the Capitoline Museum. 3*, * L^> 
Aquis ot Aqueductibus Veteris Rom»,* 4to., 1680, reprint -^ 1 
with notes and additions in 1 788. Fabretti rendeivd pri- it 
services to archnology by his system of illustrating one duxm- 
ment by the help of another. He had a controversy vt •tit 
James Gronovius about the interpretation of some pSL-^ii:» •» 
of classical writers, in which both resorted to discn*<lit.ii : 
scurrilities. Fabretti died at Rome in January, 1700, at i' '* 
age of cightv. He may be considered as the oredeccxNof «>t 
Bianchini, Bottari, and other archsBoloeists who illustraiv i 
the antiquities of Rome during the eignteenth century. 




vuch Mgratted by all naturalisU His principal works are 
as follows : — 

1, ' Systema Entoraologio), sistens Insectorum Qasses,' 
&c., 1 vol, 8vo^ Flensbur^et Lipsis, 1775; 2, • Philo- 
soohia Entomologica,* 8vo., Hatnburgi ot Kilonii, 1778 ; 3, 
' Reise nach Norwegcn, xnit BemerkungcQ aus der Natur 
Hiatorie undGBconomie,' 8to./ Hamburg, 1 779 ; 4, ' Species 
Insectonim, sistens eorum differentias specificaa, synony- 
mia auctorum, loca natalia, metamorobosis/ &c., 2 vols., 
8vo., Hamburg et Kilonii, 1781 : 5, ' Mantissa Insectorum; 
sistens species nuper detectas/ &«.» 2 vols., 8vo., Hafniao, 
1787; 6, • Genera Insectorum/ 1 vol., 8vo. (Chilonii), Kiel, 
1776; 7, ' Entomologia Systematica, emendata et aucta,* 
4 vols., 8vo., HafniiB, 1792, 93, 94; 6, 'Index Alpbabe- 
ticus,' 1 796 ; 9, ' Supplementum Entomologies Systema- 
ticas,' 1 vol., 8vo., Haffiis, 1798; 10, ' Systema Eleutera- 
iorum^* 2 vols., 8vo., KiliaD, 1801 ; 11, 'Index,' 8vo., Kiliae, 
1802 ; 12, * Systems Rhyngohrum,' 8vo., Brunsvigee, 1801 ; 
13, ' Index Alphabet icus Rbyngotorum, genera et species 
continens,' 4to., Brunswick, 1803; 14, 'Systema Piezato- 
rum,* 8vo., BrunsvigsD, 1804; 15, ' Systema Antliaiorumt' 
8vo., Brunsvigss, 1805.^ 

FABRI'ZIO. GERO'NIMO, commonly called FABRI- 
ClUS AB AQUAPENDENTE, was born in 1537 at 
Acquapendente in Italy, a city near Orvieto, in the States 
of tne Church. His parents, although poor, contrived to 
furnish him with the means of obtaining an excellent edu- 
cation at Padua, which was then rapidly approaching the 
eminence it long held, especially as a school of medicine, 
among the universities of Europe. It appears to have been 
a favourite object with the Venetian government to en- 
courage the study of the medical scieirces. Vcsalius and 
Fallopius had been successively invited to fill the chair of 
anatomy and surgery, then conjoined, and reaped a rich 
harvest of public emolument and honour ; and Fabricius 
himself, who did much to extend the reputation of the 
school formed by these leaders in the restoration of ana- 
tomy, was afterwards still more munificently rewarded, 
though equal to neither in merit or posthumous fame. He 
became a pupil of Fallopius at an early age, and speedily 
attracted the attention and good-will of his instructor. He 
thus secured many peculiar advanta|2jes, of which he availed 
himself 80 well, that having taken his degrees in medicine 
with much credit, he was appointed on the death of Fal- 
lopius in 1562 to succeed him in the direction of the ana- 
tomical studies of the university, and three years later to 
the full emoluments of the professorship. The growing 
perception of the importance of anatomical knowledge le<£ 
m 1584, to the institution of a separate chair for the teach- 
ing of that branch of 'medicine, which, however, Fabricius 
appears to have still held in conjunction with that of surgery 
up to a late period of his life, with the able assistance of 

His reputation as a teacher drew students firom all parts 
of Europe ; till at length the theatre of anatomy, built ori< 
ginally by himself, became so crowded, that the Venetian 
senate provided him, in 1593, with another of ample dimen- 
sions at the public expense ; and at the same time added 
largely to his salary, and granted him many exclusive privi- 
leges and titles of honoiu*. The fame and wealth he derived 
from his practice as a surgeon was even more than equal 
to that which ho enjoyed as an anatomist ; and after up- 
wards of fifty years of uninterrupted and well-deserved 
prosperity, he retired from public life the possessor of an 
enormous fortune and the object of universal esteem. Yet 
he docs not appear to have jRTund the contentment he sought 
in his retirement. His latter years were embittered by do- 
mestic dissensions and the unf(deiing conduct of those who 
expected to become his heirs; and he died in 1619, at the 
age of eighty-two, not without the suspicion of poison, at 
his country-seat on the banks of the Brenta, stiU known as 
the Montagnuola d' Acquapendente. 

The name of Fabricius is endeared to the cultivators of 
his science by the circumstance of his having been the tutor 
of William Harvey, whose discovery of the circulation of 
the blood (by far the most important yet achieved in phy- 
siology) was suggested, according to his own statement, 
by the remarks of Fabricius on the valvular structure of 
the ^'eins. The title of Fabricius to the minor discovery 
has been disputed, though strongly asserted by some ana- 
tomists. The truth is, that his merit did not so much 
consist in original discovery as in the systematic arrange- 
ment and dissemination of the knowledge acquired oy 

his predecessors. We ha?e nuBitioMA (bftl be hid mate 
contemporary rei>utation aa a practical auigeon than as an 
anatomist; and it is as a surgeon that he is still chieAy 
remembered. The observations recorded in his wurks 
having, however, been since wrought un in the general 
body of surgical knowledge, are now seloom consulted or 
quoted specifically as derived from himself. 

He published many tracts on both department*. Those 
on anatomy and physiology, often referred to, but not with 
unmixed praise, ny Harvey and the writers of the ponod 
immediately subsequent to bis own, were collected in utt« 
volume folio, and republished, with a biographical memoir 
of the author, by Albinus at Leyden in 1738. lite U-a^t 
edition of his surgical works, the twenty-fifth, was printed, 
also in one folio volume, at Padua in 1666. His wriiinL'^ 
are all in Latin, and display a considerable knowledge ni 
the literature, general andmedical, of that language aud ui 
the Greek 

FABYAN. ROBERT, the historian, was de«:«nded of a 
respectable family of Essex. Bishop Tanner says ho was 
born in London. We have no dates of his early life, but 
he is known to have belonged, as a citizen, to the Company 
of Drapers. From records in Uie city archives, it appcarn 
that ho was alderman of the ward of Farringdon Without, 
and in 1493 served the office of sheriflT. In 1496. in th«* 
mayoralty of Sir Henry Colet, we find him ' assigned and 
chosen,' with Mr. Recorder and certain commoners, to ride 
to the king ' for redress of the new impositions raised and 
levied upon English cloths in the archduke's land,' (that i^ 
the Low Countries) an exaction which was desisted (rum in 
the following year. In 1502, on the.plea of poverty, be re- 
signed the alderman's gown, not willing to take the ma)or- 
alty, and nrobably retired to the mansion in Essex, mentiunod 
in bis will, at Theydon Gernon. That he was opulent at thi« 
period cannot be doubted, but he seems to have considcrttl 
that the expenses of the chief magistracy, even at that time, 
were too ereat to be sustained by a man who had a numeixttii 
family. He ordered the figures, as may be seen in his m 11, 
of sixteen children, in brass, to be placed upon his monu- 
ment. Stowe, in liis * Survey of London' (edit. l(.i).i« 
p. 198), gives the English part of the epitaph on Fab>an*i 
tomb, from the church of St. Michael CkunhiU, and\a}t 
he died in 1611, adding that his monument was ^one. 
Bale, who places Fabyan"s death on February 2dtl^ l^;j. 
is probably nearest to the truth, as his will, though dieted 
July II, 1511, was not proved till July 12, 1513. fab>au ^ 
will, printed with the last edition of his ' Chronicle.* af- 
fords a curious comment on the manners of the time i'f 
Henry VUI. 

There have been printed Ave editions of Fabyan's 'Chro- 
nicle.' The first was printed by Pynson in 1516, and i& »f 
great rarity, in a perfect state. Bale says that Wut^y 
ordered many copies of it (* exemplaria nonnuUa') tu l^e 
burnt The second was printed by Rastell in 1533. The 
third in 1542, by Reynes. The fourth in 1559. by K>n* 
geston. The changes of religion gave rise to many alter- 
ations and omissions in the third and fourth editions; but 
all the editions, as well as a manuscript of the second pan 
of the book, were collated by Sir H. Ellis for the fifth 
edition, 4to., London, 1811, from the preface to which the 
TO*esent account of the historian has been principally taken. 
Fabyan, whose object it was to reconcile tne diMoraant tes- 
timonies of historians, named his book ' The Concordance 
of Histories,' addinjo; the fruits of personal observation in 
the latter part of his Chronicle. The first edition had o<i 
regular title; the latest is called *The New Chronicler oi 
England and France, in two parts, by Robert Fabyan. 
named by himself the Conooraanoe of Histories.' Thu 
first edition, which may be considered as Fabyan's genuine 
work, extends from the time when ' Brute entrrd firste the 
He of Albion,* to 1485 ; the second continued the hi&ton to 
1509; the third to 1541 ; and the fourth to the month m 
May, 1559. The names of the several authors who were 
the continuators are unknown. 

FAQADE, a French term of modem introduction into 
the Enghsh language. It exnreaMs the flue, or front vuv 
of an edifice, and is often usea in speaking of architectur U 
buildings, as the fa9ade of the Louvre, or the fii^ade of St. 
Peter's at Rome. Facade was applied originally to denote 
the nrinoipal front of a building : the term Facdata, um*! 
by the Italians^ is, for the most part, applied to aueh frontii 
as have a principal entrance. 

FACaOLATI, J A'COFO, was bom ftt Toticgia on ihm 

P A C 


P A C 

name of the principal Is not disclosed at the time of the 
contract, but is afterwards discovered; though, where a 
factor conceals the name of his principal and buys or sells 
apparently on his own account, the buyer or seller may 
treat the factor as the principal so for as any other liability 
of the factor may exist to him ; as where a factor sells goods 
in his own name, being indebted to the purchaser, the Tatter 
may set off the amount of debt duo to him from the factor 
against the price of the goods. 

There is another description of factor, who acts under 
what is called a del credere commission, where, for an addi- 
tional por-centage he en^ges for the solvency of the pur- 
chasers of the goods consigned to him. This contmct, it is 
evident, arises on the supposition that the factor bein^ resi- 
dent among the purchasers, roust be better able to judge 
of their solvency than the principal, residing in a foreign 
country. For a long time it was considered that under this 
arrangement those who dealt with the factor were liable to 
him alone, and that he was liable, in the first instance, to 
his employer ; it has, however, been decided that the factor 
stands in the relation of a surety for the persons with whom 
he deals on account of the employer, and that he is liable 
to his employer only in case of their default Del credere 
is an Italian mercantile phrase, of the same signillcation as 
the English word guarantee, and the Scotch warrandice. 

Wheii goods arc consigned to joint factors thev are an- 
swerable for one another for the whole, and by tne law of 
merchants, as factors, are oftentimes dispersed, one may 
account without his companion. 

The principal may recover against his factor by action for 
the neglect of his duty, or disobedience to his instructions if 
loss occur theraby, as if he purchases goods at a limited price, 
and fraudulently sells them again for his own profit. If a 
factor, without the orders of his principal, exports goods 
prohibited by the Customs* laws, and the same are seized, 
the loss is the factor's ; and so, if he pay money without 
the direction of his employer, or sells his goods at an under- 
value, or exports goods of an improper quality, he is answer- 
able fbr the damage. And if a factor exports goods of a 
different quality or kind from those he was directed to pur- 
chase, or sends them to a place other than that to which he 
was ordered to send them, the merchant may refuse to 
accept them, and may recover any damage he has sustained, 
in consequence of his neglect, from the factor. The rights 
and liabilities of merchants and factors are governed by the 
laws of the place in which they are domiciled, and any 
contract which may be made by either of them must be 
governed by the law of the place where it is made, and 
these rules are acted upon by the courts of justice of every 
civilized nation. Thus, since the passing of the above-men- 
tioned statute, a foreign merchant cannot recover his goods 
from the pledgee of his factor in England, though he may 
be totally ignorant of the change which has taken place in 
the law. And again, if a bill be accepted in Leghorn by an 
Englishman, and the drawer fails, and the acceptor has not 
sufficient effects of the drawer in his hands at the time of 
acceptance, the acceptance becomes void by the law|of 
Leghorn, and the acceptor* is discharged from all liability, 
though by the law of England he would be bound. (See 2 
8trange*s Reports^ 733 ; Bcawe's L^x Merc. ; Bell's Com- 
mentaries ; Paley. Principal and Agent ; M'Culloch's Com- 
mercial Diet.) 

factory was formerly given only to establishments of mer- 
chants and factors resident in foreii^i countries, who were 
governed by certain regulations adopted for their mutual 
support and assistance against the undue encroachments or 
interference of the governments of the countries in which 
they resided. In modern times these facrories have, in a 
great measure, ceased to exist, because of the greater de- 
^ee of security which merchants feel as regards both the 
justice of those governments and the protection, when 
needed, of their own country. In its usual acceptation, the 
word factory is now employed to denote an establishment 
in which a considerable number of workmen or artizans are 
emjploycd together for the production of some article of ma- 
nufacture, niost commonly with the assistance of machinery. 
The factory-system of England owes its origin to the inven- 
tion and skill of Arkwright It is true the name of factory 
is equally applied to various establishments for the opera- 
tions of which those inventions are inapplicable, but it is 
probable that but for the invention of spinning-machinery, 
and the consequent necessary aggregation of lai^ numbera 

of workmen m oolton-milli, the name would never have 
been thus applied. It is in these cotton-mills that the fac- 
tory system nas been brouzht to its highest state of perfi.'*- 
tion, and it cannot there foie be necessary to extend our 
description to the operations of any other branch of manu- 

The first cotton-factory was established by Arkwright in, 
connection with Messrs. Need and Strutt, of Derby, and 
was situated at Cromford, on the river Derwent. It was 
built in 1771, and continues still in operation, with the on- 
ginal spinning-frames of the great inventor. It is not the 
least among the merits of that extraordinary man, that 
being the first to employ the combined labour of numenms 
workmen for the production of that which had pre%'iou^l> 
resulted from inuividual employment, he was able to ar- 
range and establish the details of the processes with -o 
great a regard to order, economy, and simplicity of oclion, 
that with but few and unimportant modifications, hi^ plan < 
are continued to the present day. [Arkwright.] 1W 
operations of Arkwright and his partners were for many 
years met by a spirit of opposition on the part of other 
manufacturers, who foresaw that the success of the waw 
machinery would speedily destroy the value of the band 
spinning implements which they employed. Their com- 
binations to aestroy his patent rights have already been d<*- 
scribed. Taking advantage of the prejudices of the work- 
men, thev had no difficulty in producing the belief that tin* 
new machines would soon entirely supersede manual labour, 
and the consequence of this delusion was a general crusadr 
of the workmen against all spinning-machinery set in m*>- 
tion by horse or water-power. The principal effect of tin* 
riots thus occasioned was the removal of establishments io 
other and more peaceable parts of the country. For a con- 
siderable time Arkwright and his partners had an intere*»t 
in the greater part of the cotton faetories that were erected. 
The first of these establishments brought to use in Man- 
Chester was built in 1780, and had its machinery impelled 
by an hydraulic wheel, the water for which was furnished 
by a single-stroke atmospheric pumping steam-engine, llie 
progress of these new establishments was so rapid that in 
1787 there were 145 cotton- spinning factories in England 
and Wales, containing nearly two millions of spindles, ar>d 
estimated to produce as much vam as could have been spun 
by a million of persons using tne old domestic wheel. 

A return called for by the House of Commons in the last 
session states the number of factories which, in the month 
of February, 1837, were under the regulations imposed b\ 
the * Factory Act.' From this return, it appears that the e«'- 
Ublishments at that time subject to the visits of the pari* i- 
mentary inspectors amounted to 4160, showing an incrcaj^c 
of 1000 factories upon the numbers given above. This 
great increase may be owing in part to the circumstance o( 
some establishments existing in 1835 having since bi^*ri 
brought under the regulations. The return does not app t. - 
tion the different manufactures to which those 4160 c^ta 
blishments are applied. In a report made by Dr. Kay. on** 
of the assistant roor Law Commissioners, in July, ls:>5, ii 
is stated that in the cotton manufacturing districts of Lan 
cashire and their immediate vicinity steam power equiva- 
lent to 7507 horses was then either erected or in the cour>^* 
of being erected, but the establishments for the use x^K 
which that additional machinery was destined were not \x-x 
supplied with hands. At the ordinary ascertained rtxc 
this amount of mechanical power would call for iK*^ 
employment of 45,042 hands, exclusive of mechanic, 
labourers, handicraftsmen, and others employed out c^f 
the factories. The activity that up to the close of 18^» 
was experienced in this branch of national industry mit-t 
have occasioned even a still greater extension than \< 
mentioned by Dr. Kay, and we shall probably be ^itbni 
the mark if we estimate the number of hanos empluy«l 
in cotton factories in the autumn of 1836 at con^idcr- 
ab*ly more than 300,000. Tlie check to commeirial opera- 
tions then experienced has probably prevented any fre*h 
extension of the manufacture, but at this lime (0!i:tnlu>r. 
1837) the cotton &ctories throughout the kingdom are n« 
full operation in order to answer the demand for good« i.i 
almost every market in the civilized world. 

The number of cotton, wool, silk, and flax-spinning f a-- 
tories worked by steam or water-power in the United Ki-^s: 
dom, with the number and ages of persons employed tltcroiu 
in the year 1835, was stated in the Statistical Tables pub- 
lished by the Board of Trade to be as follows *-* 



PA 1 

iO particulariBe. One half of the penaltiet ure, at is usual, 
awarded to the infonnen, and the remainder is to be ap- 
plied towards the support of schools in which children em- 
ployed in factories are educated. 

The faithful discharge of their dutiea on the part of the 
inspectors is provided lor, by requiring them twice in every 
year, and oftener, if called upon, to deliver in a report to 
the secretary of state, detaihng the condition of tne fac- 
tories, and of the children employed therein. 

FACULTIES. [University.] 

FiE'CULA. [StabchJ 

FA£'NZA (formerly Faventia), a town and bishop's see 
of the papad state north of the Apennines, in the delega- 
zione or province of Ravenna. It is situated in a well-cul- 
tivated plain watered by the river Lamone, which rises in 
the Apennines of Tuscany and runs to the Adriatic. A 
naviglio or navigable canal communicates between Faensa 
and the Po di Primaro, or southernmost branch of the Po. 
Faonza is a well-built, modern-looking town, with about 
15,000 inhabitants. The streets are regular; there is a 
fine market-place surrounded by arcadei, many palaoes, 
churches rich in paintings, convents, a fine bridge on the 
Lamone, a theatre, and a Lyceum. There are several 
manufactories of a kind of coloured and glazed earthenware, 
which is called Majolica in Itah', and Faience in France, 
where it was introduced from Faenza, and which, ]>efore 
the manufacture of china or porcelain became established 
in Europe, was in greater repute Uian it is at present There 
are also manufactories for spinning and weaving silk, and 
some paper-mills. Faventia was antiently a town of the 
Boii, and afterwards a municipium under the Romans. It 
was near Faventia that Sulla defeated the consul Carbo and 
drove him out of Italy. (Livy, Epitome^ 88.) It was after- 
wards ruined by the Goths, was restored under theBxarchs, 
but its walls were not raised until a.d. 1286. It was then 
fbr some time subject to the Bolognese, but was afterwards 
ruled by the house of Manfredi to the end of the fifteenth 
century. Galeotto Manfredi being murdered by his wifb 
left two infant sons, Asiorre and Evangelista, the elder of 
whom, a remarkably handsome youth, was proclaimed by 
the inhabitants lord of Faenza ; but a few years after, Cesare 
Borgia, as captain-general of his father. Pope Alexander 
YL, besieged the town, and the inhabitants surrendered 
on condition that Astorre and his brother should be free. 
He however sent them prisoners to Rome, where they 
were cruelly put to death m the Castle Sant* ^gelo, and 
their bodies thrown into the Tiber, in the year 1501. This 
was one of the most atrocious transactions in the life of 
Borgia. Since that time Faenza has been annexed to the 
papal state. Faenza lies on the Via iCmilia, 30 miles south- 
east of Bologna, 40 north-west of Rimini, and 20 south- 
west of Ravenna. In the Roman times, a road led from 
Faventia to the south, which ascending the valley of the 
Anemo, now Lamone, and crossing the ridge of the Apen- 
nines, descended to FflssuloD. By this road some have sup- 
posed that Hannibal crossed the Apennines into Etruria. 
A new carriage-road in a parallel airection, but more to 
the eastward, has been completed by the present grand- 
duke of Tuscany: it leads from Dicomano, in the valley of 
the Sieve, north of Florence, crosses the Apennines of San 
Benedetto, WOO feet above tlie sea, and then following the 
course of the river Montone, joins the Via iEmilia near Forli. 

FA'GUS, the beech, is a genus of Corylaceous exogens, 
having triangular nuts enclosed within a spiny capsule or 
husk. There are several species, some of which are mere 
bushes ; the only one known in Europe of any importance 
is the Fagus fylvatica^ or common beech, a native of various 
parts of the world in temperate climates. In Europe it is 
found as far north as 68* m Norway : it is met with in Pa- 
lestine and Armenia, all over the south of Europe, and in 
the United States of America. It is one of the most hand- 
some of our trees on dry sandy or chalky situations ; its 
meat or nuts not only fhmish food for swine, but yield by 
pressure after pounding a useful oil; and its timber, al- 
though not of good quality where strength and durabi- 
lity are required, is very extensively used for a variety of 
purposes, particularly for boat-building, work under water, 
car^intrand chair-making; itisabo one of the best kinds 
of wood for fuel. Several varieties are propagated by the 
nurserymen, the purvle and the /em-leaved being beau- 
tiful, and the crested very much the contrary. (See Lou- 
don's Arboretum and FruHcetum Brikmnicwn, p. 1949, for 
» oopioui tcooont of thii tiee.) 

The common beech is multiplied by sowing its mast ; (he 
varieties by grafting upon the wild sort. To effect this «iir* 
oessfuUy, it is necebsaiy that the scions should be of at lea^t 
two years' old wood, and the grafts must be clayed first an i 
then earthed up. If one year old wood is used the scions 
rarely take. 

There is no doubt that the beech is the plant called 
Fagus by Virgil; but the Fegus (fny^c) of TneophraiKu^ 
seems to have been some sort of oak with sweet acorns aixl 
is by most botanical commentators referred to the Quercu-> 
Esculus of LinniDus. 

FAHLORE, FahlerZf grey copper ore. Of this tberv 
are two varieties, the arsenical and' the antimoniat: the 
former occurs crystallized and massive ; the primarv form 
of the crystal is a cube, but the regular tetrahedron i^ 
the predominating crystal. Colour steel -grey. Oraqur. 
Lustre metallic. Sp. gr. 4*8, 5*1. Hardness 3*0,4*0. Brittle. 
Cleavage parallel to the planes of the tetrahedron, very in- 
distinct. Fracture concnoidal. 

Massive Variety, — ^Amorphous. Structure, granular to 

It occurs in Cornwall, Hungary, Saxony, &c. A speci- 
men (rom Freiberg, analyaed by Klaproth, yielded— 

Arsenic . • 24*10 

Copper • 






Silver , 


Loss . 



It frequently contains a much larger quantity of silver, 
and not uncommonly zinc. 

Antimonical jPaA/ore.— Occurs crystallized in modified 
tetrahedrons. Colour dark lead-grey, approaching to iron 
black, both externally and internally ; not very brittle. 

Analysis of a specimen firom Kapnic by Klaproth : — 

Antimony . . .23* 

Copper . . . 37*75 

Iron . . . 3*25 

Sulphur . • .28' 

Silver and a trace of manganese ' 25 

Zinc • • . . 5' 

Loss • • . . 3*75 


FAHLUNITE, Trickiasite. Occurs crystalliied and 
massive. Primary form of the crystal a right rhombic 
prism, but it usually occurs in imbedded, regular, hexagonal 
urisms. Colour yellowish, greenish, and blackish-bruwn. 
Nearly or quite opaque. Lustre resinous. Sp. gr. 2 t>h 
Hardness 5*0, 5*5. Streak greyish-white. Cleavage per- 
pendicular to the axis of the prism. 

It is found at Fahlun, in Sweden. 

Before the blow-pipe alone it becomes grey, and ti^^ 
on its thinnest edges; with borax it melts alowly into a 
coloured glass. 

According to Hissinger it consists of—- 

SQica • • 46*74 

Alumina . . 26 '73 

Msgnesia . • 2*97 

Oxide of iron . . 5*11 

Oxide of manganese 0.43 

Water . • 13*50 


FAHRENHEIT.^ [Thbrmombteil] 

FAINTING. [Syncopb.] 

FAIOUM, a province of Egypt to the west of the Lib%^n 
ridge which bounds the valley of the Nile on the west About 
12 miles north-west of Benisouef there is a depression in 
the ridge about six miles in length, which leads to the plain 
of the Paioum. This plain is of a circular form, about 40 
miles fVom east to west and about 30 from north to aoutli. 
The northern and north-western part of this plain is occu> 
pied by the lake called Birket el Keroun, whicn spreads m 
the form of a crescent about 30 miles in length and about 
five miles broad towards the middle. A range d nakcl 
rocks bounds the lake to the north and joins towards the cost 
the Libyan ridge which skirts the vaUey of the Nile. To 

the west aQ^ ^utb the plain » lH>ttn4ed by l9 W Mlb ^hkh 

FA 1 


P A I 

chasing neoeflsaries in large quantities, which are now 
supplied by the numerous trading towns. 

Philip, king of France, compUined in very strong terms 
to Edwurd II. a.i>. 1314, that the merchants of EUjgland 
had desisted from frequenting the feirs in his dominions 
with their wood and other goods, to the great loss of his 
subjects ; and entreated him to persuade, and, if necessary, 
to compel them to frequent the foirs of Franco as formerly, 
promising them all possible security and encouragement. 
(See Rym. Feed, torn, iii., p. 482.) 

When a town or village had been consumed, by way of 
assisting to re-establish it, a fair, among other privileges, 
was sometimes granted. This was the case at Burley, in 
Rutlandshire, 49th £dw. III. {Abbrev» RoL Orign vol ii^ 
p. 338.) 

The different abridgments of Stowe and Grafton's Chro- 
nicles, published by themselves in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
contain lists of the fain of England according to the 
months. There is also 'An authentic Account published 
by the king's authority of all the Fairs in England and 
Wales, as they have been settled to be held since the alter- 
ation of the style ; noting likewise the Commodities which 
each of the said Fain is remarkable for fiimishing;' by 
William Owen, 12mo. Lond. 1756. 

No fair or market can be held but by a grant from the 
crown, or by prescription supposed to take its rise from 
some antient grant, of which no record can be found. 
(2 In9t. 220.) 

(See Dugdale's Hi«^ Jfdrw., pp. 514, 515; Warton*s /Tii/. 
BngL Poet, vol. i., p. 279 ; Henry, Hiit, Brit, 8vo. edit., 
ToL viii., p. 325 ; Brand's Popular Antiq., 4to. edit., vol. ii., 
p. 215.) 

The iaire of Frankfort on the Mayn and Leipzig are still 
pre-eminent in Europe ; the former held at Eastor and in 
the months of August and September; the latter at Easter, 
Michaelmas, and the New Year. Leipzig at these times is 
the mart and exchange of (}entral Europe, and is visited 
by merchants and foreigners, fhim the most distant parts of 
the globe, sometimes to the number of thirty or forty thou- 
sand. The whole book-trade of Germany is centred in the 
Baster fair at Leipzig. 

FAIRFAX, EDWARD, was the second son of Sir 
Thomas Fairfax, of Denton in Yorkshire*. The date of 
his birth is unknown; but as his translation of Tasso's 

* Jerusalem Delivered' was published in 1600, we may sup- 
pose that it fell some time in the reign of Queen Elizabetu. 

Contrary to the habits of his family, who were of a mili- 
tary turn, he led a life of complete retirement at his native 
place, where his time was spent in literary pursuits and in 
the education, as is said, of his own children and those of 
his brother, one of whom became the celebrated Lord Fair- 
fax. We leam from his own writings that .he was neither 

* a supentitious Papist nor a fsntastic Puritan ;' but farther 
narticulara of his life there are none. He is supposed to 
have died about the year 1632. 

Fairfax is now known only for his translation of Tasso's 
' Jerusalem Delivered,' which is executed in a manner 
which makes it wonderful how the frigid, jingling, and 
affected venion by Hoole ever survived its birth. The 
measure which he chose for his work (that of the original 
Italian) is one less stately perhaps than the Spenserian 
stanza, but not less fitted for heroic subjects. It consists 
of eight-line stanzas, of which the fint six lines are in 
terza rima and the last two rhyme with each other. It 
has this ^at superiority over the common heroic couplet, 
that all jingle is avoided by the occasional introduction of 
a different species of rhyme. Moreover, the venes are 
much more harmonious than those of Hoole ; the diction 
is more simple, and the English more pure. As the time 
h now gone by when Johnson gave the law in criticism, 
and Pope's method of versifving was the only one in repute, 
we may hope to see Fairfax s translation regain its ascen- 
dancy. We may now smile at the critic who asserts that 
Fairfax's translation ' is in stanzas that cannot be read 
with pleasure by the generality of those who have a taste 
for English poetry t;' but wc must at the same time regret 
that a literary school like that of the followers of Pope 
should have usurped fbr so long a time such entire dominion 
as to enable one of its humblest memben to make asser- 
tions so sweeping and insolent as those contained in the 
paoface from which we have just quoted. (Biographia 

* He is Mid to have h$tn tlbgltinat*, bot wilboat lufBeicnt pnwIL 
. t Uoote, VsnUco tp hii TruflaUoii of Tuto, p. vUL 

BriUmmca; Pr^aee to Fair&x's Tiu90, edition 1749; 
Prtfaee to Hoole's Tatso,) 

FAIRFAX, SIR THOMAS, afterwards Lord Fairfax, 
the son of Ferdinando Lord Fairfax and bis wife, Mary, 
daughter of Edmund Sheffield, Lord Mulgreve, was b<im 
in the parish of Otley, at Denton, which is situated about 
12 miles north-west of Leeds« He was sent from school tu 
St John's College, Cambridge; but we do not find that he 
was eminent as a scholar, f6r his disposition was inclined 
to military employment rather than to study. Accordingl) , 
as soon as he left college, he enlisted in the army of L^nl 
Vere, and served un£r his command in Holland. Tlic 
connexion of Fairfax with Lord Vere afterwards became 
more close. When he retuxned to England, he marncd 
Anne, the fourth daughter of that peer, who, like her father, 
was a zealous Presbyterian, and disaffected to the king. If 
Fairfax did not already possess the same religious ami 
political feelings, he soon imbibed the principles of his wife 
When the king began to raise troops, as it was said, for th« 
defence of his person, Fairfax, who foresaw that it wa& 
intended to collect an army, in the presence of neatly 
100,000 people assembled on Hey worth Moor, presented a 
petition to the king in pereon, praying that he would listen 
to his parliament and refrain from raising forces. In 164'i. 
when the civil wan broke out, he accepted a commission of 
general of the horse under his father, who was general of 
tne parliamentary forces in the north. His first emplo^ - 
ment was in the county of York, where at first the greats* r 
number of actions between the parliamentary and royahn 
troops were in favour of the king, whose army was undor 
the conduct of the earl of Newcastle. Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
somewhat dispirited, was despatched ftom Lincoln, « hcrv 
he was in quarters, to raise the siege of Nantwich, m 
Cheshire. In this expedition he was successful, not only in 
the main object, but ne also took several garrisons, and <in 
his return aefeatcd the troops under Colonel Bellasis, the 
governor of York, and effected a junction with his father t 
forces (April, 1644). Thus Fair&x became master of the 
field, and, in obedience to his orders, proceeded tovat<Li 
Northumberland, to enable the Scots to march south warfl<*, 
in spite of the king's forces, which were quartered at 
Durnam. A junction took place between the Scots and 
Fairfax, who acted in concert during the spring (1644). and 
fbught together in the memorable battle of Marston Moor 
(July 2, 1644), where the king's troops experienced such a 
sigiuil defeat that the whole north, excepting a few gar- 
risons, submitted to the parliament. Before Helrac^ll'y 
Castle, one of these fortresses, which Sir Thomas Fairfax 
was afterwards (September) sent to besiege, he recei\i*d a 
wound in his shoulder that caused his life to be despaired 
of. When the earl of Essex ceased to be parliamentary 
general [Essex], it was unanimously voted that Fairfax 
should be his successor (J aimary, 1644-5), and CromwvH 
by whom his actions were afterwards so greatly influenced, 
was appointed his lieutenant-general. Fairfax hastened to 
London, where, upon the receipt of his commission, th^ 
speaker paid him the highest compliments. After having 
been nominated governor of Hull, he marched to tbc 
succour of Taunton, in which place the parliamentary trt>ops 
were closely besieged ; but upon the king's leaving'Oxfonl 
and taking the field with Prince Rupert, he was recalled 
before he had proceeded farther than Blandford, and re- 
ceived orders to join C.'omwell and watchfully attend u|xm 
the movements of the king. On the 14th of June the de* 
cisive battle of Naseby was fought ; and when the king had 
fled into Wales, Fairfkx, marching through Gloucestershire, 
possessed himself of Bath, Bristol, and other important 
posts in Somersetshire. From thence, by the way of Dor- 
setshire, he carried his arms into Cornwall, and entitcU 
dispersed the forces of the kiug. 

After the surrender of Exeter, which was the last event 
of this western campaign, Fairfax returned to Oxfoitl. 
which, as well as Wallingford, surrendered upon articles. 
In the autumn, after furuier active and succettfui emp]u\ - 
ment, he was seized with a fit of illness, imder which he 
laboured for some weeks. In November, when he returned 
to London, he was welcomed by crowds who came out to 
meet him on his road, was publicly thanked for his wvr% ices, 
and received fh>m the parliament a iewel of great value cct 
with diamonds, together with a considerable grant of money. 
The payment of tne 200,000/. to the Scottish army, in con* 
sideration of which they delivered up the king, was ri^ 
trusted ^o Fairfiix, who marched northward for tA^ pur 

The oninioni of Luther and Calvin on the nibjeet of 
ftith ana predeslinntion have been since considenblv mo- 
dified by many Protestant divines, who have admitlea that 
the will of man muBt co-operate in order to obtain the grace 
necesiarv for justifl cation. The Roman Catholic church 
admits the merit of good works and repenlance, united with 
Aiith, for the purpose of Balvation. But then, it requires an 
absolute failb in all the decisions of its General Councils in 
matters of dogma, without the least liberty of investigation 
on the part of tho laily, and without any doubt, fur doubt 
Itself is held to be sinful. The Reformed and Proleslant 
churches, generally speaking, hold fiiith in the funda- 
mental dogmas of Christianity as an essential requisite far 

FAKENHAM. [Nohfolk.] 

FAKI'R, an Arabic word meaning poor, which is ap- 

flied to the ascetics of sefersl parts of the eastern world. 
n this sense it is synonymous with the Persian and Turkish 
derwish. The word ftikir is chiefly used in India. There 
are fakirs who live in communities like the monks of the 
western world, and others who liva singly as hermit; 
wander about e.xhibiting strange displays of lelf-peni 
and mortification. Many of Ibem are considered as hypo- 
crites, and others are fenatios or idiots. [Derwish] 

FALAISE, a town in France, the capital of an ai 
disBement, in the department of Calvados, near the sa 
or tne nver Ant4, which tlo«s into the Dives; it is 
miles from Paris, through Versailles, Dreux, Verneuil, and 
Arqentan; in 46" 53' N. lat. and in 0° 14' W. long. The 
anlient castle of Falaise was one of the re>idences and 
atrunc-holds of tho dukes of Normandie, »nd here William 
the Conqueror whs born: it sustained fourteen sieges 
different limes, in tlie early troubles of the duchy of Ni 
mandie; in the wars of Henrv I. of England with his 
brother Duke Robert and the Numnan lords; in the i 
■ion of Fmnre b; Henry V. (a.d. 1417); in the cxpulsii 
the English from France (a.d. 14jO): and in the war of the 
League, in which Falaise was taken bv Henri IV. in pei-son 
(A.D. 15G9). The ftntiflcutions, which wore much injured 
in these attacks, are at present in a very (hliipidated slate: 
the donjon of the castle, simald on a bold and lot\y rock. 
in the suburb of Guibray, is one of the pi oudest relics of 
Norman antiquity ; ils iffulls are in some p.irld e'ght or 
feet thick. 

The town stretches alnng the top of a rockr ridge which 
rises abruptly from a ftTiilc and wen-wooded valley. The 
streets are wide, and the public fountains imparl a freshness 
to the appearance of the place. Before tlic Ri;volntion, there 
were twelve churches : there are now only four : two ii 
town, and two in the suburbs. 

The population in 1832 was 9419 for the town, or 
for the whole commune. The inhabitants carry on a 
■ideiable manufacture of cotton yam and hosiery. There 
is a large fair held in the suburb of Guibray, which is 
much frequented: it continues from the ISlh to the 3Uth of 
August : many Norman horses are sold. This town has a 
tribunal de commerce, or court for commerciBl atTairs, a 
hi^ school, an agricultural society, and a theatre. 

The aiTondisscment of Falaise contained, in 1 M3'2, a popu- 
lation of 62,349, The chief manufactures carried on in it 
are leather and paper: there arc also many oil-mills. 

FALAJAS. [AsYisitftA, p. SB.] 

FALCO. [Falcomidjb.] 

FALCON. [Falconid*,] 

FALCONER, WILLIAM, was bom about the year 
1730, being one of a lan^ fhmily, all of whom, except 
liimself, were deaf and duinb. When very young, he sensed 
his apprenticeship on board a nerchantmon. and was after- 
warda second mate of a vcs-sel in the Levant trade, which 
wsa shipwrecked on the coast of Attica, himself with two 
othraa being tho only survivors. Tins event laid the foun- 
dation of Falconer's fame, by farming the groundwork of 
'The Shipwreck,' which poem he published m 1762. The 
notice which the poem received enabled biro to enter the 
uavy, during the ensuing year, as midshipman in the 
Royal George. After some other appointments, he became 
purser to the Aurora frigate, and was lost in her somewhere 
in the Moiamhique Channel, during tho outward voyage to 
India, in the winter of 1 769. 

-ner was the author of a ' Nautical Dictionary* of con- 
I merit, as well as of some minor poems ; hut his 
lim lo reputation consists in 'The Shipwreck,' the 
which is owing to tho vividness and power of de- 


•criplum which parrade the work, and to the fiujUty ih« 
author has shown in introduciuf^ nautical language. IL^ 
style is formed on a model which ituy now be ih«u;^M 
erroneous, and is certainly the roost artificial irooginabU' - 
that of Pope ; and tho mizturo of phrases, such aa ■ w cii ' i-r 
back-stays,' 'parrels, lifts, and clew-lines,' with the atir' ' .- 
tionsof 'nymph,' 'swain.' ' Paphian graces,' &c„ form rBi:,L', 
a ludicrous contrast. To call 'The Shipwreck' a Brs' ra,, 
poem, or to compare it with the ilineid of Virgil, would ly : 


lo many men's tbouehts. although this was il 
e when it first appeared. Some mij(ht e' 

that where there is no imagination, there is no iioctr} : 

with all these limitations wc must allow that Falconer ii.i> 
done what no one else ever attempted, and we mu^i ^,'>. 
him a high place among the writers of didactic poeni> 

(See Clarke's and Pickering's editions of Tht Shi/^cr' .A : 
Irving's Life ofFakon'r; Chalmers's Biog. Dtel.) 

FALCONET, ETIENNE, was born at Paris In 17IB. ■' 
poor parents, of a family ori;;lnally from Savoy. He <iIi.iIj- 
sculpture under Lemoyne, whom he soon surpassed, lir 
executed several groups and statues, which are at Pari-, m 
the church of St. Ruch, in the Musfe dea Moiiuin, [ . 
Fraiicais, nnd in several private collections. In 17<><> 
accepted the inrilation of Catherine II. to repair to Peii-, 
burg, in order to execute the ootoasal statue of Pci<-r i. ' 
Great. He remained in that capital twelve ycaris durii> 
which he completed his work, which is now in the «|i, i 
called the Square of the Senate, and is perhaps the I'lii' -, 
specimen of an equestrian statue existing. As fac anil :■ 
Russian founder appuinled to cast the statue could r ; 
agree. Falconet cast it himself. He placed it upon an n . 
muus block of granite, weighing about 1700 tons, which t i 
found in some marshy ground at a considerable il,-:3i . 
irom Fiitersburg, and woa hrougbt to the capital i .. 
machinery. Catherine, who had shown him the pti^:. .-■ 
attention during the first years of his residence m i., ' 
Ruiisian capital, grew cool towards him at last, uwini.' .' 
the misrept cent at ions of some of her courtiers. Fal< >-., . 
returned to Paris in 1778. In May, 17B3, as he was l-".-. , 
to set off for Ilalf, a country which he had never vi-.', . 
he had a paralytic stroke. He sunivcd this misf.irin;- 
several years, and died in January, 1791. In tfinjH-r i,- 
was eccentric and blunt, but generousand warro-licriri 
^Vhile at Petersburg he kept up a correspondence u.' , 
Diderot, which is printed in Diderot's works. He it . ■■ 
strictures and commentaries on the books of Phny nlu , 
treat of the sculpture and painting of the antients : he jI-i 
wrote 'Observations sur la statue de Marc Aurile,' in whir ,. 
be does not share in the admiration expresoed by man> ><>,- 
that work- In general. Falconet had no great veneiai:,.! 
for anticnt art. All his writiitgs were published under ilv 
title, ' CEuVrei Completes do Falconet, 3 vols.. Bvo, Pjr.. 
I8US, to which isprefixed an account of his life. 

FALC'ONID.«. Leach's name for a family of Aor/' m. ' 
BinU. or birds of prey. (Rajiloret of Illiger,) In ihl. 
ftimity the destructive power is considered by aU loolo^.- • 
lo ho must perfectly developed ; and we And in tiie I'lt :■ 
composing it natural instruments for striking, trussing. »: 
'' ' ig their prey, combined with a power of flight . 

strens^Ih of limbs equivalent to the necessities of the c i- 
whelher the prey be aiirial, that is, whether it be tho b; 
of the raptorial bird in question to strike down its qi:ir' 
while the latter is in the aot of flight, or whether the , • ■ 
he terrestrial, or, in other words, captured on the grm, . 
Of thcso natural weapons some idea may be fbrmed ir^ i 
the cuts here given, — 

F A L 


F A L 

lark« in oontradistinction to the precipitous horizontal direc- 
tioa of the falcons. The thic;h bone is also supplied with 
air by an orifice at the situation which answers to the front 
of the great trochanter ; the large bones forming the pelvis, 
the vertebra, sternum, furcula, clavicles, scapulse, and even 
the ribs, are all furnished with apertures fur the admission 
of air, supplied from the various cells of the abdomen, 
sides, and thorax. This distribution of air to the bones 
docs not seem however to be absolutely nccessaiy for flight, 
since the young birds of our summer visitors appear to 
perform their first autumnal migration with perfect ease 
and celerity, at an age when the cavities of their bones are 
filled with marrow. 

• The various characters of the feet are too obvious to re- 
quire particular notice/ 

The reader is referred to the article Birds for the details 
of the rest of the skeleton of the Falconida*, as exemplified 
in the Sparrow Hawk (vol. iv., pp. 424, 425) ; and we shall 
now endeavour to give a sketch of the other internal parts 
worthy of notice, and especially of the organs of the senses.